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Infectious laryngotracheitis

Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, Gabriela Beltrán, Sylva Riblet, Carolina O Freitas, Maricarmen García, Joanne M Devlin
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 ) causes mild to severe respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Recombination in this virus under natural (field) conditions was first described in 2012 and more recently has been studied under laboratory conditions. Previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have also demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains generated highly virulent viruses that produced widespread disease within poultry flocks in Australia...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination. METHOD: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system...
September 21, 2018: Virology Journal
Claudio Verdugo, Adrián Pinto, Naomi Ariyama, Manuel Moroni, Carlos Hernandez
We identified two RNA (paramyxovirus and coronavirus) and two DNA (adenovirus and herpesvirus) viruses in a common aquatic bird, the Neotropic Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and determined their phylogenetic relationships to other global circulating variants. We analyzed 104 cloacal swabs from individuals collected at locations in Central Chile. Sequences were obtained from amplicons using consensus primers targeting conserved genes of the virus families Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Herpesviridae...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, José A Quinteros, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Dulari Thilakarathne, Omid Fakhri, Paola K Vaz, Joanne M Devlin
Recombination is closely linked with virus replication and is an important mechanism that contributes to genome diversification and evolution in alphaherpesviruses. Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes respiratory disease in poultry. In the past, natural (field) recombination events between different strains of ILTV generated virulent recombinant viruses that have caused severe disease and economic loss in poultry industries. In this study, chickens were vaccinated with attenuated ILTV vaccines to examine the effect of vaccination on viral recombination and diversity following subsequent co-inoculation with two field strains of ILTV...
September 11, 2018: Vaccine
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Engagement of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with TLR4 in mammals activates two downstream intracellular signaling routes; the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD)88 dependent and independent pathways. However, existence of the later pathway leading to production of type I interferons (IFNs) in avian species has been debated due to conflicting observations. The objective of our study was to investigate whether LPS induces type I IFN production in chicken macrophages leading to antiviral response attributable to type I IFN...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Xianghe Zhai, Shilei Zhang
In this study, a pair of primers were designed and synthesized for the gB gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) (GenBank accession number: EU104985). The recombinant plasmid was constructed as the positive reference material, and a real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) method was established to detect ILTV using synergy brands (SYBR) Green I. This method could detect 3.34 × 103 copies/μL viral nucleic acid in the initial template, the sensitivity of this method was higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the coefficient of variation (CV) in the repeatability test by this method was 3...
July 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Ariel Eduardo Vagnozzi, Gabriela Beltrán, Guillermo Zavala, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif, Maricarmen García
The objective of this study was to determine how cytokine transcription profiles correlate with patterns of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication in the trachea, Harderian gland, and trigeminal ganglia during the early and late stages of infection after intratracheal inoculation. Viral genomes and transcripts were detected in the trachea and Harderian gland but not in trigeminal ganglia. The onset of viral replication in the trachea was detected at day one post-infection and peaked by day three post-infection...
October 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Gustavo H Schneiders, Sylva M Riblet, Maricarmen García
In an effort to produce more stable vaccines for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), recombinant strains with deletion of genes associated with virulence have been evaluated for attenuation and protection efficacy. Among viral genes associated with virulence, a cluster of five open reading frames (ORFs; A through E) have been identified. An attenuated ILTV recombinant strain with deletion of the ORF C gene induced protection comparable to that elicited by the tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine when administered via eyedrop...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Wanyu Shi, Dinggang Li
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Yinhuangerchen mixture (YM) on Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (AILT) induced by artificial infection and provide a scientific basis for its clinical application. A total of 200 chickens were challenged with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). At 72 h post-challenge, the chickens were treated with different doses of YM or the Chinese herbal medicine Houyanjing powder. The relative expression of ILTV, the pathological changes of trachea, and the number of SIgA-secreting cells were detected...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Silvana Santander Parra, Luis Nunez, Marcos R Buim, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
1. Infectious laryngotracheitis is a respiratory disease that affects the poultry industry worldwide. It is common in flocks with high-bird density, causing major economic losses. 2. In this study, a SYBR® FAST polymerase chain reaction (PCR) double-strand DNA intercalating agent assay was performed for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in clinical samples in comparison with a conventional nested-PCR, both based on the glycoprotein E encoding gene. This assay amplified 56 bp and was capable of detecting 19 to 1 copies of virus...
