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Marcie S Rubin, Natali Nunez, Jessica D Quick, Burton L Edelstein
OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterize US early childhood caries (ECC) programs. METHODS: A 39 question online survey was fielded to 245 ECC programs identified from the literature and peer programs. The 101 respondents (41 percent response rate) reported their program's geographic reach, type, areas of focus, target populations, approaches, affiliations, providers, goals, costs, and funding. RESULTS: Half of the programs affiliate with formal early childhood social service or nutrition programs...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Martin Freesmeyer, Wolfgang Weigand, Thomas Weisheit
AIM: In this contribution we investigated the potential transfer of an established method for the synthesis of 223 Ra-labelled calixarene complexes to a hospital radiopharmaceutical environment. For this purpose, commercially available [223 Ra]RaCl2 solution in pharmaceutical grade (Xofigo® ) was reacted with three calixarene derivatives. METHODS: A wellestablished two-phase extraction method using a two-phase solvent system was performed for complexation of the radium ions with calixarenes under slightly basic conditions...
December 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Andrew R Pines, Mithun G Sattur, Karl R Abi-Aad, Bernard R Bendok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Neurosurgery
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Giussy Barbara, Laura Buggio, Edgardo Somigliana
Elagolix, an orally active non-peptidic GnRH antagonist, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis. As the degree of ovarian suppression obtained with elagolix is dose-dependent, pain relief may be achieved by modulating the level of hypo-oestrogenism while limiting side effects. Elagolix may thus be considered a novelty in terms of its endocrine and pharmacological properties but not for its impact on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometriosis, as the target of this new drug is, yet again, alteration of the hormonal milieu...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Thomas F Lüscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Lin-Xia Tang, Bin Wang, Zhi-Kun Wu
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy was one of the most serious and harmful diabetic complications, characterized by progressive loss of renal function and renal fibrosis. Aerobic exercise training is an important non-pharmacologic method to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozocin (STZ) was used to construct a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Renal function and mitochondrial function were measured by urinary protein level, Masson staining and ATP, superoxide production, and membrane potential, respectively...
December 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Natalia Goykhman, Ishai Dror, Brian Berkowitz
This study reports the transport characteristics of the pharmaceutical compounds carboplatin and cisplatin, and their respective derivatives, in saturated sand and soil columns. Pharmaceuticals are recognized as emerging pollutants of soil and water resources, but studies of the transport characteristics of organometallic pharmaceuticals in soil-water environments are rare. A recent study of oxaliplatin transport in natural soil raises the question of whether or not its behavior is representative of all Pt-based pharmaceuticals behavior in soil-water systems...
December 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Min Su, Xiaoliu Liang, Xiaoxiao Xu, Xinmou Wu, Bin Yang
Our previous studies show that vitamin C (VC) plays promising hepatoprotection in mice. Intrahepatic exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can induce dose-dependent cytotoxicity. However, pharmacology-based assessment of VC on PFOS remains uninvestigated. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic benefits of VC on inhibiting PFOS-induced liver steatosis in mice, followed by representative biochemical analysis and immunoassay. As results, VC was beneficial for reduced PFOS-induced liver damages, as showed in reductions of serological levels of transaminases (ALT and AST), lipids (TG and TC), fasting glucose and insulin, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL6), while content of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in serum was increased...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Anna Czajkowska-Kośnik, Marta Szekalska, Katarzyna Winnicka
Skin application of pharmaceutical products is one of the methods used for drug administration. The problem of limited drug penetration via topical application makes searching for safe drug carriers that will provide an expected therapeutic effect of utmost importance. Research into safe drug carriers began with liposome structures, paving the way for work with nanocarriers, which currently play a large role as drug vehicles. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) consist of blended solid and liquid lipids (oils) dispersed in an aqueous solution containing a surfactant...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Ewelina Rojewska, Katarzyna Ciapała, Joanna Mika
BACKGROUND: The G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), is considered important for nociceptive transmission, as suggested by accumulating evidence. This receptor was discovered in 1998; however, a lack of pharmacological tools prevented a complete understanding of its function and how to exploit it therapeutically. We studied the influence of CXCL17, kynurenic acid and zaprinast on nociceptive transmission in naïve and neuropathic mice. Additionally, we investigated the influence of kynurenic acid and zaprinast on morphine effectiveness in neuropathic pain...
October 6, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Xingliang Wang, Andrias O O Reilly, Martin S Williamson, Alin M Puinean, Yihua Yang, Shuwen Wu, Yidong Wu
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are found only in invertebrates and mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The structural and functional diversity of GluCls are produced through assembly of multiple subunits and via posttranscriptional alternations. Alternative splicing is the most common way to achieve this in insect GluCls and splicing occurs primarily at exons 3 and 9. As expression pattern and pharmacological properties of exon 9 alternative splices in invertebrate GluCls remain poorly understood, the cDNAs encoding three alternative splice variants (9a, 9b and 9c) of the PxGluCl gene from the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella were constructed and their pharmacological characterizations were examined using electrophysiological studies...
