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Jarna Shah, Effrossyni Gina Votta-Velis, Alain Borgeat
Local anesthetics are used for performing various regional anesthesia techniques to provide intraoperative anesthesia and analgesia, as well as for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Older medications such as lidocaine and bupivacaine as well as newer ones such as mepivacaine and ropivacaine are being used successfully for decades. Routes of administration include neuraxial, perineural, intravenous, various infiltrative approaches, topical, and transdermal. There are new innovations with the use of older local anesthetics in a novel manner, in addition to the development and use of new formulations...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Brendon M Hart, Stephane M Ferrell, Mark W Motejunas, Lauren A Bonneval, Elyse M Cornett, Richard D Urman, Alan D Kaye
There are several new anticoagulants on the market that will impact perioperative care, including the use of these anticoagulant drugs in the setting of regional anesthesia. The ideal pharmacological agent would prevent pathological thrombosis and allow for a normal response to vascular injury to limit bleeding. At present, all antithrombotic agents have increased bleeding risk as their main side effect. We describe the different categories of drugs, e.g., antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and thrombolytic, with particular emphasis on the new drugs that have been introduced into the market...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Elyse M Cornett, Matthew B Novitch, Andrew J Brunk, Kelly S Davidson, Bethany L Menard, Richard D Urman, Alan D Kaye
There are currently new drugs being developed that have benzodiazepine properties. This review will examine remimazolam, 3-hydroxyphenazapam, adinazolam, clonazolam, and deschloroetizolam as well as other novel agents. All benzodiazepines are protein bound and only moderately lipid soluble. In addition to their baseline properties, they can be enzymatically broken down into active metabolites. The mechanism of action of these medications is related to polysynaptic pathway inhibition via direct interaction with GABA and modifiable chloride channels...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Vahé S Tateosian, Katelynn Champagne, Tong J Gan
The issue of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) still poses a significant burden on our patients. Although rarely associated with a life-threatening condition, it is consistently considered as one of the most undesirable side effects of surgery and anesthesia. There are well-established risk factors for the development of PONV that include patient-related factors, anesthetic technique, use of volatile anesthetics, use of nitrous oxide, duration of anesthesia, opioid administration, and type of surgery...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Mary Geitona, Dimitra Latsou, Aikaterini Toska, Maria Saridi
Introduction Elderly patients are particularly susceptible to polypharmacy issues because of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as to chronic diseases resulting in a continuous increasing demand for drugs. Objective This study captures the prevalence of polypharmacy and adherence in Greece and identifies related risk factors in adult patients with diabetes. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus attending public and private outpatients' clinics in the regions of Attica and Western Greece...
October 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Amal M Badawoud, Mary Martha Stewart, Margarita Orzolek, Krista L Donohoe, Patricia W Slattum
Objective The resident-directed medication administration program (RDMA) is a personalized medication approach designed to improve the medication administration process in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). This evaluation aimed to document staff experience with the RDMA program compared with staff working in facilities using a facility-directed medication administration program (FDMA). Design This descriptive program evaluation invited staff members to share their experiences with the medication administration process through an anonymous survey...
October 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Daniel Z Mansour, Joseph G Marek, Rachelle Shelly Spiro, Nicole J Brandt
The Chesapeake Regional Information System for our Patients (CRISP) is a health information exchange in Maryland that is designed to improve communication among members of the health care team including physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. Senior care pharmacists gained access to CRISP through successful collaborative efforts at both the state and national levels. This involved efforts to address medication-related problems that continue to be a concern during transitions of care, especially for older, vulnerable adults...
October 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Marlene Z Bloom
The 2018-2019 president of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP), has been involved in ASCP for the last 30 years. Her perspective is that all senior care pharmacists are "consultant" pharmacists because they give advice and don't just dispense, whether they work at a chain drug store or a nursing facility. Her highest priority is to meet the educational needs for the members and give them the tools they need to practice their profession.
October 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Hamed Ghaffari, Linda R Petzold
BACKGROUND: In the classical pathway of retinoic acid (RA) mediated gene transcription, RA binds to a nuclear hormone receptor dimer composed of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), to induce the expression of its downstream target genes. In addition to nuclear receptors, there are other intracellular RA binding proteins such as cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP1 and CRABP2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, whose contributions to the RA signaling pathway have not been fully understood...
October 16, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Jordan Virbalas, Bernice E Morrow, David Reynolds, John P Bent, Thomas J Ow
Objective To examine the prevalence of ultrarapid metabolizers of codeine among children in an ethnically diverse urban community. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary care academic children's hospital in the Bronx, New York. Subjects and Methods In total, 256 children with nonsyndromic congenital sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed. DNA was assessed for 63 previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) known to alter the function and expression of the CYP2D6 gene primarily responsible for codeine metabolism...