August 2018: British Poultry Science
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Sanjay M Reddy, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and a variety of non-neoplastic syndromes in chickens. Furthermore, very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs induce a form of immunosuppression (late-MDV-IS) that might involve both neoplastic and non-neoplastic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the attenuation of MDV-induced tumours and late-MDV-IS occurs simultaneously or can be dissociated. The immunosuppressive ability of three viruses derived from vv+ MDV strain 686 (wild-type 686, the somewhat attenuated molecular clone 686-BAC, and the nononcogenic molecular clone lacking the two copies of the oncogene meq 686-BACΔMEQ) was evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Sandra Morales Ruiz, Jorge Bendezu Eguis, Ricardo Montesinos, Luis Tataje-Lavanda, Manolo Fernández-Díaz
We report here the first genome sequence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus isolated in Peru from tracheal tissues of layer chickens. The genome showed 99.98% identity to the J2 strain genome sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in five gene-coding sequences related to vaccine development, virus attachment, and viral immune evasion.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Aruna Amarasinghe, Victor Palomino-Tapia, Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Khawaja Bakhtawar, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Cytosine-guanosine deoxynucleotides (CpG) DNA can be delivered in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 for the stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signaling pathway that ultimately protects chickens against a number of bacterial and viral infections. There is a dearth of information understanding the mechanisms of protection induced by in ovo delivered CpG DNA. The objective of this study was to determine the immune cell changes post-hatch following in ovo delivery of the TLR21 ligand, CpG DNA. In order to quantify changes of percentage of KUL01+, IgM+ B, cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8α+ cells, trachea, lung, duodenum, large intestine, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected on day 1 post-hatch...
2018: PloS One
Zeki Aras, Orhan Yavuz, Gökçenur Sanioğlu Gölen
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of chickens and a cause of great economic loss in commercial layers. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of ILT in the field outbreaks and to compare the characteristics of ILT-infected and free flocks of commercial layers. A total of 625 blood serum samples were collected from 25 different layer flocks. The presence of antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in each sample was determined by ELISA. Of the 625 serum samples, 266 (42...
2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Arianne Brown Jordan, Victor Gongora, Dane Hartley, Christopher Oura
Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) were selected for review...
January 26, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Guillaume Croville, Charlotte Foret, Pauline Heuillard, Alexis Senet, Mattias Delpont, Mohammed Mouahid, Mariette F Ducatez, Faouzi Kichou, Jean-Luc Guerin
Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Arianne Brown Jordan, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Paul Crooks, Zul Mohammed, Judy Molawatti-Bisnath, Christine V F Carrington, Christopher A L Oura
Viruses affecting poultry cause significant levels of disease leading to severe economic losses among poultry farmers worldwide. The Americas region continues to be vulnerable to the spread of poultry viruses across the continents and Caribbean island chains. In Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) there is limited information on the viruses circulating in poultry. Many flock are vulnerable to infection and there are occasional outbreaks of disease resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify important viruses of poultry circulating in T&T through a broad-based surveillance approach...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Irit Davidson, Amira Natour-Altory, Israel Raibstein, Eitan Kin, Yaad Dahan, Haim Krispin, Nati Elkin
Protection against diseases caused by the avian viruses, Marek's disease, Infectious laryngotracheitis, chicken anemia and turkey meningoencephalitis is achieved by live vaccines. The application quality is important to assure proper uptake in commercial flocks. We describe a novel evaluation method for the vaccination process by sequential monitoring the vaccine viruses in feathers. Feather collection is easy, non-invasive and non-lethal for the birds, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. To demonstrate the vaccine virus presence, an innovative assay of nested real-time amplification was approached because vaccine viruses presence in vivo is less abundant comparing to virulent wild-type isolates...
January 29, 2018: Vaccine
Nacira Laamiri, Rim Aouini, Boutheina Marnissi, Abdeljelil Ghram, Issam Hmila
A one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of four avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). In comparison with the singleplex rRT-PCR, the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the new assay were evaluated and validated using 70 clinical samples. The optimal cutoff point, the corresponding limit of quantification (LoQ) and the limit of detection (LoD) were statistical established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
February 2018: Virology
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