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Shenglong Zhu, Ninghan Feng, Guangxiao Lin, Yuelin Tong, Xuan Jiang, Qin Yang, Shunhe Wang, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rapamycin (Rp), the main mammalian target of rapamycin complex inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce its efficacy. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) significantly reduce the incidence and mortality of breast cancer and improve metabolic disorders. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell lines and immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Rp plus ω-3 PUFA treatment...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chunlei Ge, Fang Wang, Chaochu Cui, Xiaodong Su, Kenneth Kin Wah To, Xiaokun Wang, Hui Zhang, Xin Song, Liwu Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by the ABC transporter subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and subfamilyG member 2 (ABCG2) limits successful cancer chemotherapy and no commercially available MDR modulator is used in the clinic. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PCI29732 on the enhancement of chemotherapeutic agents. METHODS: Cell cytotoxicity and reversal effect were measured with MTT assay. Additionally, flow cytometry was employed to detect the accumulation and efflux of the drugs...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
Minyoung Jang, Foksouna Sakadi, Nana R Tassiou, Cissé F Abass, Sara J Grundy, Arcer Woga, Bah A Kenda, Condé M Lamine, Balde A Talibé, Hongxiang Qiu, Joseph M Cohen, Marco Carone, Farrah J Mateen
PURPOSE: To characterize people with epilepsy (PWE) presenting to a free neurology consultation and antiepileptic drug (AED) service in the Republic of Guinea. METHODS: Guinea is a low-income country in West Africa that recently experienced an Ebola Virus Disease epidemic. Community-dwelling PWE were seen at a public referral hospital in Conakry, the capital city. During two visits in 2017, an African-U.S. team performed structured interviews and electroencephalograms and provided AEDs...
July 24, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Pallavi Goel, Ozair Alam, Mohd Javed Naim, Farah Nawaz, Muzaffar Iqbal, Md Iqbal Alam
Piperidine is an important pharmacophore, a privileged scaffold and an excellent heterocyclic system in the field of drug discovery which provides numerous opportunities in studying/exploring this moiety as an anticancer agent by acting on various receptors of utmost importance. Cancer is an uncontrolled division of cells that results in the formation of tumour which have the potential to migrate to other parts of the body (metastasis) finally becoming a major threat to human population. Since piperidine displayed great potential in this area it is being further probed to get novel entities for the treatment of cancer...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mridul Roy, Long Liang, Xiaojuan Xiao, Peifu Feng, Mao Ye, Jing Liu
Nature is the most abundant source for novel drug discovery. Lycorine is a natural alkaloid with immense therapeutic potential. Lycorine is active in a very low concentration and with high specificity against a number of cancers both in vivo and in vitro and against various drug-resistant cancer cells. This review summarized the therapeutic effect and the anticancer mechanisms of lycorine. At the same time, we have discussed the pharmacology and comparative structure-activity relationship for the anticancer activity of this compound...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiang-Yu Liu, Cheng-Bin Zhou, Chao Fang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been widely investigated for their potential in the treatment of various diseases and transplantation therapy. However, NSC growth regulation, labeling, and its application to disease diagnosis and treatment are outstanding challenges. Recently, nanomaterials have shown promise for various applications including genetic modification, imaging, and controlled drug release. Here we summarize the recent progress in the use of nanomaterials in combination with NSCs for disease treatment and diagnosis, cell labeling, and NSC growth regulation...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abdur Rauf, Seema Patel, Muhammad Imran, AneelaMaalik, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Farhan Saeed, Yahia N Mabkhot, Salim S Al-Showiman, Nazir Ahmad, Eman Elsharkawy
BACKGROUND: Honokiol ((3',5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol), a lignan, is a promising antitumor compound, having exerted activity against a number of human cancer cell lines. Honokiol has inhibitory role on the proliferation, invasion and survival of cancer cells in in vitro as well as in vivo studies. It interferes with signaling pathways components in order to elicit the anticancer effect. SCOPE AND APPROACH: In present review, the published data on the efficacy of honokiol against various cancer cell lines and tumor-bearing animal models has been presented and discussed...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Md Faruque Ahmad
Ganoderma lucidum comprises probably 400 different biologically active constituents principally polysaccharides, triterpenoids, proteins, enzymes, steroids, sterols, nucleotides, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals which have been proved to have several therapeutical properties to control various diseases. Broad spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been established which include immunomodulation, anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiatherosclerotic, antifibrotic, chemopreventive, antitumor, anticancer drug toxicity prevention, analgesic, anti inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, antiandrogenic, antiangiogenic, antiherpetic, antiarthritic, antiosteoporotic, antiaging, antiulcer properties and estrogenic activity...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kunal Maniar, Vandana Singh, Amal Moideen, Rajasri Bhattacharyya, Amitava Chakrabarti, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
The management of chronic lung diseases such as cancer, asthma, COPD and pulmonary hypertension remains unsatisfactory till date, and several strategies are being tried to control the same. Metformin, a popular anti-diabetic drug has shown promising effects in pre-clinical studies and has been subject to several trials in patients with debilitating pulmonary diseases. However, the clinical evidence for the use of metformin in these conditions is disappointing. Recent observations suggest that metformin use in diabetic patients is associated with an increase in butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut microbiome...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhen Li, Linwei Li, Yi Zheng, Cong Chen, Tiemin Sun
Clavulanate potassium (CP) is a classic β-lactamase inhibitor, which is extensively used as a combination drug in antibiotics therapy. As a chiral drug, CP is the only effective stereoisomer revealing prominent activities. To determine the chirality of CP efficiently, we provide an accurate and convenient method based on the comprehensive investigation of circular dichroism spectra and theoretical calculations. The results demonstrate two distinguishable cotton effects in electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and a sequence of cotton effect signs at specific wavenumbers in vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) can be regarded as diagnostic characteristics for the determination of absolute configuration...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jian-Wei Dong, Xue-Jiao Li, Le Cai, Jun-You Shi, Yu-Feng Li, Cui Yang, Zhen-Jie Li
Stephania epigaea Lo is an important herbal medicine used as antiphlogistic and analgesic drugs. Its major components are dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2). In the present study, a rapid, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous quantitation of dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2) in S. epigeae using 1 H NMR spectra was developed. The deuterated solvent of DMSO-d6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated in 1 H NMR spectrum and dimethyl terephthalate was selected as an internal standard...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mohit Yadav, Jitendra Singh Rathore
Here we report the first essentially complete TAome analysis for type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, a major class of TA modules found in bacterial system, from entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila ATCC 19061 (NCBI RefSeq NC_014228). We summarize this analysis in terms of TA locus, accession identifier, hits in conserved domain database, toxin superfamily, antitoxin superfamily and chromosomal/mobile genome/plasmid occurrences. Moreover, for TA context analyses we use six different specifications namely virulence factors, mobile genetic elements (MGE), antibiotic resistance genes, secretion systems, prophage and a classification of mobile genetic elements (ACLAME); among these hits are found for only MGE, ACLAME and prophage...
