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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673837/movements-of-older-adults-during-exergaming-interventions-that-are-associated-with-the-systems-framework-for-postural-control-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Robin Tahmosybayat, Katherine Baker, Alan Godfrey, Nick Caplan, Gill Barry
One in three older adults fall annually, in part due to impairments in the physiological systems that make up the postural control (PC) system. Exercise, particularly balance training, helps to prevent deterioration and even to improve outcomes in the PC system. Exergaming (exercise-gaming) is interactive computer gaming whereby an individual moves the body in response to onscreen cues in a playful format. Exergaming is an alternative method to standard practice for improving PC outcomes, which has been shown to reduce the risk of falling...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#2
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665760/nintendo-wii%C3%A2-versus-xbox-kinect%C3%A2-for-assisting-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Melissa L M Alves, Beatriz S Mesquita, Wenderson S Morais, Josevan C Leal, Corina E Satler, Felipe A Dos Santos Mendes
This study investigated changes in motor and cognitive skills, anxiety levels, and quality of life perception among patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) following training with different commercial gaming devices-Nintendo Wii™ and Xbox Kinect™. We used a quasi-experimental, simple blinded clinical trial, dividing 27 patients with PD into three equal groups of nine members: (a) Nintendo Wii™, (b) Xbox Kinect™, and (c) control group. After pretests, experimental group participants spent 10 sessions playing four games of the selected gaming device, while control group participants received no intervention...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#4
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660948/the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-response-to-different-daily-demands-among-patients-at-the-sub-acute-phase-post-ischemic-stroke-and-healthy-controls
#6
Noa Raphaely Beer, Nachum Soroker, Nathan M Bornstein, Michal Katz Leurer
BACKGROUND: Autonomic disturbances are a common phenomenon in patients' post-stroke, characterized by hypo function of the para-sympathetic and/or overactive sympathetic system. The impact of autonomic disturbances on physical therapy tasks during the rehabilitation period has not yet been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during different tasks, among patients and age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: 19 patients in the subacute phase post first-ever ischemic stroke, and 16 controls...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660087/older-adults-pay-an-additional-cost-when-texting-and-walking-effects-of-age-environment-and-use-of-mixed-reality-on-dual-task-performance
#7
Tal Krasovsky, Patrice L Weiss, Rachel Kizony
Background: Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655800/effects-of-task-complexity-and-age-differences-on-task-related-functional-connectivity-of-attentional-networks
#8
Margaret A O'Connell, Chandramallika Basak
Studies investigating the strength and membership of regions within multiple functional networks primarily focus on either resting state or single cognitive tasks. The goals of the current study were to investigate whether task-related functional connectivity changes with task complexity, and whether this connectivity-complexity relationship is age-sensitive. We assessed seed-to-voxel functional connectivity for the default mode network (DMN) and two attentional networks [cingulo-opercular (CO), fronto-parietal (FP)] in three cognitive control tasks of increasing complexity (Single task, Dual task, and Memory Updating), across younger and older adults (N=52; NYoung =23; NOld =29)...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649707/specific-smartphone-usage-and-cognitive-performance-affect-gait-characteristics-during-free-living-and-treadmill-walking
#9
Daniel Niederer, Anke Bumann, Yvonne Mühlhauser, Mareike Schmitt, Katja Wess, Tobias Engeroff, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone tasks like texting, typing, and dialling during walking are known to impact gait characteristics. Beyond that, the effects of performing smartphone-typical actions like researching and taking self-portraits (selfie) on gait have not been investigated yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to investigate the effects of smartphone usage on relevant gait characteristics and to reveal potential association of basic cognitive and walking plus smartphone dual-task abilities...
April 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628881/posture-motor-and-posture-ideomotor-dual-tasking-a-putative-marker-of-psychomotor-retardation-and-depressive-rumination-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Lyubomir I Aftanas, Olga M Bazanova, Nataliya V Novozhilova
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that the assessment of postural performance may be a potentially reliable and objective marker of the psychomotor retardation (PMR) in the major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the important facets of MDD-related PMR is reflected in disrupted central mechanisms of psychomotor control, heavily influenced by compelling maladaptive depressive rumination. In view of this we designed a research paradigm that included sequential execution of simple single-posture task followed by more challenging divided attention posture tasks, involving concurring motor and ideomotor workloads...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626613/comparing-the-effects-of-dual-task-gait-testing-in-new-and-established-ambulators-with-lower-extremity-amputations
#11
Courtney Frengopoulos, Michael Wc Payne, Jeffrey D Holmes, Ricardo Viana, Susan W Hunter
BACKGROUND: Gait is a complex process that involves coordinating motor and sensory systems through higher-order cognitive processes. Walking with a prosthesis after lower extremity amputation challenges these processes. However, the factors that influence the cognitive-motor interaction in gait among lower extremity amputees has not been evaluated. To assess the interaction of cognition and mobility, individuals must be evaluated using the dual-task paradigm. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of etiology and time with prosthesis on dual-task performance in those with lower extremity amputations...
