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Yu-Han Hung, Kimberly K Buhman
Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate the process of dietary fat absorption by secreting triacylglycerol (TAG) into circulation. When levels of dietary fat are high, TAG is stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) and sequentially hydrolyzed for ultimate secretion. Mice with deficiency in acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1-/- mice) were previously reported to have a reduced rate of intestinal TAG secretion and abnormal TAG accumulation in enterocyte CLDs. This unique intestinal phenotype is critical to their resistance to diet-induced obesity; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
October 17, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
George Z Rassidakis, Nikolas Herold, Ida Hed Myrberg, Nikolaos Tsesmetzis, Sean G Rudd, Jan-Inge Henter, Torsten Schaller, Siok-Bian Ng, Wee Joo Chng, Benedict Yan, Chin Hin Ng, Farhad Ravandi, Michael Andreeff, Hagop M Kantarjian, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Ioanna Xagoraris, Joseph D Khoury
Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) limits the efficacy of cytarabine (ara-C) used in AML by hydrolyzing its active metabolite ara-CTP and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. SAMHD1 has also been implicated in DNA damage repair that may impact DNA damage-inducing therapies such as anthracyclines, during induction therapy. To determine whether SAMHD1 limits ara-C efficacy during induction or consolidation therapy, SAMHD1 protein levels were assessed in two patient cohorts of de novo AML from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (USA) and the National University Hospital (Singapore), respectively, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays...
October 19, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Jonathan Dorival, Sophie Ruppert, Melissa Gunnoo, Adam Orłowski, Maylis Chapelais-Baron, Jérôme Dabin, Aurore Labourel, Damien Thompson, Gurvan Michel, Mirjam Czjzek, Sabine Genicot
Cell walls of marine macroalgae are composed of diverse polysaccharides that provide abundant carbon sources for marine heterotrophic bacteria. Among them, Zobellia galactanivorans is considered as a model for studying algae-bacteria interactions. The degradation of typical algal polysaccharides, such as agars or alginate, has been intensively studied in this bacterium, but the catabolism of plant-like polysaccharides is essentially uncharacterized. Here we identify a polysaccharide utilization locus in the genome of Z...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Zhe Kong, Lu Li, Yu-You Li
Wastewater containing N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was treated by artificially mixing the anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) with DMF-degrading activated sludge (DAS) in this study. An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) successfully treated wastewater containing approximately 2000 mg L-1 DMF during an operation period of 215 days. An inoculation of DAS brought about remarkable results: a rapid start-up with effective DMF methanogenic degradation on the first day, and under a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 1...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Simon M Wandera, Maria Westerholm, Wei Qiao, Dongmin Yin, MengMeng Jiang, Renjie Dong
Requirement of a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) for efficient degradation restrains the anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal pretreated sludge. Shortening the HRT can increase the treatment capacity of a plant but may also induce digester instability. This study investigated the impact of HRT on process performance and microbial community by consecutively operating a reactor for 145 days. The HRT was gradually decreased from 20 to 10, 5, and 3 days. The methane yield declined from 0.28 to 0.12 L/g-VSin with this shortening, and acetate concentration increased from 38 to 376 mg/L...