October 16, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Anne C Spaulding, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Madeline G Adee, Robert T Lawrence, Curt G Beckwith, William von Oehsen
The cost of treating all incarcerated people who have hepatitis C with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) greatly stresses correctional facility budgets. Complex federal laws bar pharmaceutical companies from simply discounting expensive medications to prices that facilities can afford. This article discusses means by which correctional facilities may qualify under federal law as "safety-net providers" to allow sale of DAAs at a price <10% of the average manufacturer price (AMP). No new laws would need to be enacted to implement this strategy...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Xiaomin Xing, Chun-Fang Wu
GCaMP imaging is widely employed for investigating neuronal Ca2+ dynamics. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) consists of three distinct types of motor terminals (type Ib, Is and II). We investigated whether variability in synaptic bouton sizes and GCaMP expression levels confound interpretations of GCaMP readouts, in inferring the intrinsic Ca2+ handling properties among these functionally distinct synapses. Analysis of large data sets accumulated over years established the wide ranges of bouton sizes and GCaMP baseline fluorescence, with large overlaps among synaptic categories...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Juhi Singh, Pooja Mittal, Gunjan Vasant Bonde, Gufran Ajmal, Brahmeshwar Mishra
Quercetin (Qu), is a flavonoid known to have anti-diabetic effects owing to its antioxidant property, thus promoting regeneration of the pancreatic islets, ultimately increasing insulin secretion. But the therapeutic application of Qu is hampered by its low oral bioavailability and its unfavourable physicochemical characteristics. The present work aimed at formulation of Quercetin loaded Soluplus® micelles (SMs) so as to enhance its bioavailability and provide prolonged release for the management of diabetes...
October 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Swati Agarwal, Faisal A Alzahrani, Asif Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Throughout history, menopause has been regarded as a transition in a woman's life. With the increase in life expectancy, women now spend more than a third of their lives in menopause. During these years, women may experience intolerable symptoms both physically and mentally, leading them to seek clinical advice. It is imperative for healthcare providers to improve the quality of life by reducing bothersome menopausal symptoms and preventing disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Federica Pellati, Virginia Brighenti, Johanna Sperlea, Lucia Marchetti, Davide Bertelli, Stefania Benvenuti
Cannabis sativa L. is a dioecious plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. The main phytochemicals that are found in this plant are represented by cannabinoids, flavones, and terpenes. Some biological activities of cannabinoids are known to be enhanced by the presence of terpenes and flavonoids in the extracts, due to a synergistic action. In the light of all the above, the present study was aimed at the multi-component analysis of the bioactive compounds present in fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) inflorescences of different varieties by means of innovative HPLC and GC methods...
October 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
André Rodrigues Sá Couto, Alexey Ryzhakov, Thorsteinn Loftsson
It is extremely important for pharmaceutical formulators to have analytical methodology that provides efficient detection and quantification of HPβCD aggregates. Five different methods were then evaluated for their potential to detect these aggregates and to determine critical aggregation concentration (cac): osmometry, viscometry, tensiometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and permeability studies. Overall, tensiometry was an inadequate method with which to study HPβCD aggregation, since the addition of HPβCD to water resulted in only minor changes in surface tension...
October 13, 2018: Materials
Wenjing Sun, Tjahjasari Alexander, Zaiwei Man, Fangfang Xiao, Fengjie Cui, Xianghui Qi
2-Ketogluconate (2KGA) is an organic acid that is important for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental applications. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida JUIM01 strain is an important industrial 2KGA producer in China. In this paper, we found that P. plecoglossicida JUIM01 could convert glucose to 2KGA extracellularly, and the formed 2KGA was subsequently consumed after glucose was exhausted during the fermentation process. Experiments of glucose and 2KGA supplementation during fermentation process revealed that, only when glucose was exhausted, the strain started to consume the product 2KGA...
October 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Taek-In Oh, Hye-Jeong Jung, Yoon-Mi Lee, Sujin Lee, Geon-Hee Kim, Sang-Yeon Kan, Hyeji Kang, Taerim Oh, Hyun Myung Ko, Keun-Chang Kwak, Ji-Hong Lim
Zerumbone (ZER), an active constituent of the Zingiberaceae family, has been shown to exhibit several biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer; however, it has not been studied for anti-melanogenic properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that ZER and Zingiber officinale (ZO) extract significantly attenuate melanin accumulation in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated mouse melanogenic B16F10 cells. Further, to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which ZER suppresses melanin accumulation, we analyzed the expression of melanogenesis-associated transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and its target genes, such as tyrosinase , tyrosinase-related protein 1 ( TYRP1 ), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 ( TYRP2 ), in B16F10 cells that are stimulated by α-MSH...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zongxi Sun, Yali Wu, Song Liu, Shaonan Hu, Bo Zhao, Pengyue Li, Shouying Du
Herb⁻drug interactions strongly challenge the clinical combined application of herbs and drugs. Herbal products consist of complex pharmacological-active ingredients and perturb the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs are often combined with aspirin in vascular disease treatment in China. PNS was found to exhibit inhibitory effects on aspirin hydrolysis using Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, a total of 22 components of PNS were separated and identified by UPLC-MS/MS...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ramon Cabiscol, Jan Henrik Finke, Harald Zetzener, Arno Kwade
Powder densification through uniaxial compaction is governed by a number of simultaneous processes taking place on a reduced time as the result of the stress gradients within the packing, as well as the frictional and adhesive forces between the powder and the die walls. As a result of that, a density and stiffness anisotropy is developed across the axial and radial directions. In this study, microindentation has been applied to assess and quantify the variation of the module of elasticity ( E m o d ) throughout the surface of cylindrical tablets...
October 12, 2018: Pharmaceutics
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