April 4, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622624/relationship-between-dual-task-gait-speed-and-walking-activity-poststroke
#12
Jody A Feld, Lisa A Zukowski, Annie G Howard, Carol A Giuliani, Lori J P Altmann, Bijan Najafi, Prudence Plummer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait speed does not adequately predict whether stroke survivors will be active in the community. This may be because traditional single-task gait speed does not sufficiently reproduce the demands of walking in the real world. This study assessed whether dual-task gait speed accounts for variance in daily ambulatory activity above what can be predicted with habitual (single task) gait speed in community-dwelling stroke survivors. METHODS: Twenty-eight community-dwelling individuals, 58...
April 5, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608901/improving-dual-task-control-with-a-posture-second-strategy-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Cheng-Ya Huang, Yu-An Chen, Ing-Shiou Hwang, Ruey-Meei Wu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the task prioritization effects on postural-suprapostural dual task performance in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) without clinical observed postural symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Participants performed a force-matching task while standing on a mobile-platform, and were instructed to focus their attention on either the postural task (posture-first strategy) or the force-matching task (posture-second strategy). SETTING: University research laboratory...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605797/self-reported-sleep-duration-affects-tandem-gait-but-not-steady-state-gait-outcomes-among-healthy-collegiate-athletes
#14
David R Howell, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang, Thomas A Buckley, Rebekah Mannix, Alexandra Stillman, William P Meehan
BACKGROUND: Sleep deficits are associated with motor and cognitive function deficits, even in the absence of a recent concussion. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the amount of self-reported sleep prior to pre-season concussion testing affect single-task and dual-task instrumented steady-state gait and timed tandem gait test performance? METHODS: One hundred and fourteen healthy collegiate athletes (mean age 18.8 ± 0.7 years; 60% female) reported the amount of sleep they received during the prior night and completed a timed tandem gait test and an instrumented assessment of steady-state gait in both single-task and dual-task conditions...
March 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604488/prefrontal-over-activation-during-walking-in-people-with-mobility-deficits-interpretation-and-functional-implications
#15
Kelly A Hawkins, Emily J Fox, Janis J Daly, Dorian K Rose, Evangelos A Christou, Theresa E McGuirk, Dana M Otzel, Katie A Butera, Sudeshna A Chatterjee, David J Clark
BACKGROUND: Control of walking by the central nervous system includes contributions from executive control mechanisms, such as attention and motor planning resources. Executive control of walking can be estimated objectively by recording prefrontal cortical activity using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate group differences in prefrontal/executive control of walking among young adults, older adults, and adults post-stroke...
March 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599861/the-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-and-gaming-on-cognitive-performance
#16
Peter C Douris, John P Handrakis, Demitra Apergis, Robert B Mangus, Rima Patel, Jessica Limtao, Svetlana Platonova, Aladino Gregorio, Elliot Luty
The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking), and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years) randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599636/the-influence-of-audio-visual-cueing-traffic-light-on-dual-task-walking-in-healthy-older-adults-and-older-adults-with-balance-impairments
#17
Kitchana Kaewkaen, Phongphat Wongsamud, Jiratchaya Ngaothanyaphat, Papawarin Supawarapong, Suraphong Uthama, Worasak Ruengsirarak, Suthin Chanabun, Pratchaya Kaewkaen
Background: The walking gait of older adults with balance impairment is affected by dual tasking. Several studies have shown that external cues can stimulate improvement in older adults' performance. There is, however, no current evidence to support the usefulness of external cues, such as audio-visual cueing, in dual task walking in older adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an audio-visual cue (simulated traffic light) on dual task walking in healthy older adults and in older adults with balance impairments...
February 2018: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595580/the-use-of-vibrotactile-feedback-during-dual-task-standing-balance-conditions-in-people-with-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#18
Chia-Cheng Lin, Susan L Whitney, Patrick J Loughlin, Joseph M Furman, Mark S Redfern, Kathleen H Sienko, Patrick J Sparto
HYPOTHESIS: People with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) would have increased postural sway and slower reaction times while using vibrotactile feedback (VTF) during dual-task conditions compared with age-matched controls. BACKGROUND: VTF has been shown to improve real-time balance performance in persons with vestibular disorders. Future use of this technology outside of the laboratory environment as a real-time balance aid requires that using VTF during dual-tasking scenarios be studied...
March 27, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593620/planning-abilities-in-bilingual-and-monolingual-children-role-of-verbal-mediation
#19
Ishanti Gangopadhyay, Margarethe McDonald, Susan Ellis Weismer, Margarita Kaushanskaya
We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English-Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593614/effects-of-single-compared-to-dual-task-practice-on-learning-a-dynamic-balance-task-in-young-adults
#20
Rainer Kiss, Dennis Brueckner, Thomas Muehlbauer
Background: In everyday life, people engage in situations involving the concurrent processing of motor (balance) and cognitive tasks (i.e., "dual task situations") that result in performance declines in at least one of the given tasks. The concurrent practice of both the motor and cognitive task may counteract these performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of single task (ST) compared to dual task (DT) practice on learning a dynamic balance task. Methods: Forty-eight young adults were randomly assigned to either a ST (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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