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Infectious laryngotracheitis

Mesula G Korsa, Joanne M Devlin, Carol A Hartley, Glenn F Browning, Mauricio J C Coppo, José A Quinteros, Carlos A Loncoman, Adepeju E Onasanya, Dulari Thilakarathne, Andrés Diaz-Méndez
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Efforts to improve the control of this disease have resulted in the generation of new vaccine candidates, including ILTV mutants deficient in virulence factors...
2018: PloS One
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
Using Luminex xMAP (x = analyte, MAP = multi-analyte profiling) technology, a serological method for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) was established. Nano-magnetic beads coated with purified NDV protein and AIV nucleoprotein were incubated with serum samples. Using biotinylated rabbit anti-chicken IgY and streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin, the optical signals measured by a Luminex 200 detection system indicated the quantification of NDV or AIV antibodies in the serum...
November 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Ismaila Shittu, Adeyinka J Adedeji, Pam D Luka, Olayinka O Asala, Nancy M Sati, Ijeoma O Nwagbo, Chinonyerem N Chinyere, Oluwadamilola O Arowolo, Jolly A Adole, Paulinus Emennaa, Paul A Abdu, Tony M Joannis
Globally, vaccines are used to prevent and control the menace of infectious diseases in livestock with some reported to be inadvertently contaminated with extraneous agents (EAs). With the aim of screening and characterizing for some selected EAs, 44 live viral poultry vaccines were randomly selected based on availability. The vaccines comprised 14 manufacturers in 10 different countries including Nigeria were screened by Polymerase Chain Reaction. In 9% (4/44) of the vaccines, contamination with only avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J (ALV-J) was recorded...
November 16, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Yuhao Shao, Junfeng Sun, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
In this study, we isolated and identified an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) that was naturally avirulent in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, with the aim of developing a more efficacious vaccine against ILTV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We constructed a US9-deleted ILTV mutant based on this avirulent ILTV, and then constructed a recombinant ILTV (designated ILTV-ΔUS9-F) expressing the fusion protein (F) of the genotype VII NDV based on the US9-deleted ILTV mutant. Expression of the F protein in ILTV-ΔUS9-F-infected cells was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blotting...
November 15, 2018: Vaccine
Feng Cong, Yujun Zhu, Jing Wang, Yuexiao Lian, Xiangnan Liu, Li Xiao, Ren Huang, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: Chicken anemia virus (CAV), avian reovirus (ARV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) all cause immunosuppressive disease in birds through vertical or horizontal transmission. Mixed infections with these immunosuppressive pathogens lead to atypical clinical signs and obstruct accurate diagnoses and epidemiological investigations. Therefore, it is essential to develop a high-throughput assay for the simultaneous detection of these immunosuppressive viruses with high specificity and sensitivity...
November 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Linda Gergen, Stephanie Cook, Brooke Ledesma, Wade Cress, Deb Higuchi, Diane Counts, Julio Cruz-Coy, Colin Crouch, Phillip Davis, Ian Tarpey, M Morsey
A double recombinant strain of herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) was constructed that contains the fusion (F) gene from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the gD plus gI genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) inserted into a non-essential region of the HVT genome. Expression of the F protein was controlled by a human cytomegalovirus promoter, whereas expression of gD plus gI was driven by an ILTV promoter. The double recombinant vaccine virus (HVT-NDV-ILT) was fully stable genetically and phenotypically following extended passage in cell culture and infection of chickens...
November 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Magouz, Sh Medhat, S Abou Asa, A Desouky
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) disease is an acute highly contagious viral disease leading to massive economic losses to the national poultry industry. This study aimed to identify the most accurate and rapid diagnostic methods to rescue layer poultry farms from intense outbreaks in Egypt. Fifty pathological specimens were collected and subjected to virus isolation (VI), histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Egg inoculation revealed stunted growth and white pock lesions on chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) in 23 samples...
2018: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, Gabriela Beltrán, Sylva Riblet, Carolina O Freitas, Maricarmen García, Joanne M Devlin
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 ) causes mild to severe respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Recombination in this virus under natural (field) conditions was first described in 2012 and more recently has been studied under laboratory conditions. Previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have also demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains generated highly virulent viruses that produced widespread disease within poultry flocks in Australia...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination. METHOD: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system...
