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Preterm formula

Duc Ninh Nguyen, Thomas Thymann, Sandra K Goericke-Pesch, Shuqiang Ren, Wei Wei, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter Damborg, Anders Brunse, Charlotte van Gorp, Boris W Kramer, Tim G Wolfs, Per T Sangild
Prenatal inflammation is a major risk for preterm birth and neonatal morbidity, but its effects on postnatal immunity and organ functions remain unclear. Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, we investigated whether prenatal intra-amniotic (IA) inflammation modulates postnatal systemic immune status and organ functions. Preterm pigs exposed to IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3 days were compared with controls at birth and postnatal day 5 after formula feeding. IA LPS induced mild chorioamnionitis but extensive intra-amniotic inflammation...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Arianna Aceti, Isadora Beghetti, Luca Maggio, Silvia Martini, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
The use of probiotics among very low-birth-weight infants is constantly increasing, as probiotics are believed to reduce the incidence of severe diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and to improve feeding tolerance. However, despite the enthusiasm towards these products in neonatal medicine, theoretical knowledge and clinical applications still need to be improved. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the most important gaps in the current literature about potential uses of probiotics in preterm infants, highlighting promising directions for future research...
October 10, 2018: Nutrients
Stine Brandt Bering
This review focuses on the evidence for health benefits of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for preterm infants to stimulate gut adaptation and reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in early life. The health benefits of breastfeeding are partly explained by the abundant HMOs that serve as prebiotics and immunomodulators. Gut immaturity in preterm infants leads to difficulties in tolerating enteral feeding and bacterial colonization and a high sensitivity to NEC, particularly when breast milk is insufficient...
October 8, 2018: Nutrients
Anish Pillai, Susan Albersheim, Julie Matheson, Vikki Lalari, Sylvia Wei, Sheila M Innis, Rajavel Elango
There are concerns around safety and tolerance of powder human milk fortifiers to optimize nutrition in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and safety of a concentrated preterm formula (CPF) as a liquid human milk fortifier (HMF) for premature infants at increased risk of feeding intolerance. We prospectively enrolled preterm infants over an 18-month period, for whom a clinical decision had been made to add CPF to human milk due to concerns regarding tolerance of powder HMF...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Emanuela Ferretti, Sarah Pilon, Margaret Boland, Dina El Demellawy
Cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) is a common entity in the pediatric population with a nonspecific presentation ranging from gastrointestinal symptoms to systemic manifestations. Most infants with CMPI are term, and symptoms often appear in the week following the introduction of cow's milk-based formula. There is typically a significant delay in the onset of milk allergy in premature infants compared to full term. We report a rare case of a premature neonate who presented with symptoms of CMPA within the first 2 days of life...
October 4, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Ivana Chandra, Lizhou Sun
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the similarities and differences in the clinical parameters, laboratory biomarkers, and pregnancy outcomes between preterm and term preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: Data on 185 women diagnosed with PE were collected from a Jiangsu Province Hospital from January 2017 to December 2017 and analyzed. 74 (40%) patients were diagnosed with preterm PE, of which 70 (94.6%) patients with PE with severe features (PEs) and the rest with PE. 111 (60%) patients were diagnosed with term PE, of which 54 (48...
September 22, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Manuel Blesa, Gemma Sullivan, Devasuda Anblagan, Emma J Telford, Alan J Quigley, Sarah A Sparrow, Ahmed Serag, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are at increased risk of alterations in brain structure and connectivity, and subsequent neurocognitive impairment. Breast milk may be more advantageous than formula feed for promoting brain development in infants born at term, but uncertainties remain about its effect on preterm brain development and the optimal nutritional regimen for preterm infants. We test the hypothesis that breast milk exposure is associated with improved markers of brain development and connectivity in preterm infants at term equivalent age...
September 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Alessandra Martins Heringer de Lima, Paulo Roberto Nassar de Carvalho, Saint Clair Gomes Junior, Ana Carolina Costa Carioca, José Maria de Andrade Lopes
OBJECTIVE:  To assess 11 formulae commonly used to estimate fetal weight in a population of premature fetuses who had abnormal Doppler velocimetry due to early-onset placental insufficiency. The performance of each formula was evaluated in subgroups of fetuses with expected growth and intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS:  Data were collected from fetuses and mothers who delivered at three Brazilian hospitals between November 2002 and December 2013. We used the following formulae: Campbell; Hadlock I, II, III, IV and V; Shepard; Warsof; Weiner I and II; and Woo III...
September 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Sofia El Manouni El Hassani, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Hager Said, Daniel J C Berkhout, Anton H van Kaam, Richard A van Lingen, Marc A Benninga, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Fecal volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis has shown great potential as a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for a variety of diseases. Before clinical implementation, the factors influencing the outcome of VOC analysis need to be assessed. Recent studies found that the sampling conditions can influence the outcome of VOC analysis. However, the dietary influences remains unknown, especially in (preterm) infants. Therefore, we assessed the effects of feeding composition on fecal VOC patterns of preterm infants (born at <30 weeks gestation)...
