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Dual-Task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421180/usability-evaluations-of-a-wearable-inertial-sensing-system-and-quality-of-movement-metrics-for-stroke-survivors-by-care-professionals
#1
Bart Klaassen, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Jeremia P Held, Jasper Reenalda, Fokke B van Meulen, Peter H Veltink, Hermie J Hermens
BACKGROUND: Inertial motion capture systems are used in many applications such as measuring the movement quality in stroke survivors. The absence of clinical effectiveness and usability evidence in these assistive technologies into rehabilitation has delayed the transition of research into clinical practice. Recently, a new inertial motion capture system was developed in a project, called INTERACTION, to objectively measure the quality of movement (QoM) in stroke survivors during daily-life activity...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420979/evidence-for-a-selectively-regulated-prioritization-shift-depending-on-walking-situations-in-older-adults
#2
Dina Salkovic, Markus A Hobert, Carolin Bellut, Florian Funer, Sarah Renno, Linda Haertner, Sandra E Hasmann, Jana Staebler, Johanna Geritz, Ulrike Suenkel, Andreas J Fallgatter, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from the first follow-up visit of the TREND (Tuebinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders) study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414497/dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-consequences-while-walking
#3
Robert D Salazar, Xiaolin Ren, Terry D Ellis, Noor Toraif, Olivier J Barthelemy, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and exacerbate the functional limitations imposed by PD's hallmark motor symptoms, including impairments in walking. Though much research has addressed the effect of dual cognitive-locomotor tasks on walking, less is known about their effect on cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gait and executive function, with the hypothesis that dual tasking would exacerbate cognitive vulnerabilities in PD as well as being associated with gait disturbances...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413999/improving-sensitivity-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-cognitive-load-dual-task-gait-speed-assessment
#4
Rebecca K MacAulay, Mark T Wagner, Dana Szeles, Nicholas J Milano
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411444/continuous-and-difficult-discrete-cognitive-tasks-promote-improved-stability-in-older-adults
#5
Yves Lajoie, Deborah A Jehu, Natalie Richer, Alan Chan
Directing attention away from postural control and onto a cognitive task affords the emergence of automatic control processes. Perhaps the continuous withdrawal of attention from the postural task facilitates an automatization of posture as opposed to only intermittent withdrawal; however this is unknown in the aging population. Twenty older adults (69.9±3.5years) stood with feet together on a force platform for 60s while performing randomly assigned discrete and continuous cognitive tasks. Participants were instructed to stand comfortably with their arms by their sides while verbally responding to the auditory stimuli as fast as possible during the discrete tasks, or mentally performing the continuous cognitive tasks...
April 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410383/shared-processing-in-multiple-object-tracking-and-visual-working-memory-in-the-absence-of-response-order-and-task-order-confounds
#6
Mark D Lapierre, Simon J Cropper, Piers D L Howe
To understand how the visual system represents multiple moving objects and how those representations contribute to tracking, it is essential that we understand how the processes of attention and working memory interact. In the work described here we present an investigation of that interaction via a series of tracking and working memory dual-task experiments. Previously, it has been argued that tracking is resistant to disruption by a concurrent working memory task and that any apparent disruption is in fact due to observers making a response to the working memory task, rather than due to competition for shared resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409657/estimates-of-functional-cerebral-hemispheric-differences-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-people-who-stutter-dual-task-paradigm
#7
Myriam Kornisch, Michael P Robb, Richard D Jones
The inter-relationship of stuttering and bilingualism to functional cerebral hemispheric processing was examined on a dual-task paradigm. Eighty native German (L1) speakers, half of whom were sequential bilinguals (L2 = English), were recruited. The participants (mean age = 38.9 years) were organised into four different groups according to speech status and language ability: 20 bilinguals who stutter (BWS), 20 monolinguals who stutter (MWS), 20 bilinguals who do not stutter (BWNS), and 20 monolinguals who do not stutter (MWNS)...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400727/effects-of-aging-in-multisensory-integration-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Alix L de Dieuleveult, Petra C Siemonsma, Jan B F van Erp, Anne-Marie Brouwer
Multisensory integration (MSI) is the integration by the brain of environmental information acquired through more than one sense. Accurate MSI has been shown to be a key component of successful aging and to be crucial for processes underlying activities of daily living (ADLs). Problems in MSI could prevent older adults (OA) to age in place and live independently. However, there is a need to know how to assess changes in MSI in individuals. This systematic review provides an overview of tests assessing the effect of age on MSI in the healthy elderly population (aged 60 years and older)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#9
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384609/dual-task-gait-differences-in-female-and-male-adolescents-following-sport-related-concussion
#10
David R Howell, Andrea Stracciolini, Ellen Geminiani, William P Meehan
Concussion may affect females and males differentially. Identification of gender-related differences after concussion, therefore, may help clinicians with individualized evaluations. We examined potential differences in dual-task gait between females and males after concussion. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with a concussion (49% female, mean age=15.0±2.1 years, 7.5±3.0 days post-injury) and 51 controls (51% female, mean age=14.4±2.1 years) completed a symptom inventory and single/dual-task gait assessment...
