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Dual-Task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#1
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330963/decrease-in-a%C3%AE-42-predicts-dopa-resistant-gait-progression-in-early-parkinson-disease
#2
Lynn Rochester, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Alison J Yarnall, Rosie Morris, Gordon Duncan, Tien K Khoo, Brit Mollenhauer, David J Burn
OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study investigates the role of CSF biomarkers in predicting progression of dopa-resistant gait impairments in Parkinson disease (PD) in the first 36 months from diagnosis. METHODS: Quantitative gait analysis was carried out longitudinally using an instrumented walkway (GAITRite) in 108 people with PD and 130 age-matched controls. A subgroup of 44 people with PD underwent lumbar puncture from which a battery of CSF biomarkers was measured: β-amyloid 1-42 and 1-40 (Aβ42 and Aβ40), total and phosphorylated tau protein (t-tau/p-tau181), and α-synuclein (αSyn)...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326947/change-deafness-dual-task-performance-and-domain-specific-expertise
#3
John G Neuhoff, Katharina S Bochtler
In a change deafness manipulation using radio broadcasts of sporting events, we show that change deafness to a switch in talker increases when listeners are asked to monitor both lexical and indexical information for change. We held semantic content constant and demonstrated a change deafness rate of 85% when participants listened to the home team broadcast of a hockey game that switched midway to the away team broadcast with a different announcer. In Study 2 participants were asked to monitor either the indexical characteristics (listen for a change in announcer) or both the indexical and semantic components (listen for a change in announcer or a goal scored)...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323843/dynamic-postural-control-and-associated-attentional-demands-in-contemporary-dancers-versus-non-dancers
#4
Geneviève Sirois-Leclerc, Anthony Remaud, Martin Bilodeau
Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321288/influence-of-coactors-on-saccadic-and-manual-responses
#5
Manuel Oliva, Diederick C Niehorster, Halszka Jarodzka, Kenneth Holmqvist
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of coaction on saccadic and manual responses. Participants performed the experiments either in a solitary condition or in a group of coactors who performed the same tasks at the same time. In Experiment 1, participants completed a pro- and antisaccade task where they were required to make saccades towards (prosaccades) or away (antisaccades) from a peripheral visual stimulus. In Experiment 2, participants performed a visual discrimination task that required both making a saccade towards a peripheral stimulus and making a manual response in reaction to the stimulus's orientation...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#6
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314919/interference-between-a-fast-paced-spatial-puzzle-task-and-verbal-memory-demands
#7
Samantha L Epling, Megan J Blakely, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
Research continues to provide evidence that people are poor multi-taskers. Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for the inability to efficiently perform multiple tasks at the same time. This theory proposes that one's limited supply of cognitive resources can be utilized faster than it is replenished, which results in a performance decline, particularly when these limited resources must be allocated among multiple tasks. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example, spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304305/combined-dual-task-gait-training-and%C3%A2-aerobic-exercise-to-improve-cognition-%C3%A2-mobility-and%C3%A2-vascular-health-in%C3%A2-community-dwelling-older-adults-at%C3%A2-risk-for-future-cognitive-decline1
#8
Michael A Gregory, Narlon C Boa Sorte Silva, Dawn P Gill, Cheri L McGowan, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, J Kevin Shoemaker, Vladimir Hachinski, Jeff Holmes, Robert J Petrella
This 6-month experimental case series study investigated the effects of a dual-task gait training and aerobic exercise intervention on cognition, mobility, and cardiovascular health in community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants exercised 40 min/day, 3 days/week for 26 weeks on a Biodex GaitTrainer2 treadmill. Participants were assessed at baseline (V0), interim (V1: 12-weeks), intervention endpoint (V2: 26-weeks), and study endpoint (V3: 52-weeks). The study outcomes included: cognition [executive function (EF), processing speed, verbal fluency, and memory]; mobility: usual & dual-task gait (speed, step length, and stride time variability); and vascular health: ambulatory blood pressure, carotid arterial compliance, and intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301824/using-a-dual-task-protocol-to-investigate-motor-and-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-children-and-youth
#9
Tracy L Fabri, Katherine E Wilson, Nicole Holland, Andrea Hickling, James Murphy, Philippe Fait, Nick Reed
OBJECTIVES: Mild traumatic brain injury (or concussion) is a prevalent yet understudied health concern in children and youth. This injury can cause dysfunction in both motor and cognitive domains; however, most literature focuses on single-task neuropsychological tests which only assess cognition. Although dual-task research on concussed children and youth is needed as many daily activities require both motor and cognitive domains, we must first investigate whether performing simultaneous motor and cognitive tasks of varied complexity impact these domains in healthy children and youth...