July 11, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Huiying Liu, Xiao Zhang, Mingyi Wu, Zhongjun Li
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS) is a structurally complex glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumbers with a wide spectrum of biological activities, among which anticoagulant activity is particularly attractive for the development of alternative anticoagulant drugs with decreased adverse effects and risks of bleeding. Previous studies show that FuCS glycomimetics bearing several trisaccharide epitopes displayed promising anticoagulant activity and did not change the mode of action of FuCS. To simplify synthetic difficulty of high valent glycoclusters and obtain candidate compounds with relatively low molecular weights, here we report the synthesis of two FuCS glycoclusters with low valence and more compact structures...
July 27, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Iván Flores Martínez, Laura Helena Atuesta
BACKGROUND: Research has shown the substantial impact on mental health for victims of drug-related crime in Mexico, especially individuals who have been heavily exposed to violence. However, the effect of drug-related violence in non-victims has been less studied because causal pathways via indirect violence are more ambiguous. We argue that drug-related violence does have an influence on the mental health of non-victims: For example, because of how violence is publicized by criminal groups, including their use of gruesome killing methods in executions, or via news about government confrontations with these criminal groups...
August 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ragaa Magdy, A Hemdan, N V Fares, Maha Farouk
Trandolapril has no sharp peak in its zero-order spectrum and therefore, it is difficult to be measured by direct spectrophotometry. In this manuscript, several univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for determination of Trandolapril (TR) and Verapamil (VR) combination. The first method for measuring Trandolapril is Constant Multiplication-Spectrum Subtraction (CM-SS), where Trandolapril was measured at 210 nm in its zero-order curve after elimination of Verapamil spectrum...
August 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ji-Long Wang, Xiao-Jiao Du, Jin-Xian Yang, Song Shen, Hong-Jun Li, Ying-Li Luo, Shoaib Iqbal, Cong-Fei Xu, Xiao-Dong Ye, Jie Cao, Jun Wang
Engineering nanoparticles of reasonable surface poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) length is important for designing efficient drug delivery systems. Eliminating the disturbance by other nanoproperties, such as size, PEG density, etc., is crucial for systemically investigating the impact of surface PEG length on the biological behavior of nanoparticles. In the present study, nanoparticles with different surface PEG length but similar other nanoproperties were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) copolymers of different molecular weights and incorporating different contents of PCL3500 homopolymer...
August 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Wanwipa Ittarat, Wichai Pornthanakasem, Mathirut Mungthin, Nantana Suwandittakul, Saovanee Leelayoova, Bongkoch Tarnchompoo, Yongyuth Yuthavong, Darin Kongkasuriyachai, Ubolsree Leartsakulpanich
Malaria caused by an infection of Plasmodium knowlesi can result in high parasitemia and deaths. Therefore, effective and prompt treatment is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. The study aims to characterize P. knowlesi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme (PkDHFR-TS) and its sensitivity to antifolates. The putative Pkdhfr gene was PCR amplified from field isolates collected from the Southern Thailand. Molecular analysis showed 11 polymorphisms in the dhfr domain of the bifunctional dhfr-ts gene...
August 13, 2018: Parasitology International
Ziwei Tong, Li Cheng, Jizhou Song, Miao Wang, Jiuzhi Yuan, Xianzhe Li, Huiyuan Gao, Zhaohua Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance called 'Ku-Shi-Lian' (KSL) in China have been used as Zhuang or Dai folk medicines for treatment of common cold, fever, rheumatoid arthritis and dysentery for hundred years. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate therapeutic efficacy of KSL extract using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in a rat model and the anti-inflammatory activity of cassane diterpenes as the main active material basis of this herb...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Michael B Brewer, David L Lau, James T Lee
Aortoiliac occlusive disease is a common cause of lower extremity claudication. Patients are typically found to have diminished femoral pulses and abnormal non-invasive vascular studies of the lower extremities. Isolated lesions of the internal iliac arteries are much less commonly treated, but can cause similar claudication symptoms in the buttocks, hips, or thighs. Occlusive disease in the internal iliac artery is more challenging to diagnose because the lower extremity pulses and vascular studies can be normal...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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