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Moran M Israel, Pierre Jolicoeur, Asher Cohen
We hypothesize that a shared spatial attention mechanism is used for both perception and action. To this end we created a new dual-task version of the classical Simon task. In one task, the spatial-input task, associated with input spatial attention, participants named one shape out of two bilaterally presented colored shapes. In a second task, the spatial-output task, associated with output spatial attention, participants discriminated between high and low pitch tones by pressing either a left or a right key...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Research
Manuel E Hernandez, Roee Holtzer, Gioella Chaparro, Kharine Jean, Julia M Balto, Brian M Sandroff, Meltem Izzetoglu, Robert W Motl
Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Andre J Szameitat, Rahmi Saylik, Andrew Parton
It is known that neuroticism impairs cognitive performance mostly in difficult tasks, but not so much in easier tasks. One pervasive situation of this type is multitasking, in which the combination of two simple tasks creates a highly demanding dual-task, and consequently high neurotics show higher dual-task costs than low neurotics. However, the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these additional performance impairments in high neurotics are unknown. To test for this, we assessed brain activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 low and 15 high neurotics while they were performing a demanding dual-task and the less demanding component tasks as single-tasks...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between fast phases (FPs). There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms); Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Isabelle Cossette, Marie-Ève Gagné, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Philippe Fait, Isabelle Gagnon, Katia Sirois, Sophie Blanchet, Natalie Le Sage, Bradford J McFadyen
OBJECTIVE: To compare gait parameters between children in early adolescence (EA) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during dual-task walking (DTW). METHODS: Children in EA with mTBI (n = 14; six girls) were compared to those without (n = 13; five girls) while walking in different combinations of obstacle avoidance and cognitive dual-tasks. Gait speed and fluidity and their related dual-task costs (DTC) were analysed along with foot clearance and proximity to the obstacle...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Charla L Howard, Chris Wallace, James Abbas, Dobrivoje S Stokic
We developed and evaluated properties of a new measure of variability in stride length and cadence, termed residual standard deviation (RSD). To calculate RSD, stride length and cadence are regressed against velocity to derive the best fit line from which the variability (SD) of the distance between the actual and predicted data points is calculated. We examined construct, concurrent, and discriminative validity of RSD using dual-task paradigm in 14 below-knee prosthesis users and 13 age- and education-matched controls...
September 26, 2016: Gait & Posture
Takehide Kimura, Fuminari Kaneko, Keita Nagahata, Eriko Shibata, Nobuhiro Aoki
The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Marco Steinhauser, Benjamin Ernst, Kevin W Ibald
Posterror slowing (PES) refers to an increased response time following errors. While PES has traditionally been attributed to control adjustments, recent evidence suggested that PES reflects interference. The present study investigated the hypothesis that control and interference represent 2 components of PES that differ with respect to their time course and task-specificity. To this end, we investigated PES in a dual-task paradigm in which participants had to classify colors and tones that were separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, Melissa DiFabio, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Eric E Hall, Caroline J Ketcham, William P Meehan, Thomas A Buckley
Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether pre-existing gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (i.e. walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and non-contact athletes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso Carmelo, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Nicolas Berryman, Sarah A Fraser, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Karen Zh Li, Laurent Bosquet, Louis Bherer
PURPOSE: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Dennis Hamacher, Margit Rudolf, Christoph Lohmann, Lutz Schega
BACKGROUND: Pain has disruptive effects on cognitive functions leading to a decreased capability to multi task. This might be the reason why pain is a fall risk factor in dual-task situations. This study aims to relate a decrease/increase in pain severity with a decrease/increase in dual-task costs of gait variability, which is associated with fall risk, in patients with osteoarthritis prior to and 6-8weeks after total knee replacement. METHODS: We assessed the variability of minimum toe clearance in normal walking and dual-task walking in 36 patients (14 male and 22 female participants; age=mean 64...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Matthieu Casteran, Alain Putot, François Pfitzenmeyer, Elizabeth Thomas, Patrick Manckoundia
OBJECTIVE: While previous studies have demonstrated that depressive elderly subjects (DES) experience difficulties in the processing of simultaneous cognitive tasks, few have examined the coupling of cognitive tasks with seemingly 'automatic' tasks, such as standing upright. Current patient management focuses on pharmacological treatments and cognitive-behavioral therapies. METHODS: Healthy elderly (HES) and non-treated DES were included. Postural sway in DES was compared with that in HES while in single-task and dual-task conditions...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Tiina Salminen, Simone Kühn, Peter A Frensch, Torsten Schubert
UNLABELLED: The dual n-back working memory (WM) training paradigm (comprising auditory and visual stimuli) has gained much attention since studies have shown widespread transfer effects. By including a multimodal dual-task component, the task is demanding to the human cognitive system. We investigated whether dual n-back training improves general cognitive resources or a task-specific WM updating process in participants. We expected: (1) widespread transfer effects and the recruitment of a common neuronal network by the training and the transfer tasks and (2) narrower transfer results and that a common activation network alone would not produce transfer, but instead an activation focus on the striatum, which is associated with WM updating processes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Martin J Herrmann, Dorothea Neueder, Anna K Troeller, Stefan M Schulz
Emotional processing is probably the most crucial tool for orienting oneself in our everyday social life and has been considered to be highly automatic for a long time. Dual task (DT) research shows that information competing for working memory resources impairs the identification of emotional facial expressions. Effects of cognitive load in DT paradigms have been confirmed in numerous neuroimaging studies. However, interference occurring during a DT comprised of decoding emotional facial expressions and a visuo-spatial working memory task has yet to be visualized...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Nicolas Robitaille, Philip L Jackson, Luc J Hébert, Catherine Mercier, Laurent J Bouyer, Shirley Fecteau, Carol L Richards, Bradford J McFadyen
PURPOSE: This proof of concept study tested the ability of a dual task walking protocol using a recently developed avatar-based virtual reality (VR) platform to detect differences between military personnel post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and healthy controls. METHODS: The VR platform coordinated motion capture, an interaction and rendering system, and a projection system to present first (participant-controlled) and third person avatars within the context of a specific military patrol scene...
September 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Bernard Auvinet, Claude Touzard, Vincent Goëb
OBJECTIVE: Gait disorders are associated with increased fall risk, dementia and loss of autonomy. Gait analysis has previously been validated in the identification of motor phenotypes in mild cognitive impairment [1]. We hypothesized that gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly patients with gait disorders might allow the identification of motor phenotypes linked to specific brain abnormalities. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study was instructed for elderly patients with gait disorders or memory impairment...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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