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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052758/effects-of-trying-not-to-move-instruction-on-cortical-load-and-concurrent-cognitive-performance
#1
Christine Langhanns, Hermann Müller
Motor and cognitive tasks often interfere when performed concurrently. The amount of interference typically scales with difficulty of the tasks involved. Thus, supposedly 'easy' motor tasks with restricted movement amplitude, like sitting on a chair, should show little or no interference with cognitive tasks at all. We measured the processing load induced by different postural tasks and their effect on cognitive performance under cognitive-motor dual-task conditions. Sixteen subjects performed postural motor tasks in three different positions: 'Lying in a sun lounger', 'Sitting on a bike saddle', and 'Upright on feet'...
October 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050368/striatal-dysfunction-during-dual-task-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Peter T Bell, Moran Gilat, James M Shine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049888/closing-in-behavior-compensation-or-attraction
#3
Elisabetta Ambron, Nicoletta Beschin, Chiara Cerrone, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions...
October 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049479/dual-task-gait-and-incident-dementia-a-step-forward-but-not-there-yet-reply
#4
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Richard Camicioli, Susan W Muir-Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049450/dual-task-gait-and-incident-dementia-a-step-forward-but-not-there-yet
#5
Sirwan K L Darweesh, Vincentius J A Verlinden, M Arfan Ikram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040780/fear-boosts-the-early-neural-coding-of-faces
#6
Maria Teresa Turano, Junpeng Lao, Anne-Raphaëlle Richoz, Peter de Lissa, Sarah Belinda Aimée Degosciu, Maria Pia Viggiano, Roberto Caldara
The rapid extraction of facial identity and emotional expressions is critical for adapted social interactions. These biologically relevant abilities have been associated with early neural responses on the face sensitive N170 component. However, whether all facial expressions uniformly modulate the N170, and whether this effect occurs only when emotion categorization is task-relevant, is still unclear. To clarify this issue, we recorded high-resolution electrophysiological signals while 22 observers perceived the six basic expressions plus neutral...
October 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037639/reliability-of-kinematic-measures-in-subjects-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-during-dual-task-walking
#7
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
OBJECTIVE: To define the throughout within- and between-day reliability of gait parameters in single - and dual-task conditions in subjects with and without anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). METHODS: Fourteen subjects with ACLD and 14 healthy subjects completed a walking task on a treadmill with three levels of velocity (self-selected, high and low), with or without performing an auditory Stroop task over two sessions each 3-5 days apart. The gait kinematic parameters, including maximum and minimum hip flexion, total hip range of motion, maximum and minimum knee flexion and total knee range of motion were recorded using a motion analysis system...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036758/comparison-of-single-task-versus-dual-task-for-listening-effort
#8
Chanbeom Kwak, Woojae Han
Background and Objectives: Depending on the kind of task and/or material, listeners sometimes need to pay attention to understand communication. The present study aimed to estimate a listener's amount of effort needed to understand communication by using recognition score and response time as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to confirm his/ her task dependency for listening effort. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight young adults with normal hearing participated in the study...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030759/localizing-semantic-interference-from-distractor-sounds-in-picture-naming-a-dual-task-study
#9
Andreas Mädebach, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
In this study we explored the locus of semantic interference in a novel picture-sound interference task in which participants name pictures while ignoring environmental distractor sounds. In a previous study using this task (Mädebach, Wöhner, Kieseler, & Jescheniak, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43, 1629-1646, 2017), we showed that semantically related distractor sounds (e.g., BARKINGdog) interfere with a picture-naming response (e.g., "horse") more strongly than unrelated distractor sounds do (e...
October 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023456/gait-parameters-are-differently-affected-by-concurrent-smartphone-based-activities-with-scaled-levels-of-cognitive-effort
#10
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023271/dual-task-tandem-gait-and-average-walking-speed-in-healthy-collegiate-athletes
#11
David R Howell, Jessie R Oldham, William P Meehan, Melissa S DiFabio, Thomas A Buckley
OBJECTIVES: To (1) examine the association between a commonly used concussion test, tandem gait, in single/dual-task conditions with single-task and dual-task average walking speed, (2) characterize the prevalence of tandem gait false positives, and (3) develop a normative reference range of dual-task tandem gait times. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two NCAA collegiate athletic facilities. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Athletes completed the tandem gait test and a gait evaluation in single/dual-task conditions during a preseason examination...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987283/follow-up-study-the-influence-of-rtms-with-high-and-low-frequency-stimulation-on-motor-and-executive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Judit Málly, Noemi Geisz, Elek Dinya
BACKGROUND: rTMS may influence on both cognitive and motor function in PD but the daily routine and the predictors of responders to rTMS are not known. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of stimulation somehow relate to each other. Our goal was to select the optimal frequency with low intensity for PD. We clarified the importance of age in the effect of rTMS. METHODS: A total sixty-six patients with PD were included in the study...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986274/toward-a-model-of-human-information-processing-for-decision-making-and-skill-acquisition-in-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#13
