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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518005/-a-multicenter-clinical-study-on-1-138-cases-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-2012-to-2017
#1
L Zhu, W H Li, X H Wang, K Tan, Q F Fang, Q X Zhu, K K Wu, Q Z Yang, A W Lin, H L Deng, J Bi, J Liu, S Y Zhao, Y Liu, S J Jing, Y M Wang, L M Li, Q Zhao, K H Yao, X Wang, L Jia, F Wang, J K Deng, J Sun, C H Zhu, K Zhou, J Liang, X Z Nie, S C Cao, D M Wang, S J Li, X X Chen, J Li, Y Wang, L Ye, Y H Zhang, F Dong, Z Li, Y H Yang, G Liu
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc.). The clinical characteristics, serotype, drug resistance, treatment and prognosis were reviewed and analyzed...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518003/-investigation-on-the-rational-use-of-antibacterial-agents-by-chinese-pediatricians-in-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
Objective: To obtain baseline data of pediatricians' clinical use of antibacterial agents in children in China, and provide evidence for the follow-up of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children's clinical medications and the development of rational drug management measures and norms. Methods: A multi-center cross-sectional study was designed to conduct a network electronic questionnaire survey of doctors with child prescription rights in hospitals of all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country through cluster sampling to understand the current status of antibacterial drugs use in 2016...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517979/sox11-regulates-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#3
Zhi Liu, Yang Zhong, Yu Jian Chen, Hui Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality. Identifying key molecules involved in the regulation of HCC development is of great clinical significance. SOX11 is a transcription factor belonging to group C of Sry-related HMG box family whose abnormal expression is frequently seen in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we reported that the expression of SOX11 was decreased in human HCC tumors than that in matched normal tissues. Overexpression of SOX11 promoted growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cell line HuH-7...
December 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517974/simultaneous-quantitation-of-metformin-and-dapagliflozin-in-human-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#4
Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav, Jaivik V Shah, Archana George
A single LC-MS/MS assay is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metformin and dapagliflozin in human plasma using ion-pair solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and their internal standards was carried out on a reversed-phase ACE 5CN (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-15 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.5 (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. To achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity for the analytes, mass spectrometric analysis was performed using polarity switching approach...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517973/pharmacokinetics-and-metabolism-of-pemafibrate-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-modulator-in-rats-and-monkeys
#5
Shin-Ichiro Ogawa, Yoshihiko Tunenari, Hiroyuki Kawai, Hiroshi Yamazaki
The metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics of pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha modulator currently launched as an antidyslipidemic drug, were investigated in vitro using hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans and in vivo in rats and monkeys. Hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans all biotransformed pemafibrate to its demethylated form (M1). The bioavailabilities of pemafibrate in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys were 15% and 87%, respectively, after a single oral administration of pemafibrate (1 mg/kg)...
December 5, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517966/ubtf-mutation-causes-complex-phenotype-of-neurodegeneration-and-severe-epilepsy-in-childhood
#6
Lucie Sedláčková, Petra Laššuthová, Katalin Štěrbová, Jana Haberlová, Emílie Vyhnálková, Jana Neupauerová, David Staněk, Marie Šedivá, Pavel Kršek, Pavel Seeman
INTRODUCTION:  Neurodegenerative diseases of childhood present with progressive decline in cognitive, social, and motor function and are frequently associated with seizures in different stages of the disease. Here we report a patient with severe progressive neurodegeneration with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown etiology from the age of 2 years. METHODS AND RESULTS:  Using whole exome sequencing, we found heterozygous missense de novo variant c.628G > A (p...
