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Dual-Task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#1
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198058/analyzing-gait-variability-and-dual-task-interference-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-by-means-of-the-word-color-stroop-test
#2
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Aline S Pagnussat, Giulia di Prisco, Alessandro Vagnini, Fabrizio Stocchi, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Manuela Galli
The ability to carry out two tasks at once is critical to effective functioning in the real world and deficits are termed Dual-task interference or effect-DTE. DTE substantially compromised the gait of subjects with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait (PD + FOG), leading to exaggerated slowing, increasing gait dysrhythmicity, and inducing FOG episodes. This study aimed to investigate the DTE in gait variability of subjects with PD and freezing of gait (PD + FOG). Thirty-three patients with PD + FOG and 14 healthy individuals (REFERENCE) took part at this study...
December 2, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196834/motor-cognitive-dual-task-performance-effects-of-a-concurrent-motor-task-on-distinct-components-of-visual-processing-capacity
#3
E C S Künstler, K Finke, A Günther, C Klingner, O Witte, P Bublak
Dual tasking, or the simultaneous execution of two continuous tasks, is frequently associated with a performance decline that can be explained within a capacity sharing framework. In this study, we assessed the effects of a concurrent motor task on the efficiency of visual information uptake based on the 'theory of visual attention' (TVA). TVA provides parameter estimates reflecting distinct components of visual processing capacity: perceptual threshold, visual processing speed, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage capacity...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188857/assessing-the-relationship-between-vitamin-d-status-and-impairments-in-cognitive-and-physical-performance-in-older-adults-using-a-dual-task-physical-performance-test
#4
J Lopez, A Campa, J E Lewis, F G Huffman, J P Liuzzi, T Li, A H Martinez, S M Ferris, A Rasul, A Farooqi, A M Lopez Medrano, S E Atlas, E Tiozzo, J Konefal, J M Woolger
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184311/dual-task-training-effects-on-balance-and-hand-functions-of-stroke-patients
#5
JuHyung Park
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of the dual task training on the hand function and the balance ability of the stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The dual task training was applied to 2 stroke hemiplegia patients. The dual task training had been carried out for 30 minutes by each session for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. The evaluations had been carried out 5 times for 3 weeks before and after the intervention. And the changes of the hand function had been measured by using the box and block test...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184310/effects-of-single-and-dual-tasks-during-walking-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-of-community-dwelling-older
#6
Kyeongjin Lee
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of single and dual motor tasks on walking in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Data of 308 community-dwelling elderly people were analyzed. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained using the OPTO Gait system. The gait ability test was conducted under single- and dual-task conditions. [Results] Age and task main effects showed significant difference. Interaction did not show any significant difference. [Conclusion] Our results showed that gait performance decreased during dual task compared to single task...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182460/balance-and-mobility-training-with-or-without-simultaneous-cognitive-training-reduces-attention-demand-but-does-not-improve-obstacle-clearance-in-older-adults
#7
Deborah A M Jehu, Nicole Paquet, Yves Lajoie
The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or control group (n = 13; age: 66...
November 28, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180106/the-influence-of-endogenous-attention-on-contrast-perception-contrast-discrimination-and-saccadic-reaction-time
#8
Madhumitha S Mahadevan, Harold E Bedell, Scott B Stevenson
Visual spatial attention has been shown to influence both contrast detection and suprathreshold contrast perception, as well as manual and saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Because SRTs are influenced also by stimulus contrast, we investigated if the enhancement of perceived contrast that accompanies attention could account for the shorter SRTs observed for attended targets locations. We conducted two dual-task experiments to assess psychophysical and oculomotor responses to non-foveal targets of various contrast for different spatial-attention-cueing conditions...
November 24, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177817/modulation-of-dual-task-control-with-right-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#9
Tilo Strobach, Daria Antonenko, Maral Abbarin, Malvin Escher, Agnes Flöel, Torsten Schubert
Executive functioning of two simultaneous component tasks in dual-task situations is primarily associated with activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), as demonstrated in functional imaging studies. However, the precise role of the lateral PFC and the causal relation between this area's activity and executive functioning in dual tasks has exclusively been demonstrated for the left lateral PFC so far. To investigate this relation for the right lateral PFC, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS; 1 mA, 20 min) in contrast to sham stimulation (1 mA, 30 s) in Experiment 1 (N = 30) as well as cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS; 1 mA, 20 min) in contrast to sham stimulation (1 mA, 30 s) in Experiment 2 (N = 25) over the right inferior frontal junction under conditions of random task order in dual tasks; random dual tasks require decisions on task order and thus high demands on executive functioning...
