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Dual-Task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819579/dual-task-performance-in-gba-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Karin Srulijes, Kathrin Brockmann, Senait Ogbamicael, Markus A Hobert, Ann-Kathrin Hauser, Claudia Schulte, Jasmin Fritzen, Michael Schwenk, Thomas Gasser, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease patients carrying a heterozygous mutation in the gene glucocerebrosidase (GBA-PD) show faster motor and cognitive decline than idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) patients, but the mechanisms behind this observation are not well understood. Successful dual tasking (DT) requires a smooth integration of motor and nonmotor operations. This study compared the DT performances between GBA-PD and iPD patients. METHODS: Eleven GBA-PD patients (p...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817439/faculty-development-for-the-operating-room-an-examination-of-the-effectiveness-of-an-intraoperative-teaching-course-for-surgeons
#2
Aimee K Gardner, Matthew D Timberlake, Brian J Dunkin
OBJECTIVE: We describe a half-day faculty development course designed to equip surgical educators with evidence-based teaching frameworks shown to promote learning in the operating room (OR). We hypothesize that participating faculty will deliver improved instruction as perceived by residents. METHODS: Residents anonymously rated faculty teaching behaviors among whom they had recently worked in the OR (minimum 3 cases in preceding 6 months) using the Briefing - Intraoperative teaching - Debriefing Assessment Tool (BIDAT; 1 = never, 5 = always)...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810928/gait-characteristics-and-their-discriminative-power-in-geriatric-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#3
Lisette H J C Kikkert, Nicolas Vuillerme, Jos P van Campen, Bregje A Appels, Tibor Hortobágyi, Claudine J Lamoth
BACKGROUND: A detailed gait analysis (e.g., measures related to speed, self-affinity, stability, and variability) can help to unravel the underlying causes of gait dysfunction, and identify cognitive impairment. However, because geriatric patients present with multiple conditions that also affect gait, results from healthy old adults cannot easily be extrapolated to geriatric patients. Hence, we (1) quantified gait outcomes based on dynamical systems theory, and (2) determined their discriminative power in three groups: healthy old adults, geriatric patients with- and geriatric patients without cognitive impairment...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809700/cognitive-cost-of-using-augmented-reality-displays
#4
James Baumeister, Seung Youb Ssin, Neven A M ElSayed, Jillian Dorrian, David P Webb, James A Walsh, Timothy M Simon, Andrew Irlitti, Ross T Smith, Mark Kohler, Bruce H Thomas
This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#5
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803767/semantic-control-deficits-impair-understanding-of-thematic-relationships-more-than-object-identity
#6
Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies
Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item changes depending on the context (for example, lamp goes with reading, bicycle and police). Control processes might stabilise weak yet currently-relevant interpretations during event understanding...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802368/study-of-the-effects-of-hearing-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-function-in-children-using-cochlear-implants
#7
Malihah Mazaheryazdi, Abdollah Moossavi, Javad Sarrafzadah, Saeed Talebian, Shohreh Jalaie
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the postural control perturbations by the center of pressure parameters in two main approaches, cochlear implant turned "on" and "off". METHODS: We included 25 children aged 8-10 years with unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral vestibular hypofunction deficit. To evaluate the postural function, each children was asked to stand on the force plate under 3 different conditions and cochlear implant turned "on" and "off": Condition (A) double stance from open eyes to closed eyes, Condition (B) double stance with open eyes engaging in the dual task and Condition (C) From double leg stance to one leg stance with open eyes for assessment of dynamic postural control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778023/the-interacting-effects-of-treadmill-walking-and-different-types-of-visuospatial-cognitive-task-discriminating-dual-task-and-age-effects
#8
Mayur Nankar, Tony Szturm, Jonathan Marotta, Barbara Shay, Olivier Beauchet, Gilles Allali
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the influence that visuospatial cognitive tasks have on gait function during DT treadmill walking, and as a function of age. Conversely, to examine the influence that walking has on executive functions involving visuospatial processing. METHODS: Twenty-five young (26±6.1years) and 25 older adults (76±3.9) performed different types of computerized visuomotor (VM) tracking and visuospatial cognitive tasks (VCG) while standing and treadmill walking...
July 27, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778022/walking-modality-but-not-task-difficulty-influences-the-control-of-dual-task-walking
#9
J G Wrightson, N J Smeeton
During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking [1]. However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions...
July 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778021/neural-correlates-of-obstacle-negotiation-in-older-adults-an-fnirs-study
#10
Michelle Chen, Sarah Pillemer, Sarah England, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jeannette R Mahoney, Roee Holtzer
Older adults are less efficient at avoiding obstacles compared to young adults, especially under attention-demanding conditions. Using functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), recent studies implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under dual-task walking conditions. The neural substrates underlying Obstacle Negotiation (ON), however, have not been established. The current study determined the role of the PFC in ON during walking in seniors. Non-demented older adults (n=90; mean age=78...