September 21, 2018: Virology Journal
Claudio Verdugo, Adrián Pinto, Naomi Ariyama, Manuel Moroni, Carlos Hernandez
We identified two RNA (paramyxovirus and coronavirus) and two DNA (adenovirus and herpesvirus) viruses in a common aquatic bird, the Neotropic Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and determined their phylogenetic relationships to other global circulating variants. We analyzed 104 cloacal swabs from individuals collected at locations in Central Chile. Sequences were obtained from amplicons using consensus primers targeting conserved genes of the virus families Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Herpesviridae...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, José A Quinteros, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Dulari Thilakarathne, Omid Fakhri, Paola K Vaz, Joanne M Devlin
Recombination is closely linked with virus replication and is an important mechanism that contributes to genome diversification and evolution in alphaherpesviruses. Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes respiratory disease in poultry. In the past, natural (field) recombination events between different strains of ILTV generated virulent recombinant viruses that have caused severe disease and economic loss in poultry industries. In this study, chickens were vaccinated with attenuated ILTV vaccines to examine the effect of vaccination on viral recombination and diversity following subsequent co-inoculation with two field strains of ILTV...
September 11, 2018: Vaccine
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Engagement of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with TLR4 in mammals activates two downstream intracellular signaling routes; the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD)88 dependent and independent pathways. However, existence of the later pathway leading to production of type I interferons (IFNs) in avian species has been debated due to conflicting observations. The objective of our study was to investigate whether LPS induces type I IFN production in chicken macrophages leading to antiviral response attributable to type I IFN...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Xianghe Zhai, Shilei Zhang
In this study, a pair of primers were designed and synthesized for the gB gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) (GenBank accession number: EU104985). The recombinant plasmid was constructed as the positive reference material, and a real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) method was established to detect ILTV using synergy brands (SYBR) Green I. This method could detect 3.34 × 103 copies/μL viral nucleic acid in the initial template, the sensitivity of this method was higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the coefficient of variation (CV) in the repeatability test by this method was 3...
November 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Ariel Eduardo Vagnozzi, Gabriela Beltrán, Guillermo Zavala, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif, Maricarmen García
The objective of this study was to determine how cytokine transcription profiles correlate with patterns of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication in the trachea, Harderian gland, and trigeminal ganglia during the early and late stages of infection after intratracheal inoculation. Viral genomes and transcripts were detected in the trachea and Harderian gland but not in trigeminal ganglia. The onset of viral replication in the trachea was detected at day one post-infection and peaked by day three post-infection...
October 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Gustavo H Schneiders, Sylva M Riblet, Maricarmen García
In an effort to produce more stable vaccines for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), recombinant strains with deletion of genes associated with virulence have been evaluated for attenuation and protection efficacy. Among viral genes associated with virulence, a cluster of five open reading frames (ORFs; A through E) have been identified. An attenuated ILTV recombinant strain with deletion of the ORF C gene induced protection comparable to that elicited by the tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine when administered via eyedrop...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Wanyu Shi, Dinggang Li
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Yinhuangerchen mixture (YM) on Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (AILT) induced by artificial infection and provide a scientific basis for its clinical application. A total of 200 chickens were challenged with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). At 72 h post-challenge, the chickens were treated with different doses of YM or the Chinese herbal medicine Houyanjing powder. The relative expression of ILTV, the pathological changes of trachea, and the number of SIgA-secreting cells were detected...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Silvana Santander Parra, Luis Nunez, Marcos R Buim, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
1. Infectious laryngotracheitis is a respiratory disease that affects the poultry industry worldwide. It is common in flocks with high-bird density, causing major economic losses. 2. In this study, a SYBR® FAST polymerase chain reaction (PCR) double-strand DNA intercalating agent assay was performed for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in clinical samples in comparison with a conventional nested-PCR, both based on the glycoprotein E encoding gene. This assay amplified 56 bp and was capable of detecting 19 to 1 copies of virus...
August 2018: British Poultry Science
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Sanjay M Reddy, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and a variety of non-neoplastic syndromes in chickens. Furthermore, very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs induce a form of immunosuppression (late-MDV-IS) that might involve both neoplastic and non-neoplastic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the attenuation of MDV-induced tumours and late-MDV-IS occurs simultaneously or can be dissociated. The immunosuppressive ability of three viruses derived from vv+ MDV strain 686 (wild-type 686, the somewhat attenuated molecular clone 686-BAC, and the nononcogenic molecular clone lacking the two copies of the oncogene meq 686-BACΔMEQ) was evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Sandra Morales Ruiz, Jorge Bendezu Eguis, Ricardo Montesinos, Luis Tataje-Lavanda, Manolo Fernández-Díaz
We report here the first genome sequence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus isolated in Peru from tracheal tissues of layer chickens. The genome showed 99.98% identity to the J2 strain genome sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in five gene-coding sequences related to vaccine development, virus attachment, and viral immune evasion.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
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