December 11, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Takashi Azuma, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Mao Ishida, Kanae Hisamatsu, Ayami Yunoki, Yoshiki Mino, Tetsuya Hayashi
Environmental fate of 58 pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) grouped into 11 therapeutic classes in the three different waters, hospital effluent, sewage treatment plant (STP) and river water, was estimated by combination of their quantitative concentration analysis and evaluation of their extent of contribution as loading sources. At the same time, distribution of six classes of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB) in the same water samples was estimated by screening of individual PhC-resistant microbes grown on each specific chromogenic medium...
December 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Gallen, A L Heffernan, S Kaserzon, G Dogruer, S Samanipour, M J Gomez-Ramos, J F Mueller
The Great Barrier Reef receives run-off from 424,000 km2 catchment area across coastal Queensland, incorporating diffuse agricultural run-off, and run-off point sources of land-based chemical pollutants from urban and industrial development. Marine biota, such as green turtles (Chelonia mydas), are exposed to these diverse chemical mixtures in their natural environments, and the long term effects on turtle and ecosystem health remain unknown. This study was part of a larger multi-disciplinary project characterising anthropogenic chemical exposures from the marine environment and turtle health...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xuemei Chen, Yuan Hu, Wenlu Zhang, Ke Chen, Jie Hu, Xiaosong Li, Li Liang, Xuefei Cai, Jieli Hu, Kai Wang, Ailong Huang, Ni Tang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious global health concern. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat various cancers. However, HBV-infected patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of HBV reactivation via unknown mechanisms, which we aimed to elucidate in this study. We found that autophagy plays a central role in cisplatin-induced HBV replication. Cisplatin treatment induced autophagy in both HBV-replicating cells and an HBV-transgenic mouse model as evident from marked upregulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the accumulation of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-LC3 puncta...
December 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Han Shi, Simin Liu, Junqi Chen, Xuan Li, Qin Ma, Bin Yu
The identification of drug-target interactions has great significance for pharmaceutical scientific research. Since traditional experimental methods identifying drug-target interactions is costly and time-consuming, the use of machine learning methods to predict potential drug-target interactions has attracted widespread attention. This paper presents a novel drug-target interactions prediction method called LRF-DTIs. Firstly, the pseudo-position specific scoring matrix (PsePSSM) and FP2 molecular fingerprinting were used to extract the features of drug-target...
December 11, 2018: Genomics
Aline Schögler, Oliver Caliaro, Melanie Brügger, Blandina I Oliveira Esteves, Izabela Nita, Amiq Gazdhar, Thomas Geiser, Marco P Alves
INTRODUCTION: Rhinovirus (RV) infection is a major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Various diseases involving chronic inflammatory response and infection are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests impaired ER stress response in CF airway epithelial cells, this might be a reason for recurrent viral infection in CF...
December 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Chiara Ruzza, Victor A Holanda, Elaine C Gavioli, Claudio Trapella, Girolamo Calo
Cebranopadol is a mixed NOP/opioid receptor agonist currently under development as innovative analgesic. In this study the liability of cebranopadol to produce opioid-type physical dependence has been evaluated in comparison with morphine in wild type mice and in mice knockout for the NOP receptor gene (NOP(-/-)). Mice were treated twice a day for 5 days with increasing doses of cebranopadol or morphine (cumulative doses 10.2 and 255 mg/kg, respectively) and the number of jumping in response to naloxone 10 mg/kg were measured after 2 h from the last injection...
December 11, 2018: Peptides
Bryan L Love
Chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are commonly encountered in ambulatory patients, but limited options exist for patients with persistent or severe symptoms following treatment with non-prescription products. Plecanatide (Trulance, Synergy Pharmaceuticals) is a 16-amino acid peptide analogue of uroguanylin that stimulates guanylate cyclase-C receptors to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretion into the intestine and prevents the absorption of sodium ions, thereby increasing the secretion of water into the lumen...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Fernando Casas-Mendez, Maria Jose Abadías, Oriol Yuguero, Ignasi Bardés, Ferran Barbé, Jordi de Batlle
INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments (ED), but the management of these episodes is often heterogeneous regardless of their potential impact on short-term adverse outcomes. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, retrospective study of all patients >40 years old admitted to the ED of two Spanish teaching hospitals for an AECOPD between January 1st and May 31st, 2016...
2018: PloS One
Renaud Prudent, Nathalie Demoncheaux, Hélène Diemer, Véronique Collin-Faure, Reuben Kapur, Fabrice Paublant, Laurence Lafanechère, Sarah Cianférani, Thierry Rabilloud
LIM kinases are located at a strategic crossroad, downstream of several signaling pathways and upstream of effectors such as microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Cofilin is the only LIM kinases substrate that is well described to date, and its phosphorylation on serine 3 by LIM kinases controls cofilin actin-severing activity. Consequently, LIM kinases inhibition leads to actin cytoskeleton disorganization and blockade of cell motility, which makes this strategy attractive in anticancer treatments. LIMK has also been reported to be involved in pathways that are deregulated in hematologic malignancies, with little information regarding cofilin phosphorylation status...
2018: PloS One
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