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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457997/detection-of-acute-and-long-term-effects-of-concussion-dual-task-gait-balance-control-vs-computerized-neurocognitive-test
#1
David R Howell, Louis R Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the acute (within 72 hours of injury) and long-term (2 months post-injury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case-control SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Participants who sustained a concussion underwent a dual-task gait analysis and computerized neurocognitive testing within 72 hours of injury and again 2 months later...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457564/investigating-speech-recognition-and-listening-effort-with-different-device-configurations-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Douglas P Sladen, Yingjiu Nie, Katelyn Berg
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate speech recognition in noise and listening effort among a group of adults with cochlear implants (CIs). Two main research questions were addressed. First, what are the effects of omni versus directional microphone configuration on speech recognition and listening effort for noisy conditions? Second, what is the effect of unilateral versus bimodal or bilateral CI listening on speech recognition and listening effort in noisy conditions? DESIGN: Sixteen adults (mean age 58 years) with CIs participated...
May 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453743/neuromuscular-control-deficits-and-the-risk-of-subsequent-injury-after-a-concussion-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
David R Howell, Robert C Lynall, Thomas A Buckley, Daniel C Herman
An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i...
February 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448162/cognitive-motor-dual-task-interference-modulates-mediolateral-dynamic-stability-during-gait-in-post-stroke-individuals
#4
R Tisserand, S Armand, G Allali, A Schnider, S Baillieul
Gait asymmetry and dynamic balance impairments observed in post-stroke individuals increase their risk of fall. Moreover, walking while performing a cognitive task (i.e. dual-task) disturbs the control of balance in post-stroke individuals. Here we investigated the mediolateral dynamic stability in twenty-two community-dwelling participants (12 post-strokes and 10 healthy controls) while walking in single-task (normal gait) and four different dual-tasks (cognitive-motor interference). Positions of the extrapolated center of mass and mediolateral widths of both margin of stability and base of support were extracted from 35 marker trajectories...
February 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445335/dual-tasking-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-a-cognitive-screening-instrument
#5
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Madlen Paucke, Tjalf Ziemssen
The monitoring of cognitive functions is central to the assessment and consecutive management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though, especially cognitive processes that are central to everyday behavior like dual-tasking are often neglected. We examined dual-task performance using a psychological-refractory period (PRP) task in N = 21 patients and healthy controls and conducted standard neuropsychological tests. In dual-tasking, MS patients committed more erroneous responses when dual-tasking was difficult. In easier conditions, performance of MS patients did not differ to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444400/chiral-nickel-ii-complex-catalyzed-enantioselective-doyle-kirmse-reaction-of-%C3%AE-diazo-pyrazoleamides
#6
Xiaobin Lin, Yu Tang, Wei Yang, Fei Tan, Lili Lin, Xiaohua Liu, Xiaoming Feng
Although high enantioselectivity of [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfonium ylides (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) has proven surprisingly elusive using classic chiral Rh(II) and Cu(I) catalysts, in principle it is due to the difficulty in fine discrimination of the heterotopic lone pairs of sulfur and chirality inversion at sulfur of sulfonium ylides. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of new α-diazo pyrazoleamides and chiral N,N'-dioxide-nickel(II) complex catalyst enables a highly enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436253/promoting-activity-independence-and-stability-in-early-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-praised-development-of-an-intervention-for-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#7
Vicky Booth, Rowan H Harwood, Victoria Hood-Moore, Trevor Bramley, Jennie E Hancox, Kate Robertson, Judith Hall, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Pip A Logan
This series of articles for rehabilitation in practice aims to cover a knowledge element of the rehabilitation medicine curriculum. Nevertheless, they are intended to be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience. The competency addressed in this article is an understanding of how to develop an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia to promote their independence, stability, and physical activity. INTRODUCTION: Older adults with dementia are at a high risk of falls...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431890/saccade-frequency-response-to-visual-cues-during-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-selective-role-of-attention
#8
Samuel Stuart, Sue Lord, Brook Galna, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role however the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405831/do-attentional-capacities-and-processing-speed-mediate-the-effect-of-age-on-executive-functioning
#9
Jessica Gilsoul, Jessica Simon, Michaël Hogge, Fabienne Collette
The executive processes are well known to decline with age, and similar data also exists for attentional capacities and processing speed. Therefore, we investigated whether these two last nonexecutive variables would mediate the effect of age on executive functions (inhibition, shifting, updating, and dual-task coordination). We administered a large battery of executive, attentional and processing speed tasks to 104 young and 71 older people, and we performed mediation analyses with variables showing a significant age effect...
February 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383659/an-electrophysiological-study-of-cognitive-and-emotion-processing-in-type-i-chiari-malformation
#10
James R Houston, Michelle L Hughes, Mei-Ching Lien, Bryn A Martin, Francis Loth, Mark G Luciano, Sarel Vorster, Philip A Allen
Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the cervical spinal subarachnoid space resulting in cervico-medullary compression. Early case-control investigations have indicated cognitive deficits in the areas of attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial function. The present study further examined cognitive and emotional processing deficits associated with CMI using a dual-task paradigm. Nineteen CMI patients were recruited during pre-surgical consultation and 19 matched control participants identified emotional expressions in separate single and asynchronous dual-task designs...