October 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Gidiane Scaratti, Alex Basso, Richard Landers, Pedro J J Alvarez, Gianluca Li Puma, Regina F P M Moreira
In this study, treatment for the removal of 1,4-dioxane by ozone and by catalytic ozonation using CuO as the catalyst was investigated. While the removal of 1,4-dioxane was small (20%) and mineralization negligible after 6 h of ozonation treatment, the removals of 1,4-dioxane and total organic carbon increased by factors of 10.35 and 81.25, respectively, after catalytic ozonation in the presence of CuO. The mineralization during catalytic ozonation was favored at pH 10 (94.91 min-1 ), although it proceeded even at pH 3 (54...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Fang Geng, Yunxiao Xie, Jinqiu Wang, Kaustav Majumder, Ning Qiu, Meihu Ma
Posttranslational N-glycosylation of food proteins plays a critical role in their structure and function. However, the N-glycoproteome of chicken egg yolk (CEY) has not been studied yet. Glycopeptides hydrolyzed from CEY proteins were enriched, with deglycosylation occurring using PNGase F, and then were identified using a shotgun glycoproteomics strategy. A total of 217 N-glycosylation sites and 86 glycoproteins were identified in CEY, and these glycoproteins are mainly involved in the binding, biological regulation, catalytic activity, and metabolic processes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shengfa He, Xin Li, Yong Wu, Shandong Wu, Zhihua Wu, Anshu Yang, Ping Tong, Juanli Yuan, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
Cows' milk allergy is one of the most frequent and severe IgE-induce food allergies for children, demanding sensitive analytical methods, and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) can be as an important biomarker for detection of milk protein. In this study, a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on a specific polyclonal antibody against human IgE linear epitopes of BLG and an anti-BLG polyclonal antibody-platinum nanoparticles probe was described for detection of BLG. This sELISA exhibited an ultra-wide linear range of 0...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Huichao Yu, Qian Xing, Yi Zou, Yuanfei Zhou, Jiang Peng
Gelatin hydrolysate was reported to contain large amounts of biologically active peptides with excellent antioxidant properties. However, its inducement of antioxidant response within cells and the underlying molecular mechanism are far from clear. Here, gelatin from Nile tilapia skin was hydrolyzed by ginger protease to produce antioxidant hydrolysate, and three fish skin gelatin hydrolysate fractions (FSGHFs) were obtained by ultrafiltration. Fractionation of the hydrolysate increased the free radical scavenging capacity of the FSGHFs, particularly FSGHF3, which showed the lowest molecular weight (below 1000 Da)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Atilio Tomazini, Sadhana Lal, Riffat Munir, Matthew Stott, Bernard Henrissat, Igor Polikarpov, Richard Sparling, David B Levin
The phylum Chloroflexi is phylogenetically diverse and is a deeply branching lineage of bacteria that express a broad spectrum of physiological and metabolic capabilities. Members of the order Ktedonobacteriales, including the families Ktedonobacteriaceae, Thermosporotrichaceae, and Thermogemmatisporaceae, all have flexible aerobic metabolisms capable of utilizing a wide range of carbohydrates. A number of species within these families are considered cellulolytic and are capable of using cellulose as a sole carbon and energy source...
October 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lars Regestein, Tobias Klement, Philipp Grande, Dirk Kreyenschulte, Benedikt Heyman, Tim Maßmann, Armin Eggert, Robert Sengpiel, Yumei Wang, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank, Antje Spiess, Walter Leitner, Carsten Bolm, Matthias Wessling, Andreas Jupke, Miriam Rosenbaum, Jochen Büchs
Renewable raw materials in sustainable biorefinery processes pose new challenges to the manufacturing routes of platform chemicals. Beside the investigations of individual unit operations, the research on process chains, leading from plant biomass to the final products like lactic acid, succinic acid, and itaconic acid is increasing. This article presents a complete process chain from wooden biomass to the platform chemical itaconic acid. The process starts with the mechanical pretreatment of beech wood, which subsequently is subjected to chemo-catalytic biomass fractionation (OrganoCat) into three phases, which comprise cellulose pulp, aqueous hydrolyzed hemicellulose, and organic lignin solutions...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Min-Ji Kim, Jitendra Upadhyaya, Min-Sun Yoon, Nam Soo Ryu, Young Eun Song, Hee-Won Park, Young-Hoi Kim, Myung-Kon Kim
Background: The biological activities of ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) are associated with type, number, and position of sugar moieties linked to aglycone skeletons. Deglycosylated minor ginsenosides are known to be more biologically active than major ginsenosides. Accordingly, the deglycosylation of major ginsenosides can provide the multibioactive effects of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to transform ginsenoside Rb2, one of the protopanaxadiol-type major ginsenosides, into minor ginsenosides using β-glycosidase (BG-1) purified from Armillaria mellea mycelium...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Khamphone Yelithao, Utoomporn Surayot, WooJung Park, SangMin Lee, Dae-Hee Lee, SangGuan You
The aqueous polysaccharide from Polygonatum sibiricum was extracted and fractionated using anion-exchange chromatography to obtain F1 fraction. The F1 was chemically sulfated and partially acid-hydrolyzed for the production of its over-sulfated (OS1,2,3 ) and hydrolyzed (HP1,2,3 ) derivatives, in which the sulfate content of OS1,2,3 was 7.5-17.1%, and the Mw of HP1,2,3 ranged from 18.2 × 103 to 57.3 × 103  g/mol. Considerable RAW264.7 cell activation was observed by HP1,2,3 with NO production of 34...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eman Mosaad Zaki, Asmaa Mohamed Zahran, Alshimaa Abdelazeem Metwaly, Rania Hafez, Safinaz Hussein, Abdallah Elaiw Mohammed
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the commonest leukemias affecting adults. CD39 inhibits T-cell and NK cell responses by hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate, suppressing the immune system. We investigated expression of CD39 on CD4+ T Lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and its relationship with deletion 6q, its association with disease stage and survival. METHODS: Thirty CLL patients and 20 matched controls were included in the study...