July 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759619/fmri-to-probe-sex-related-differences-in-brain-function-with-multitasking
#11
Melanie Tschernegg, Christa Neuper, Reinhold Schmidt, Guilherme Wood, Martin Kronbichler, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger, Marisa Koini
BACKGROUND: Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759587/older-adults-must-hurry-at-pedestrian-lights-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-preferred-and-fast-walking-speed-under-single-and-dual-task-conditions
#12
Patrick Eggenberger, Sara Tomovic, Thomas Münzer, Eling D de Bruin
Slow walking speed is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes, including cognitive impairment, in the older population. Moreover, adequate walking speed is crucial to maintain older pedestrians' mobility and safety in urban areas. This study aimed to identify the proportion of Swiss older adults that didn't reach 1.2 m/s, which reflects the requirements to cross streets within the green-yellow phase of pedestrian lights, when walking fast under cognitive challenge. A convenience sample, including 120 older women (65%) and men, was recruited from the community (88%) and from senior residences and divided into groups of 70-79 years (n = 59, 74...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758775/near-independent-capacities-and-highly-constrained-output-orders-in-the-simultaneous-free-recall-of-auditory-verbal-and-visuo-spatial-stimuli
#13
Cathleen Cortis Mack, Kevin Dent, Geoff Ward
Three experiments examined the immediate free recall (IFR) of auditory-verbal and visuospatial materials from single-modality and dual-modality lists. In Experiment 1, we presented participants with between 1 and 16 spoken words, with between 1 and 16 visuospatial dot locations, or with between 1 and 16 words and dots with synchronized onsets. We found that for dual-modality lists (a) overall performance, initial recalls, and serial position curves were largely determined by the within-modality list lengths, (b) there was only a small degree of dual-task trade-off (that was limited to the visuospatial items), and (c) there were strongly constrained output orders: participants tended to alternate between words and dots from equivalent or neighboring serial positions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752319/lower-limb-muscle-activity-during-gait-in-individuals-with-hearing-loss
#14
Mahdi Majlesi, Elaheh Azadian, Nader Farahpour, Amir Ali Jafarnezhad, Hosein Rashedi
The objective of this study was to investigate the electrical activity of lower limb muscles during gait in an able-bodied control group and in deaf individuals. Thirty male children were equally divided into a control group and a group of deaf children. A portable EMG system was used to record the activity of the bilateral tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis muscles during barefoot walking with and without dual task. For EMG analysis, the average root mean square (RMS) values of the five trials were calculated and then normalized based on the peak RMS obtained by the maximum isometric voluntary contraction...
July 27, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750260/effects-of-dual-task-difficulty-in-motor-and-cognitive-performance-differences-between-adults-and-adolescents
#15
Pilar Bustillo-Casero, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Xavier García-Massó
In the present study our aim was to compare dual-task performance in thirteen adolescents and fifteen young adults while concurrently performing a cognitive and a motor task. The postural control variables were obtained under three different conditions: i) bipedal stance, ii) tandem stance and iii) unipedal stance. The cognitive task consisted of a backward digit span test in which the participants were asked to memorize a sequence of numbers and then repeat the number in reverse order at three different difficulty levels (i...
July 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744033/the-effect-of-cognitive-motor-dual-task-training-with-the-biorescue-force-platform-on-cognition-balance-and-dual-task-performance-in-institutionalized-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Tom Delbroek, Wietse Vermeylen, Joke Spildooren
[Purpose] This study investigates whether cognition, balance and dual task performance in institutionalized older adults improves by a virtual reality dual task training. [Subjects and Methods] Randomized controlled trial; Twenty institutionalized older adults with mild cognitive impairment (13 female, 7 male; average age, 87.2 ± 5.96 years) were randomized to the intervention (i.e. Virtual reality dual-task training using the BioRescue) or control group (no additional training). The intervention group took part in a 6-week training program while the elderly in the control group maintained their daily activities...
July 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742610/near-point-of-convergence-and-gait-deficits-in-adolescents-after-sport-related-concussion
#17
David R Howell, Michael J OʼBrien, Aparna Raghuram, Ankoor S Shah, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine gait characteristics of participants acutely after concussion with and without receded near point of convergence (NPC), compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sports-medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients examined after concussion (n = 33; mean ± SD = 7.2 ± 3.1 days) and a group of uninjured athletes (n = 31) completed a Postconcussion Symptom Scale, underwent NPC testing, and single/dual-task gait assessments...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738747/how-directional-microphones-affect-speech-recognition-listening-effort-and-localisation-for-listeners-with-moderate-to-severe-hearing-loss
#18
Erin M Picou, Todd A Ricketts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of directional microphone use on laboratory measures of sentence recognition, listening effort and localisation. An additional purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asymmetric directional microphone use on the same laboratory measures. DESIGN: Three hearing aid conditions were evaluated: (1) bilateral omnidirectional microphones, (2) bilateral directional microphones and (3) asymmetric microphones (directional microphone for only one hearing aid)...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733759/management-of-gait-changes-and-fall-risk-in-mci-and-dementia
#19
REVIEW
Gilles Allali, Joe Verghese
Gait disorders and falls are very prevalent in aging, especially in older adults with cognitive impairment: older adults with dementia are 2-3 times more likely to fall than their non-demented counterparts. The management of gait disorders and falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia begins by their identification with the use of specific screening tools, such as measuring gait speed, use of dual-task gait tests, or diagnosing motoric cognitive risk syndrome, a newly described pre-dementia syndrome...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732483/effects-of-dual-task-and-walking-speed-on-gait-variability-in-people-with-chronic-ankle-instability-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Shmuel Springer, Uri Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that impaired central sensorimotor integration may contribute to deficits in movement control experienced by people with chronic ankle instability (CAI). This study compared the effects of dual-task and walking speed on gait variability in individuals with and without CAI. METHODS: Sixteen subjects with CAI and 16 age- and gender-matched, able-bodied controls participated in this study. Stride time variability and stride length variability were measured on a treadmill under four different conditions: self-paced walking, self-paced walking with dual-task, fast walking, and fast walking with dual-task...
July 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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