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Venkata N Are, Ashwani Kumar, Venuka Durani Goyal, Siddhant S Gotad, Biplab Ghosh, Rekha Gadre, Sahayog N Jamdar, Ravindra D Makde
The proline-specific M24B peptidases that cleave Xaa-Pro iminopeptide bond in dipeptides are called prolidases while those that preferentially cleave this bond at the N-termini of longer peptides are called aminopeptidases-P. Escherichia coli and other bacteria have small aminopeptidases-P (36-39 kDa) which are considerably diverged from the canonical aminopeptidase-P of E. coli (50 kDa). The structure-function studies of these small aminopeptidases-P are not reported. We report the crystal structures of small aminopeptidases-P from E...
December 11, 2018: Proteins
Decai Huang, Haomiao Zhu, Zhonghua Deng, Qilin Zou, Hongyu Lu, Xiaodong Yi, Wang Guo, Canzhong Lu, Xueyuan Chen
K2TiF6:Mn4+ is a highly efficient narrow-band emission red phosphor with promising applications in white LEDs and wide-gamut displays. Nevertheless, the poor moisture-resistant property of this material hinders its further commercialization. Herein, we introduce a convenient reverse cation exchange strategy to construct a core-shell structured K2TiF6:Mn4+@K2TiF6 phosphor. The outer pure K2TiF6 shell can not only act as a shield for preventing moisture in the air to hydrolyze inner MnF62- group, but also effectively cut off the path of energy migration to surface defects, thus increasing the emission efficiency, especially for the phosphors doped with high Mn4+ concentration...
December 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Teresa Herrera, Joaquín Navarro Del Hierro, Tiziana Fornari, Guillermo Reglero, Diana Martin
BACKGROUND: Typical hydrolysis times of saponins without considering the effect of time on the degradation of the targeted compounds, namely sapogenins, are generally assumed. When producing natural extracts, it should be considered that the performance of hydrolysis to yield a target compound might also affect the final composition of the extracts in terms of other bioactive compounds. In our study, saponin-rich extracts from fenugreek, quinoa, lentil and soybean were produced and their acid hydrolysis to produce sapogenin-rich extracts was performed at different times (0-6 h)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nathieli B Bottari, Micheli M Pillat, Maria R C Schetinger, Karine P Reichert, Vanessa Machado, Charles E Assmann, Henning Ulrich, Anielen Dutra, Vera M Morsch, Taís Vidal, Ivana B M Da Cruz, Cinthia Melazzo, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
The effects of Toxoplasma gondii during embryonic development have not been explored despite the predilection of this parasite for neurons and glial cells. Here, we investigated the activation of the purinergic system and proinflammatory responses during congenital infection by T. gondii. Moreover, neuroprotective and neuromodulatory properties of resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic natural compound, were studied in infected neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). For this study, NPCs were isolated from the telencephalon of infected mouse embryos and subjected to neurosphere culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2...
December 8, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Yanling Hu, Yu He, Yaxue Han, Yili Ge, Gongwu Song, Jiangang Zhou
A rapid method is described for synthesis of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) by utilizing L-histidine as the stabilizer and ascorbic acid (AA) as the reductant. The CuNCs display blue-green fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 390/485 nm. A sensitive fluorometric assay was worked out for determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. If the ALP substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) is enzymatically hydrolyzed, it forms p-nitrophenol (PNP) which reduces the fluorescence of CuNCs because its absorption band at 410 nm overlaps the excitation peak of CuNCs at 390 nm...
December 7, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Qian Tang, Peng Yu, Molly Tillmann, Jerry D Cohen, Janet P Slovin
Indole-3-acetylaspartate and indole-3-acetylglutamate are the stored auxin amino acid conjugates of the achene of the diploid strawberry and serve as sources of auxin during seedling growth. The edible part of the strawberry, a pseudocarp, has long been known to enlarge in response to auxin produced by the developing achenes, the botanical true fruit. Auxin homeostasis involves a complex interaction between biosynthesis, conjugate formation and hydrolysis, catabolism and transport. Strawberry tissues are capable of synthesizing auxin conjugates, and transcriptome data support the expression of genes involved in IAA conjugate formation and hydrolysis throughout embryo development and subsequent seedling growth...
December 8, 2018: Planta
Logeshwaran Panneerselvan, Kannan Krishnan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
In this study, we report the first draft genome sequence of Microbacterium esteraromaticum MM1, isolated from golf course soil in South Australia. The genome possesses genes for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation.