November 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176947/cortical-contribution-to-linear-non-linear-and-frequency-components-of-motor-variability-control-during-standing
#10
Niklas König Ignasiak, Lars Habermacher, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176675/strategic-inhibition-of-distractors-with-visual-working-memory-contents-after-involuntary-attention-capture
#11
Jiachen Lu, Lili Tian, Jiafeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu
Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding effect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171338/effects-of-a-dual-swallow-attention-task-on-swallow-and-cognitive-performance-measures
#12
Thejaswi Dodderi, Nikita E Philip, Kalpana Mutum
Research evidence has mounted that cognitive distracters can be detrimental to concurrent motor performance. Yet, few investigations have probed how cognitive distracters might impact dysphagia (swallowing impairment) thought secondary tasks, like watching television, now compete with swallowing in a 21st-century lifestyle. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether of cognitive distracters while swallowing alter swallowing or cognitive performance among healthy young adults. Participants were 30 healthy volunteers 18-24 years of age who underwent a baseline swallow task (BST), a baseline cognitive task (BCT), and a dual task (DT) in randomized order...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166387/effects-of-total-sleep-deprivation-on-divided-attention-performance
#13
Eric Chern-Pin Chua, Eric Fang, Joshua J Gooley
Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163311/auditory-and-visual-memories-in-ptsd-patients-targeted-with-eye-movements-and-counting-the-effect-of-modality-specific-loading-of-working-memory
#14
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163146/influence-of-sequential-vs-simultaneous-dual-task-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#15
REVIEW
Jamie L Tait, Rachel L Duckham, Catherine M Milte, Luana C Main, Robin M Daly
Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159135/the-influence-of-schizotypal-traits-on-attention-under-high-perceptual-load
#16
Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158667/different-protocols-for-analyzing-behavior-and-adaptability-in-obstacle-crossing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Nafiseh Mollaei, Estela Bicho, Nuno Sousa, Miguel Fernandes Gago
Imbalance and tripping over obstacles as a result of altered gait in older adults, especially in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), are one of the most common causes of falls. During obstacle crossing, patients with PD modify their behavior in order to decrease the mechanical demands and enhance dynamic stability. Various descriptions of dynamic traits of gait that have been collected over longer periods, probably better synthesize the underlying structure and pattern of fluctuations in gait and can be more sensitive markers of aging or early neurological dysfunction and increased risk of falls...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157415/attention-in-action-and-perception-unitary-or-separate-mechanisms-of-selectivity
#18
James T Enns, Allison A Brennan, Robert L Whitwell
What is the relation between the two visual stream hypothesis and selective visual attention? In this chapter, we first consider this question at a theoretical level before presenting an example of work from our lab that examines the question: Under what conditions does the emotional content of a visual object influence visually guided action? Previous research has demonstrated that fear can influence perception, both consciously and unconsciously, but it is unclear when fear influences visually guided action...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154694/gait-and-quiet-stance-performance-among-adolescents-after-concussion-symptom-resolution
#19
Justin Berkner, William P Meehan, Christina L Master, David R Howell
OBJECTIVE:   To prospectively examine adolescent athletes' gait and quiet-stance performance while concurrently completing a cognitive task acutely after concussion and after symptom resolution. SETTING:   Sport concussion clinic. DESIGN:   Participants diagnosed with a concussion completed a symptom inventory and single- and dual-task quiet-stance and gait evaluations within 21 days of injury and then again after symptom resolution...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141826/effects-of-cognitive-versus-motor-dual-task-on-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-in-healthy-controls-and-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-and-without-fall-history
#20
Razieh Mofateh, Reza Salehi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad Mehravar, Shirin Tajali
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of cognitive or motor tasks on gait performance between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without fall history. METHODS: The investigation included MS patients with fall history (n = 25) and without fall history (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). Participants walked at their preferred speed on a motorized treadmill under three walking conditions in a randomized order: walking only, walking while performing a concurrent cognitive task (counting backward aloud by 3s), and walking while performing a concurrent motor task (carrying a tray with glasses)...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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