Eoin J White, Muireann McMahon, Michael T Walsh, J Calvin Coffey, Leonard O Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To create a human information-processing model for laparoscopic surgery based on already established literature and primary research to enhance laparoscopic surgical education in this context. DESIGN: We reviewed the literature for information-processing models most relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Our review highlighted the necessity for a model that accounts for dynamic environments, perception, allocation of attention resources between the actions of both hands of an operator, and skill acquisition and retention...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978769/case-studies-in-neuroscience-a-dissociation-of-balance-and-posture-demonstrated-by-camptocormia
#14
Rebecca J St George, Victor S Gurfinkel, Jeff Kraakevik, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Upright stance in humans requires an intricate exchange between the neural mechanisms that control balance and those that control posture; however, the distinction between these control systems is hard to discern in healthy subjects. By studying balance and postural control of a participant with camptocormia - an involuntary flexion of the trunk during standing that resolves when supine - a divergence between balance and postural control was revealed. A kinematic and kinetic investigation of standing and walking showed a stereotyped flexion of the upper body by almost 80 degrees over a few minutes, and yet the participant's ability to control their center of mass within their base of support and to compensate for external perturbations remained intact...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976025/subjective-complaints-after-acquired-brain-injury-presentation-of-the-brain-injury-complaint-questionnaire-bicoq
#15
Claire Vallat-Azouvi, Cyrille Paillat, Stéphanie Bercovici, Bénédicte Morin, Julie Paquereau, James Charanton, Idir Ghout, Philippe Azouvi
The objective of the present study was to present a new complaint questionnaire designed to assess a wide range of difficulties commonly reported by patients with acquired brain injury. Patients (n =  619) had been referred to a community re-entry service at a chronic stage after brain injury, mainly traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Brain Injury Complaint Questionnaire (BICoQ) includes 25 questions in the following domains: cognition, behavior, fatigue and sleep, mood, and somatic problems. A self and a proxy questionnaire were given...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975279/the-effects-of-aging-and-dual-tasking-on-human-gait-complexity-a-comparative-study-using-quantized-dynamical-entropy-and-sample-entropy
#16
Samira Ahmadi, Christine Q Wu, Nariman Sepehri, Anuprita Kantikar, Mayur Nankar, Tony Szturm
Quantized Dynamical Entropy (QDE) has recently been proposed as a new measure to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems with the purpose of offering a better computational efficiency. This paper further investigates the viability of this method using five different human gait signals. These signals are recorded while normal walking and while performing secondary tasks among two age groups (young and older age groups). The results are compared with the outcomes of previously established Sample Entropy (SampEn) measure for the same signals...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971366/item-strength-affects-working-memory-capacity
#17
Zhangfan Shen, Vencislav Popov, Anita B Delahay, Lynne M Reder
Do the processing and online manipulation of stimuli that are less familiar require more working memory (WM) resources? Is it more difficult to solve demanding problems when the symbols involved are less rather than more familiar? We explored these questions with a dual-task paradigm in which subjects had to solve algebra problems of different complexities while simultaneously holding novel symbol-digit associations in WM. The symbols were previously unknown Chinese characters, whose familiarity was manipulated by differential training frequency with a visual search task for nine hour-long sessions over 3 weeks...
October 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966712/changes-in-gait-and-texting-ability-during-progressively-difficult-gait-tasks
#18
Andrew J Strubhar, Brody Rapp, Dillon Thomas
To investigate the effects of a cell phone texting task on an individual's ability to perform three ambulation-based tasks, each with different and progressively more difficult demands. 36 participants (24 male/12 female, average age 23.4) performed: a Timed Up & Go (TUG), stair ambulation (STAIR), and tandem gait (TAN). Participants completed each gait-based task under four conditions: as a practice, while holding their cellular device (baseline), while texting a message, and while reading a message. Statistically significant differences were found within the following variables: 1) mean time to complete a gait task increased through the conditions (Baseline, Texting, Reading), 2) mean number of gait deviations increased while texting during TAN condition in comparison to baseline, 3) mean characters per second became less only in the STAIR task, 4) mean number of texting errors per second increased only in the TAN task...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959199/neural-correlates-of-single-and-dual-task-walking-in-the-real-world
#19
Sara Pizzamiglio, Usman Naeem, Hassan Abdalla, Duncan L Turner
Recent developments in mobile brain-body imaging (MoBI) technologies have enabled studies of human locomotion where subjects are able to move freely in more ecologically valid scenarios. In this study, MoBI was employed to describe the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of three different commonly occurring walking conditions in healthy adults. The experimental conditions were self-paced walking, walking while conversing with a friend and lastly walking while texting with a smartphone. We hypothesized that gait performance would decrease with increased cognitive demands and that condition-specific neural activation would involve condition-specific brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956154/sources-of-interference-in-cross-modal-action-response-selection-crosstalk-and-general-dual-execution-costs
#20
Aleks Pieczykolan, Lynn Huestegge
Performing several actions simultaneously usually yields interference, which is commonly explained by referring to theoretical concepts such as crosstalk and structural limitations associated with response selection. While most research focuses on dual-task scenarios (involving two independent tasks), we here study the role of response selection and crosstalk for the control of cross-modal response compounds (saccades and manual responses) triggered by a single stimulus. In two experiments, participants performed single responses and spatially compatible versus incompatible dual-response compounds (crosstalk manipulation) in conditions with or without response selection requirements (i...
September 27, 2017: Psychological Research
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