August 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Fandi Kong, Xiaoyan Pang, Jihui Zhao, Pan Deng, Mingyue Zheng, Dafang Zhong, Xiaoyan Chen
Nitrile group biotransformation is an unusual or minor metabolic pathway for most nitrile-containing drugs. However, for some cyanopyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (vildagliptin, anagliptin, and besigliptin, not saxagliptin), the conversion of nitrile group into carboxylic acid is their major metabolic pathway in vivo. DPP-4 was reported to be partly involved in the metabolism. In our pilot study, it was also observed that saxagliptin, a DPP-4 specific inhibitor, decreased the plasma exposures of besigliptin carboxylic acid in rats by only 20%...
December 10, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Roseline C Thakur, Meloth Thamban
The inter-conversion of nitrogen and sulfur species between the gas and particulate phases and their interaction with alkaline species influences the acidity of the aerosols and surface snow. To better understand these processes, a short field campaign was undertaken in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, during 13th April 2012 to 24th April 2012. Air measurements were carried out through a particulate sampler equipped with denuders and filter packs for simultaneous collection of trace gases (HNO3 , NO2 , SO2 and reactive nitrogen compounds) and aerosols, with daily collection of snow samples...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Maria Rafiq, Ashiq Hussain, Kausar Hussain Shah, Qamar Saeed, Muhammad Umair Sial, Zahid Ali, Friedrich Buck, Richard E Goodman, Binish Khaliq, Uzma Ishaq, Mirza Ahsen Baig, Aisha Munawar, Seema Mahmood, Ahmed Akrem
The present study describes the predicted model and functional characterization of an endochitinase (30 kDa) from corms of Gladiolus grandiflorus. ESI-QTOF-MS generated peptide showed 96% sequence homology with family 18, Class III acidic endochitinase of Gladiolus gandavensis. Purified G. grandiflorus chitinase (GgChi) hydrolyzed 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-N,N',N''-triacetylchitotriose substrate showing specific endochitinase activity. Since no structural details of GgChi were available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), a homology model was predicted using the coordinate information of Crocus vernus chitinase (PDB ID: 3SIM)...
December 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Brian L Foster, Thanaphum Osathanon
BACKGROUND: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates maintenance of stemness and modulation of osteo/odontogenic differentiation and mineralization in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). Mineralization in the bones and teeth is in part controlled by pericellular levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi ), a component of hydroxyapatite, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ), an inhibitor of mineralization. The progressive ankylosis protein (gene ANKH; protein ANKH) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1/ENPP1) increase PPi and inhibit mineralization, while tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL; TNAP) is a critical pro-mineralization enzyme that hydrolyzes PPi ...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Erol Eroğlua
OBJECTIVE: We present three robust, validated and statistically significant quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, which deal with the calculated molecular descriptors and experimental inhibition constant (Ki) of 42 coumarin and sulfocoumarin derivatives measured against CA I and II isoforms. METHOD: The compounds were subjected to DFT calculations in order to obtain quantum chemical molecular descriptors. Multiple linear regression algorithm was applied to construct QSAR models...
December 10, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Alyssa M Love, Brijith Thomas, Sarah E Specht, Michael P Hanrahan, Juan M Venegas, Samuel P Burt, Joseph T Grant, Melissa C Cendejas, William P McDermott, Aaron J Rossini, Ive Hermans
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were recently reported as highly selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of alkanes to olefins in the gas phase. Previous studies revealed a substantial increase in surface oxygen content after exposure to ODH conditions (heating to ca. 500 °C under a flow of alkane and oxygen); however, the complexity of these materials has thus far precluded an in-depth understanding of the oxygenated surface species. In this contribution, we combine advanced NMR spectroscopy experiments with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to characterize the molecular structure of the oxygen functionalized phase that arises on h-BN and BNNTs following catalytic testing for ODH of propane...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Florence Dubelley, Corine Bas, Emilie Planes, Emmanuelle Pons, Bernard Yrieix, Lionel Flandin
Mechanical toughness and high barriers to air and water may be combined in a polymer-metal multilayer film, provided that the two materials are properly bonded together. Delamination is indeed the most severe flaw observed in service. This suggests that the polyurethane (PU) adhesive at the polymer-metal interface fails to bear the shear forces, as happens principally if a multilayer system is submitted to elevated temperature and humidity. A Raman microscopy of the multilayer revealed a cohesive delamination, with glue on both the surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Pujuan Zhang, Jinru Zhang, Lujia Zhang, Jianan Sun, Yuan Li, Lian Wu, Jiahai Zhou, Changhu Xue, Xiangzhao Mao
AgWH50C, an exo-β-agarase of GH50 isolated from Agarivorans gilvus WH0801, plays a key role in the enzymatic production of neoagarobiose, which has great application prospect in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, the poor thermostability becomes the main obstructive factor of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 50 agarases, including AgWH50C. Herein, based on the AgWH50C crystal structure, we designed several mutants by a multiple cross-linked rational design protocol used thermostability predicting softwares ETSS, PoPMuSiC, and HotMuSiC...