January 30, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383399/influence-of-dual-task-constraints-on-the-interaction-between-posture-and-movement-during-a-lower-limb-pointing-task
#11
Marcelo Guimarães Silva, Lucas Struber, José Geraldo T Brandão, Olivier Daniel, Vincent Nougier
One of the challenges regarding human motor control is making the movement fluid and at a limited cognitive cost. The coordination between posture and movement is a necessary requirement to perform daily life tasks. The present experiment investigated this interaction in 20 adult men, aged 18-30 years. The cognitive costs associated to postural and movement control when kicking towards a target was estimated using a dual-task paradigm (secondary auditory task). Results showed that addition of the attentional demanding cognitive task yielded a decreased kicking accuracy and an increased timing to perform the movement, mainly during the backswing motion...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382625/smartphone-app-based-assessment-of-gait-during-normal-and-dual-task-walking-demonstration-of-validity-and-reliability
#12
Brad Manor, Wanting Yu, Hao Zhu, Rachel Harrison, On-Yee Lo, Lewis Lipsitz, Thomas Travison, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Junhong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Walking is a complex cognitive motor task that is commonly completed while performing another task such as talking or making decisions. Gait assessments performed under normal and "dual-task" walking conditions thus provide important insights into health. Such assessments, however, are limited primarily to laboratory-based settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to create and test a smartphone-based assessment of normal and dual-task walking for use in nonlaboratory settings...
January 30, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381097/the-relationship-between-speech-recognition-behavioural-listening-effort-and-subjective-ratings
#13
Erin M Picou, Todd A Ricketts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of four subjective questions related to listening effort. A secondary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hearing aid beamforming microphone arrays on word recognition and listening effort. DESIGN: Participants answered subjective questions immediately following testing in a dual-task paradigm with three microphone settings in a moderately reverberant laboratory environment in two noise configurations...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378284/measurement-of-attentional-reserve-and-mental-effort-for-cognitive-workload-assessment-under-various-task-demands-during-dual-task-walking
#14
Emma P Shaw, Jeremy C Rietschel, Brad D Hendershot, Alison L Pruziner, Matthew W Miller, Bradley D Hatfield, Rodolphe J Gentili
Previous work focused on assessing cognitive workload has suggested EEG spectral content and component amplitudes of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform may index mental effort and attentional reserve, respectively. Although few studies have assessed attentional reserve and mental effort during upper-extremity performance, none employed a combined approach to measure cognitive workload during locomotion. Therefore, by systematically considering ERPs, spectral content, and importantly, their combinations this study aimed to examine whether concurrent changes in spectral content and ERPs could collectively index cognitive workload during locomotion...
January 26, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363029/cognitive-load-effects-on-early-visual-perceptual-processing
#15
Ping Liu, Jason Forte, David Sewell, Olivia Carter
Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing...
January 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362878/-influence-of-computer-based-cognitive-training-on-mobility-in-healthy-older-adults-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Johanna Geritz, Walter Maetzler, Christian Schlenstedt
BACKGROUND: Mobility is important and often affected in older adults. Mobility is related to cognitive function, which is associated with age-related decline. Computer-based cognitive training (CCT) is increasingly used to treat such cognitive deficits. Whether CCT also has an effect on mobility is not yet clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate available intervention studies investigating the effect of CCT on mobility-related outcome parameters in healthy older adults...
January 23, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355648/impaired-awareness-of-action-outcome-contingency-and-causality-during-healthy-ageing-and-following-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-lesions
#17
Claire O'Callaghan, Matilde M Vaghi, Berit Brummerloh, Rudolf N Cardinal, Trevor W Robbins
Detecting causal relationships between actions and their outcomes is fundamental to guiding goal-directed behaviour. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been extensively implicated in computing these environmental contingencies, via animal lesion models and human neuroimaging. However, whether the vmPFC is critical for contingency learning, and whether it can occur without subjective awareness of those contingencies, has not been established. To address this, we measured response adaption to contingency and subjective awareness of action-outcome relationships in individuals with vmPFC lesions and healthy elderly subjects...
January 17, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336726/parallel-dual-task-processing-and-task-shielding-in-older-and-younger-adults-behavioral-and-diffusion-model-results
#18
Markus Janczyk, Patrik Mittelstädt, Carolin Wienrich's
Background/Study Context: The study investigated the Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) in dual-task situations, that is, the observation that Task 2 characteristics can even influence Task 1 processing. This observation suggests that the tasks are processed in parallel. Besides determining the existence of a BCE in a group of older adults, the size of the BCE was compared to that in a group of younger adults. Importantly, recent studies yielded unclear results. METHODS: Twenty-four younger and older adults (19-27 and 58-71 years of age, respectively) performed a dual-task experiment, where Task 1 required a left/right manual response and Task 2 required a left/right foot response...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332033/effect-of-dual-tasking-on-anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments-in-response-to-external-perturbations-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-electromyographic-analysis
#19
Ladan Hemmati, Soraya Piroozi, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), postural control is a demanding task in terms of attention. Although the attentional demands of postural control have been investigated in these patients, the attentional demands of postural recovery during dual task performance have not been evaluated in patients with nonspecific CLBP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dual tasking on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in response to an external perturbation in patients with nonspecific CLBP...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331872/effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognitive-flexibility-depression-and-rbd-in-healthy-elderly
#20
Stefanie Lerche, Alexandra Gutfreund, Kathrin Brockmann, Markus A Hobert, Isabel Wurster, Ulrike Sünkel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Florian G Metzger, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease increases with the raising number of elderly, which will be a challenging situation for the healthcare systems and society in the future. There is evidence that there are modifiable risk-factors e.g. physical activity for these diseases. Here, we study the interaction between sports inactivity with prodromal markers for neurodegeneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 667 neurologically healthy individuals cross-sectional and a subgroup longitudinal over six years...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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