October 11, 2018: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Sirirat Kumarn, Nut Churinthorn, Adun Nimpaiboon, Manus Sriring, Chee-Cheong Ho, Atsushi Takahara, Jitladda Sakdapipanich
The stabilization mechanism of natural rubber (NR) latex from Hevea brasiliensis was studied to investigate the components involved in base-catalyzed ester hydrolysis, namely, hydrolyzable lipids, ammonia, and the products responsible for the desired phenomenon observed in ammonia-preserved NR latex. Latex stability is generally thought to come from a rubber particle (RP) dispersion in the serum, which is encouraged by negatively charged species distributed on the RP surface. The mechanical stability time (MST) and zeta potential were measured to monitor field latices preserved in high (FNR-HA) and low ammonia (FNR-LA) contents as well as that with the ester-containing components removed (saponified NR) at different storage times...
October 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhiwei Zhang, Fenghua Zhang, Liya Song, Ning Sun, Weishi Guan, Bo Liu, Jian Tian, Yuhong Zhang, Wei Zhang
β-Galactosidase is widely used for hydrolysis of whey lactose. However, galactose inhibition has acted as a major constraint on the catalytic process. Thus, it is sensible to improve upon this defect in β-galactosidase through protein modification. To reduce the galactose inhibition of Aspergillus candidus β-galactosidase (LACB), four amino acid positions were selected for mutation based on their molecular bindings with galactose. Four mutant libraries (Tyr96, Asn140, Glu142, and Tyr364) of the LACB were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis...
November 2018: 3 Biotech
Sneeha Veerakumar, Ramesh Pathy Manian
Agarases (agarose 4-glycanohydrolase; EC are class of enzymes that belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family capable of hydrolyzing agar. Their classification depends on hydrolysis pattern and product formation. Among all the agarases, β-agarases and the oligosaccharides formed by its action have fascinated quite a lot of industries. Ample of β-agarase genes have been endowed from marine sources such as algae, sea water, and marine sediments, and the expression of these genes into suitable host gives rise to recombinant β-agarases...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
N A Samsudin, N R A Halim, N M Sarbon
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pH levels on functional properties of various molecular weights of eel ( Monopterus sp.) protein hydrolysate (EPH). The eel was enzymatically hydrolyzed and fractionated through membranes filter (10 kDa, 5 kDa and 3 kDa). The foaming capacity and stability, emulsifying capacity and stability index, water holding capacity and fat binding capacity between pH 2 and 10 were determined. The 5 kDa EPH was found to have the highest foaming capacity at pH 2, pH 4 and pH 6, and foaming stability and emulsifying activity index at all pH levels, except pH 8 and fat binding capacity at pH 2, as compared to 10 kDa and 3 kDa EPH fractions...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yanqing Zang, Shoko Hashimoto, Changqing Yu, Kiharu Igarashi
The study investigated the protective effects of kaempferol galactoside (KG) components in mice, which were separated from Jindai soybean leaves (JDL) and mainly composed by two kaempferol galactosides. Further, KG-related metabolites in serum of mice were identified by Tof-MS. Results showed that both JDL and KG prevented the CCl4 -induced increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and serum alanine aminotransferase. Additionally, mice treated with KG had significantly decreased TBARS and TNF-alpha levels, compared to CCl4 -treated mice...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kirsten Lønne Enggrob, Thomas Larsen, Mogens Larsen, Lars Elsgaard, Jim Rasmussen
RATIONALE: The cycling of peptide and protein-bound amino acids (AAs) is important for studying the rate limiting steps in soil N turnover. A strong tool is stable C and N isotopes used in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), where a prerequisite for analysis is appropriate methods for peptide and protein hydrolysis and appropriate methods for derivatization of AAs for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). METHODS: We examined the efficiency of a standard acidic hydrolysis (6 M HCl, 20h at 110°C) and a fast acidic hydrolysis (6 M HCl, 70 min at 150°C) on the recovery of AAs from a protein standard (Bovine Serum Albumin)...
October 16, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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