December 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Trang Nha Vu, Susana Y Kimura, Michael J Plewa, Susan D Richardson, Benito J Marinas
In drinking water disinfection, switching from free chlorine to alternative chemical disinfectants such as monochloramine may result in the formation of different classes of toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAMs) are two currently unregulated nitrogen-containing DBP (N-DBP) groups commonly found in water disinfected with monochloramine that have been shown to be more cyto- and genotoxic than regulated DBPs. For the first time, this study confirms the formation of HAN and HAM dominant species found in disinfected water, dichloroacetonitrile and dichloroacetamide, from the reaction between monochloramine and dichloroacetaldehyde via the aldehyde reaction pathway...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tripti Dadheech, Subhash Jakhesara, Prakram Singh Chauhan, Ramesh Pandit, Ankit Hinsu, Anju Kunjadiya, Dharamshibhai Rank, Chaitanya Joshi
Members of the genus Aspergillus are extensively studied ascomycetes because of their ability to synthesize high value-added compounds and enzymes of industrial interest. Precise whole genome assembly and gene annotation are significant for gene functional analyses. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing, assembly and whole genome analysis of Aspergillus terreus P14_T3, isolated from rumen sample of cattle fed with coconut-coir. A total of 13,340 protein-coding genes were predicted, among them 493 are involved in degradation of complex carbohydrate polysaccharides...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Julia Flis, Mikael Holm, Emily J Rundlet, Justus Loerke, Tarek Hilal, Marylena Dabrowski, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Scott C Blanchard, Christian M T Spahn, Tatyana V Budkevich
Translocation moves the tRNA2 ⋅mRNA module directionally through the ribosome during the elongation phase of protein synthesis. Although translocation is known to entail large conformational changes within both the ribosome and tRNA substrates, the orchestrated events that ensure the speed and fidelity of this critical aspect of the protein synthesis mechanism have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present three high-resolution structures of intermediates of translocation on the mammalian ribosome where, in contrast to bacteria, ribosomal complexes containing the translocase eEF2 and the complete tRNA2 ⋅mRNA module are trapped by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GMPPNP...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Wataru Kobiayashi, Enwei Liu, Hajime Ishii, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Peter Schlögelhofer, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
In eukaryotes, homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in both genome maintenance and generation of genetic diversity. Eukaryotic RecA homologues, RAD51 and DMC1, are key proteins in homologous recombination that promote pairing between homologous DNA sequences. Arabidopsis thaliana is a prominent model plant for studying eukaryotic homologous recombination. However, A. thaliana RAD51 and DMC1 have not been biochemically characterized. In the present study, we purified A. thaliana RAD51 (AtRAD51) and DMC1 (AtDMC1)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Yoan Brissonnet, Coralie Assailly, Amélie Saumonneau, Julie Bouckaert, Mike Maillasson, Clémence Petitot, Benoit Roubinet, Blanka Didak, Ludovic Landemarre, Clarisse Bridot, Ralf Blossey, David Deniaud, Xibo Yan, Julien Bernard, Charles Tellier, Cyrille Grandjean, Franck Daligault, Sébastien G Gouin
Sialidases (SA) hydrolyze sialyl residues from glycoconjugates of the eukaryotic cell surface and are virulence factors expressed by pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites. The catalytic domain of SA are often flanked with carbohydrate-binding module(s) previously shown to bind sialosides and to enhance enzymatic catalytic efficiency. Here we designed non-hydrolyzable multivalent thiosialosides as probes and inhibitors of V. cholerae, T. cruzi and S. pneumoniae (NanA) sialidases. NanA was truncated from the catalytic and lectinic domains (NanA-L and NanA-C) to probe their respective roles when interacting with sialylated surfaces and the synthetically designed di-, and polymeric thiosialosides...
December 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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