September 11, 2018: Sensors
Line Hedegaard Toftlund, Lone Agertoft, Susanne Halken, Gitte Zachariassen
BACKGROUND: In very preterm-born children alveolar maturation is challenged and lung function is often compromised during childhood. So far, very few studies have focused on type of early nutrition and lung function in children born preterm. METHODS: This study is a six years follow-up of 281 very preterm-born infants (VPI) with a gestational age (GA) < 32+0 weeks. Infants breastfed at discharge from hospital were randomized to unfortified (UHM) or fortified (FHM) mother's (human) milk, whereas those not breastfed received a preterm formula (PF)...
September 8, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Hiromichi Shoji, Toshiaki Shimizu
The metabolic changes that occur during the postnatal weaning period appear to be particularly important for future health, and human breast milk is considered to provide the optimal source of nutrition for infants. Our previous studies examined the effect of feeding type on antioxidative properties, glucose and insulin metabolism, the lipid profile, metabolomics, and prostaglandin (PG) metabolism in term and preterm infants. Levels of a urinary marker of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) were significantly lower in breast-fed term and preterm infants than those in formula-fed infants...
September 8, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Amna Widad A Nasuf, Shalini Ojha, Jon Dorling
BACKGROUND: Placing a small volume of colostrum directly onto the buccal mucosa of preterm infants during the early neonatal period may provide immunological and growth factors that stimulate the immune system and enhance intestinal growth. These benefits could potentially reduce the risk of infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and improve survival and long-term outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine if early (within the first 48 hours of life) oropharyngeal administration of mother's own fresh or frozen/thawed colostrum can reduce rates of NEC, late-onset invasive infection, and/or mortality in preterm infants compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Holly Nishimura, Karl Krupp, Savitha Gowda, Vijaya Srinivas, Anjali Arun, Purnima Madhivanan
Background: While breastfeeding rates have improved globally, disparities in breastfeeding practices persist particularly in rural and low resource settings. In India, only 56% of Indian mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the recommended six months. As India leads the world in the number of preterm births, under 5 years of age malnutrition and neonatal mortality, understanding the factors associated with EBF can help improve the nutritional status for millions of infants...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Andre Felipe Fajardo, Curtis Sobchak, Yulia Shifrin, Jingyi Pan, Tanja Gonska, Jaques Belik
BACKGROUND: When compared with infant formula, human milk enhances gastric emptying in preterm infants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is present in large quantities in human milk that has an antimicrobial role for the mother and infant. In vitro adult rat studies suggest that H2 O2 facilitates gastric motor contraction. Hypothesizing that H2 O2 enhances gastric motility, we investigated its effects on the newborn rat stomach tissue. METHODS: Rat newborn and adult gastric fundic segments, or their smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the muscle response to H2 O2 exposure...
August 24, 2018: Pediatric Research
Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Marlene Biermayr, Ulrike Pupp Peglow, Elke Griesmaier
Objective This study aimed to determine survival, neonatal morbidity, and outcomes at 1 and 2 years in children who were born very preterm, and to analyse any relation to enteral feeding. Methods We performed a prospective, observational study on very preterm infants (range: 23-31 weeks' gestation) born at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, Austria, between 2007 and 2014 (n = 557). Results The overall survival rate was 94.6%. Survival rates were 77.8%, 78.6%, 90.9%, and 90.9% among those born at 24, 25, 26, and 27 weeks, and 97...
August 29, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Nutkridta Pongsakul, Pasinee Kanaprach, Wararat Chiangjong, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Infant formulas are produced to resemble human milk (HM) and to provide adequate energy and appropriate nutritional components for suitability of infant growth and development, some of which are customized for specific medical conditions. However, it has remained unclear whether formulas contain any biofunctionality equivalent to HM, particularly fetal intestinal cell growth promotion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biofunctionality in HM and various formulas by using an in vitro fetal intestinal cell growth assay...
September 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Tanith Alexander, Frank H Bloomfield
AIM: Moderate-late preterm (MLPT) babies account for over 80% of preterm babies born world-wide. Many MLPT babies require early nutritional support while full sucking feeds are established, but there is little evidence to guide practice. We aimed to determine current practice in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to neonatal clinical directors within the Australia and New Zealand Neonatal Network requesting dissemination to colleagues involved in the care of MLPT babies (32-35+6 weeks' gestation)...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Maria Lorella Gianni, Elena Nicoletta Bezze, Patrizio Sannino, Michela Baro, Paola Roggero, Salvatore Muscolo, Laura Plevani, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: The supply of breast milk to preterm infants tends to occur at a lower rate than that recorded among term infants. We aimed to investigate the facilitators of and barriers to breastfeeding during hospital stay according to the experiences of mothers that gave birth to premature infants requiring admission to neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. Mothers who had delivered a newborn with a gestational age ≤33 weeks requiring intensive care, entered the study...
August 27, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Mei Ying Quan, Zheng Hong Li, Dan Hua Wang, Kurt Schibler, Li Yang, Jie Liu, Xuan Guang Qin, Xin Zhang, Tong Yan Han, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current enteral feeding practices in hospitalized late preterm infants in the Beijing area of China. METHODS: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted. Infants born after 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation were enrolled from 25 hospitals in the Beijing area of China from October 2015 to October 2017. Data on enteral feeding practices were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,463 late preterm infants were enrolled, with a mean gestational age (GA) of 35...
July 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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