December 5, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517965/an-overview-on-genistein-and-its-various-formulations
#7
Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517941/suspected-reaction-with-cephalosporin-may-be-a-predictive-factor-for-%C3%AE-lactam-allergy-in-children
#8
Isil Eser Simsek, Mujde Tuba Cogurlu, Metin Aydogan
BACKGROUND: Most children diagnosed with β-lactam allergy based only on history are not truly allergic, and mislabeling leads to use of less effective and more costly alternative broader-spectrum antibiotics, significantly increasing drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and risk factors of confirmed allergy in patients with β-lactam allergy reported by parents or their doctors and evaluate cross-reactivity between β-lactams in children with confirmed allergy...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517930/dialysate-calcium-levels-do-they-matter
#9
REVIEW
Frank M van der Sande, Karlien J A Ter Meulen, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman
BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca) is an essential element that plays a critical role in many biological processes. In dialysis patients, the regulation of Ca balance is highly complex, given the absence of kidney function, endocrine disturbances and the use of drugs such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Also, the use of different dialysate Ca (DCa) baths has profound effect on Ca balance, which depends both on the difference between the Ca concentration in the bath and the serum of the patients, as on the ultrafiltration volume...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517927/disaster-management-in-a-nephrology-service-lessons-learned-from-hurricane-maria
#10
Melvin Bonilla-Félix, Marta Suárez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico suffered a major humanitarian -crisis after Hurricane Maria. We describe our experience with patients with renal disease in an academic medical center. SUMMARY: A comprehensive emergency response plan should be developed, shared and discussed with the team and the patients prior to the hurricane. The needs of the staff should not be ignored to ensure their ability to participate as responders. Physical damage to facilities, lack of basic services, shortage of disposable products, and the inability to get to treatment centers are the most common threats...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517909/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents-an-international-cross-cultural-study
#11
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Raidah AlBaradie, Tyson Sawchuk, Zahra Bahrami, Abeer Al Amer, Jeffrey Buchhalter
PURPOSE: We compared various clinical characteristics of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between young patients from Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Canada, three nations with significantly different socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. This international cross-cultural comparative study may advance our knowledge and understanding of PNES in children and adolescents across the cultures and borders. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we investigated all patients 16 years of age or younger, with PNES admitted to the epilepsy monitoring units at one center in Iran, one center in Saudi Arabia, and one center in Canada...
December 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517905/rational-design-of-polymer-lipid-nanoparticles-for-docetaxel-delivery
#12
Juan M R Albano, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Verônica Muniz Couto, Mariana Barbosa Messias, Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Eneida de Paula, Monica Pickholz
In this work, a stable nanocarrier for the anti-cancer drug docetaxel was rational designed. The nanocarrier was developed based on the solid lipid nanoparticle preparation process aiming to minimize the total amount of excipients used in the final formulations. A particular interest was put on the effects of the polymers in the final composition. In this direction, two poloxoamers -Pluronic F127 and F68- were selected. Some poloxamers are well known to be inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Additionally, their poly-ethylene-oxide blocks can help them to escape the immune system, making the poloxamers appealing to be present in a nanoparticle designed for the treatment of cancer...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517904/magnetically-propelled-hydrogel-particle-motors-produced-by-ultrasound-assisted-hydrodynamic-electrospray-ionization-jetting
#13
Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517903/liquisolid-systems-understanding-the-impact-of-drug-state-solution-or-dispersion-nonvolatile-solvent-and-coating-material-on-simvastatin-apparent-aqueous-solubility-and-flowability
#14
Daiane Anzilaggo, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Diva Sonaglio, Hellen Karine Stulzer
The drug in a solid dosage form must undergo dissolution before it is available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Liquisolid system (LS) is a technology used for increasing aqueous solubility of the drugs, which has an important role in the dissolution and absorption phenomena. However, many factors can influence the performance and success of LS. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate through a factorial design, the factors such as drug state (solution or dispersion), nonvolatile solvent and coating material that influence the increase simvastatin (BSC II drug) apparent aqueous solubility and LS flow properties...
November 22, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517901/university-students-self-reported-reasons-for-abstinence-from-prescription-and-non-prescription-stimulants-and-depressants
#15
Joseph A Rosansky, Harold Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: No previous publication has evaluated whether the importance of university students' reasons for abstinence differs across prescription stimulants, prescription opioids, and two illicit forms of those medications (cocaine and heroin). METHODS: In response to a recruitment email sent to all enrolled undergraduates at a large public university, 768 students who reported no prior recreational use of these four substances rated the importance of 17 reasons for lifelong abstention from each of the four drugs...