April 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371741/carotid-flow-pulsatility-is-higher-in-women-with-greater-decrement-in-gait-speed-during-multi-tasking
#11
Joaquin U Gonzales, C Roger James, Hyung Suk Yang, Daniel Jensen, Lee Atkins, Kareem Al-Khalil, Michael O'Boyle
AIM: Central arterial hemodynamics is associated with cognitive impairment. Reductions in gait speed during walking while performing concurrent tasks known as dual-tasking (DT) or multi-tasking (MT) is thought to reflect the cognitive cost that exceeds neural capacity to share resources. We hypothesized that central vascular function would associate with decrements in gait speed during DT or MT. METHODS: Gait speed was measured using a motion capture system in 56 women (30-80y) without mild-cognitive impairment...
March 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369841/attentional-capture-in-driving-displays
#12
Mahé Arexis, François Maquestiaux, Nicholas Gaspelin, Eric Ruthruff, André Didierjean
Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways, but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor-present trials than distractor-absent trials...
May 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368719/fatigue-does-not-conjointly-alter-postural-and-cognitive-performance-when-standing-in-a-shooting-position-under-dual-task-conditions
#13
José Luis Bermejo, Xavier García-Massó, Thierry Paillard, Frédéric Noé
This study investigated the effects of fatigue on balance control and cognitive performance in a standing shooting position. Nineteen soldiers were asked to stand while holding a rifle (single task - ST). They also had to perform this postural task while simultaneously completing a cognitive task (dual task - DT). Both the ST and DT were performed in pre- and post-fatigue conditions. In pre-fatigue, participants achieved better balance control in the DT than in the ST, thus suggesting that the increased cognitive activity associated with the DT improves balance control by shifting the attentional focus away from a highly automatised activity...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367119/computerized-dual-task-testing-of-gait-and-visuospatial-cognitive-functions-test-retest-reliability-and-validity
#14
Tony J Szturm, Vedant S Sakhalkar, Anuprita Kanitkar, Mayur Nankar
The common occurrence of age decline in mobility and cognition does cause a decrease in the level of physical activity and an increased falls risk. Consequently, dual -task (DT) assessment that simultaneously addresses both mobility skills and cognitive functions are important because, continued difficulties and fall injuries will have a sizable impact in this population. The first objective of the present study was to assess test-retest reliability of a computerized DT treadmill walking protocol and concurrent outcome measures of gait and visuospatial executive function in a group of healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363436/brain-activity-associated-with-selective-attention-divided-attention-and-distraction
#15
Emma Salo, Viljami Salmela, Juha Salmi, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures...
March 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360878/task-integration-facilitates-multitasking
#16
Rita F de Oliveira, Markus Raab, Mathias Hegele, Jörg Schorer
The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359928/the-attentional-demands-of-ambulating-with-an-assistive-device-in-older-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
S W Muir-Hunter, M Montero-Odasso
Ambulation with a mobility aid is a unique real-life situation of multi-tasking. These simultaneous motor tasks place increased demands on executive function in healthy young and older adults, but the demands have not been evaluated in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mobility problems are common among adults with AD, leading to provision of a mobility aid to optimize independent activity. The study objectives were: (i) to determine the dual-task cost (DTC) associated with the use of a mobility aid in straight and complex path walking, and (ii) to evaluate the association between executive function and ambulation with a mobility aid in older adults with AD and age-sex matched cognitively normal controls...
March 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358689/prospective-fall-risk-prediction-models-for-older-adults-based-on-wearable-sensors
#18
Jennifer Howcroft, Jonathan Kofman, Edward Lemaire
Wearable sensors can provide quantitative, gait-based assessments that can translate to point-of-care environments. This investigation generated elderly fall-risk predictive models based on wearable-sensor-derived gait data and prospective fall occurrence; and identified the optimal sensor type, location, and combination for single and dual-task walking. 75 individuals who reported six month prospective fall occurrence (75.2 ± 6.6 years; 47 non-fallers, 28 fallers) walked 7.62 m under single-task and dual-task conditions while wearing pressure-sensing insoles and tri-axial accelerometers at the head, pelvis, and left and right shanks...
March 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358358/the-cerebellum-in-dual-task-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Linlin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Yanan Hou, Mark Hallett, Piu Chan, Tao Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have difficulty in performing a dual-task. It has been suggested that the cerebellum is important in dual-tasking. We used functional MRI to investigate the role of the cerebellum in performing a dual motor and cognitive task in PD patients. We have examined whether there are any areas additionally activated for dual-task performance, and compared the neural activity and functional connectivity pattern in the cerebellum between PD patients and healthy controls. We found that the right cerebellar vermis and left lobule V of cerebellar anterior lobe were additionally activated for dual-task performance in healthy controls and for motor task in PD patients...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356727/effects-of-dual-tasks-and-dual-task-training-on-postural-stability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
The use of dual-task training paradigm to enhance postural stability in patients with balance impairments is an emerging area of interest. The differential effects of dual tasks and dual-task training on postural stability still remain unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of dual task and training application on static and dynamic postural stability among various population groups. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, from inception until June 2016, on the online databases Scopus, PEDro, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SportDiscus...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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