March 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296958/interaction-between-the-oculomotor-and-postural-systems-during-a-dual-task-compensatory-reductions-in-head-sway-following-visually-induced-postural-perturbations-promote-the-production-of-accurate-double-step-saccades-in-standing-human-adults
#10
Mathieu Boulanger, Guillaume Giraudet, Jocelyn Faubert
Humans routinely scan their environment for useful information using saccadic eye movements and/or coordinated movements of the eyes and other body segments such the head and the torso. Most previous eye movement studies were conducted with seated subject and showed that single saccades and sequences of saccades (e.g. double-step saccades) made to briefly flashed stimuli were equally accurate and precise. As one can easily appreciate, most gaze shifts performed daily by a given person are not produced from a seated position, but rather from a standing position either as subjects perform an action from an upright stance or as they walk from one place to another...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#11
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286475/neural-networks-for-time-perception-and-working-memory
#12
Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, Metehan Çiçek
Time is an important concept which determines most human behaviors, however questions remain about how time is perceived and which areas of the brain are responsible for time perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between time perception and working memory in healthy adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used during the application of a visual paradigm. In all of the conditions, the participants were presented with a moving black rectangle on a gray screen. The rectangle was obstructed by a black bar for a time period and then reappeared again...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285364/hierarchical-task-organization-in-dual-tasks-evidence-for-higher-level-task-representations
#13
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Andrea M Philipp, Iring Koch
To examine whether hierarchical higher level task representations comprising the task sets of Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2) are activated within each trial in dual-task situations, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with the task-pair switching logic (Hirsch et al. 2017). In Experiment 1, in which subjects switched between task-pairs including a varying T1 and a constant T2, we found a PRP effect (i.e., worse performance with short stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] than with long SOA) and task-pair switch costs in T1 and T2 (impaired performance in task-pair switches compared to task-pair repetitions)...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282482/the-effect-of-tinnitus-on-listening-effort-in-normal-hearing-young-adults-a-preliminary-study
#14
Sofie Degeest, Hannah Keppler, Paul Corthals
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic tinnitus on listening effort. Method: Thirteen normal-hearing young adults with chronic tinnitus were matched with a control group for age, gender, hearing thresholds, and educational level. A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different listening conditions. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed both separately and simultaneously...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280596/increasing-cognitive-load-attenuates-right-arm-swing-in-healthy-human-walking
#15
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, Linard Filli, Lilla Lőrincz, Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt, Peter Brugger, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Björn Zörner, Marc Bolliger
Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276838/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-with-anodal-tdcs-prevents-post-exercise-facilitation-interference-during-dual-task
#16
Carmen Concerto, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Mahmoud, Basil Rafiq, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Diego Coira, Fortunato Battaglia
In this study we aimed to investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduces interference effects of a dual task (DT) on post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials. Anodal tDCS reversed the DT interference on PEF after a non-fatiguing isometric contraction. We conclude that anodal DLPFC tDCS improves the ability to allocate attentional resources and modulates plastic adaptations across brain systems.
February 28, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271220/constraints-on-perception-of-information-from-obstacles-during-foot-clearance-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#17
Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jonathan Wheat, Keith Davids, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Ali Ali, Samira Garmabi
The aim of this study was to examine effects of different types of task constraints on coupling of perception and action in people with chronic stroke when crossing obstacles during a walking task. Ten participants with hemiplegic chronic stroke volunteered to walk over a static obstacle under two distinct task constraints: simple and dual tasks. Under simple task constraints, without specific instructions, participants walked at their preferred speed and crossed over an obstacle. Under dual task constraints, the same individuals were required to subtract numbers whilst walking...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270047/instruction-prioritization-in-task-based-balance-training-for-individuals-with-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Vaithiamanithi Perumal, Ganeswara Rao Melam, Adel A Alhusaini, Syamala Buragadda, Neha Sharma
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prioritization of instruction in balance training for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-six participants were evaluated before and after the training using the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results show that dual task training with variable priority instruction is as effective as single task training in improving the balance performance of individuals with idiopathic PD.
March 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261809/doing-many-things-at-a-time-lack-of-power-decreases-the-ability-to-multitask
#19
Ran Alice Cai, Ana Guinote
Three studies investigated the effects of power on the ability to pursue multiple, concomitant goals, also known as multitasking. It was predicted that powerless participants will show lower multitasking ability than control and powerful participants. Study 1 focused on self-reported ability to multitask in a sample of executives and subordinate employees. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the ability to dual-task and to switch between tasks, respectively, using dual-task and task-switching paradigms. Across the studies, powerless individuals were less able to effectively multitask compared with control and powerful participants, suggesting that the detrimental effects of lack of power extend beyond single-task environments, shown in past research, into multitasking environments...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258925/parkinsonian-gait-improves-with-bilateral-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-during-cognitive-multi-tasking
#20
Gaurav Chenji, Melissa L Wright, Kelvin L Chou, Rachael D Seidler, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: Gait impairment in Parkinson's disease reduces mobility and increases fall risk, particularly during cognitive multi-tasking. Studies suggest that bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation, a common surgical therapy, degrades motor performance under cognitive dual-task conditions, compared to unilateral stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of bilateral versus unilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation on walking kinematics with and without cognitive dual-tasking...
February 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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