November 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517882/evaluation-of-in-line-particle-measurement-with-an-sft-probe-as-monitoring-tool-for-process-automation-using-a-new-time-based-buffer-approach
#16
Theresa Reimers, Jochen Thies, Stefan Dietrich, Julian Quodbach, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch
The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative published by the Food and Drug administration (FDA) describes PAT systems as important tools to optimize pharmaceutical processes in order to ensure the final product quality. Real-time particle size measurements provide a promising approach for process automation of fluid bed granulation processes. This work focuses on the introduction and evaluation of a new time-based buffer approach for in-line spatial filtering technique (SFT) in order to provide a minimum time delay of the real-time measurement...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517868/polycomb-and-methylation-independent-roles-of-ezh2-as-a-transcription-activator
#17
Jung Kim, Yongik Lee, Xiaodong Lu, Bing Song, Ka-Wing Fong, Qi Cao, Jonathan D Licht, Jonathan C Zhao, Jindan Yu
Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) is the enzymatic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyzes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at target promoters for gene silencing. Here, we report that EZH2 activates androgen receptor (AR) gene transcription through direct occupancy at its promoter. Importantly, this activating role of EZH2 is independent of PRC2 and its methyltransferase activities. Genome-wide assays revealed extensive EZH2 occupancy at promoters marked by either H3K27ac or H3K27me3, leading to gene activation or repression, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517801/globulelike-conformation-and-enhanced-diffusion-of-active-polymers
#18
Valentino Bianco, Emanuele Locatelli, Paolo Malgaretti
We study the dynamics and conformation of polymers composed by active monomers. By means of Brownian dynamics simulations we show that, when the direction of the self-propulsion of each monomer is aligned with the backbone, the polymer undergoes a coil-to-globulelike transition, highlighted by a marked change of the scaling exponent of the gyration radius. Concurrently, the diffusion coefficient of the center of mass of the polymer becomes essentially independent of the polymer size for sufficiently long polymers or large magnitudes of the self-propulsion...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517712/an-experimental-study-of-diazepam-and-alprazolam-kinetics-in-urine-and-oral-fluid-following-single-oral-doses
#19
Vidar Temte, Kari Kjeldstadli, Lina Dorthea Bruun, Morris Birdal, Liliana Bachs, Ritva Karinen, Gerrit Middelkoop, Elisabeth Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth
Benzodiazepines are commonly seen in samples submitted for drug testing of patients, people involved in child welfare cases, work-place drug testing, as well as in drug-facilitated assaults. Limited previous experimental studies are available regarding the excretion of benzodiazepines in urine and oral fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of diazepam and alprazolam in oral fluid and urine for up to 2 weeks after ingestion of a single oral dose in healthy volunteers. A total of 11 healthy volunteers ingested 10 mg diazepam at the start of the study and 0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517702/comparison-of-purified-%C3%AE-glucuronidases-in-patient-urine-samples-indicates-a-lack-of-correlation-between-enzyme-activity-and-drugs-of-abuse-metabolite-hydrolysis-efficiencies-leading-to-potential-false-negatives
#20
Pongkwan Sitasuwan, Cathleen Melendez, Margarita Marinova, Michelle Spruill, L Andrew Lee
Pain management laboratories analyze biological fluids (urine, saliva or blood) from patients treated for chronic pain to ensure compliance and to detect undisclosed drug use. The quantitation of multi-panel drugs in urine and tissues utilizes β-glucuronidase to cleave the glucuronic acid and liberate the parent drug for mass spectrometry analysis. This work focuses on the comparison of three different, purified and commercially available β-glucuronidases across 83 patient urine samples. One enzyme is genetically modified, expressed in bacteria and the other two enzymes are purified from abalone...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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