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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#1
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644768/error-feedback-frequency-affects-automaticity-but-not-accuracy-and-consistency-after-extensive-motor-skill-practice
#2
Daniel Krause, Manfred Agethen, Christina Zobe
Earlier studies addressed the effects of feedback frequency on movement accuracy and consistency. The authors additionally addressed the effects on motor automatization. High error feedback frequencies may induce attentional control processes and impede motor automatization. In a pre-post design, 42 participants were assigned to 2 groups with different feedback frequencies and practiced an arm movement sequence with 760 trials in 5 sessions. The 100% group practiced with feedback on 3 movement reversals of the sequence after each trial...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642466/cognitive-and-motor-dual-task-gait-training-improve-dual-task-gait-performance-after-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#3
Yan-Ci Liu, Yea-Ru Yang, Yun-An Tsai, Ray-Yau Wang
This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640006/poor-gait-performance-is-influenced-with-decreased-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-poststroke-patients
#4
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) exerts a significant influence on gait performance. Therefore, a decrease in VOR function could worsen gait impairments in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. The effects of decreased VOR function on gait performance could be further exacerbated by aging-related physical weakness and impaired motor function of the hemiparetic lower limb. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of aging and impairment in lower extremity function and the VOR on walking ability of poststroke hemiplegic patients...
June 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638338/physical-exercise-with-music-reduces-gray-and-white-matter-loss-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-elderly-people-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project
#5
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628379/visuomotor-behaviors-and-performance-in-a-dual-task-paradigm-with-and-without-vibrotactile-feedback-when-using-a-myoelectric-controlled-hand
#6
Eitan Raveh, Jason Friedman, Sigal Portnoy
Prosthesis users allocate visual attention to their prosthetic hand while performing activities of daily living (ADLs), due to absence of sensory feedback. Dual-task assignments present competition for visual attention and may affect the performance of ADLs. Vibrotactile feedback (VTF) is a frequently-used method to provide prosthesis users with tactile feedback. However, the effect of adding VTF on visual attention and performance in a motor dual-task paradigm has not been investigated. Our aim was to compare visual attention and performance during ADLs in a motor dual-task paradigm when using binary VTF and without using VTF...
June 19, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624969/movement-timing-and-cognitive-control-adult-age-differences-in-multi-tasking
#7
Anne-Merel Meijer, Ralf T Krampe
Over the course of six sessions, 24 young (M = 19.40 years, SD 1.61) and 24 older participants (M = 71.48 years, SD 3.86) performed simple, repetitive tapping tasks at 300 and 600 ms target durations concurrently with two cognitive tasks under non-switch or switch conditions. Despite substantial improvements, over sessions, reliable switch costs remained, which were pronounced in older adults. Young and older adults alike showed increased drift in the tapping tasks under dual-task conditions. Under dual-task non-switch conditions, older adults maintained the same timing accuracy (variability) as in the single-task condition...
June 17, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624710/role-of-impaired-vision-during-dual-task-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#8
V Krishnan, Y Cho, O Mohamed
While cognitive-motor interference in dual-task activities is well established, it is still unknown how such interference is influenced by concurrent visual challenges. Nineteen community-dwelling healthy, cognitively intact, older adults (Mean±SD=71.45±1.25years, 6 males) and nineteen young adults (Mean±SD=22.25±0.68years, 4 males) performed a cognitive-single-task (serial subtraction by 3), a walking-single-task and a cognitive-walking-dual-task under normal, blurred and peripheral-vision-loss conditions (artificially imposed using goggles)...
June 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620805/action-effect-features-but-not-anatomical-features-determine-the-backward-crosstalk-effect-evidence-from-crossed-hands-experiments
#9
Sandra Renas, Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk
The Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) indicates that response features of Task 2 in a dual-task paradigm influence even Task 1 performance. However, it can be assumed that responses are represented with multiple features in the cognitive system. In this regard, Ideomotor Theory suggests action effects as one central response feature in human action control and an earlier study by Janczyk, Pfister, Hommel, and Kunde (Cognition 132: 30-43, 2014) already provided some evidence that action effects are a crucial determinant of the BCE...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611714/movement-interferes-with-visuospatial-working-memory-during-the-encoding-an-erp-study
#10
Rumeysa Gunduz Can, Thomas Schack, Dirk Koester
The present study focuses on the functional interactions of cognition and manual action control. Particularly, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of the dual-task costs of a manual-motor task (requiring grasping an object, holding it, and subsequently placing it on a target) for working memory (WM) domains (verbal and visuospatial) and processes (encoding and retrieval). Thirty participants were tested in a cognitive-motor dual-task paradigm, in which a single block (a verbal or visuospatial WM task) was compared with a dual block (concurrent performance of a WM task and a motor task)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605723/a-combined-cognitive-and-gait-quantification-to-identify-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-from-its-mimics-the-geneva-s-protocol
#11
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Shahan Momjian, Bruno Marques, Arnaud Saj, Frédéric Assal
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is very prevalent in aging, underdiagnosed, and represents a rare cause of reversible neurological condition. The clinical triad of iNPH - gait, cognitive and urinary symptoms - and its neuroradiological features (i.e. ventriculomegaly) are not specific and found a various neurodegenerative and/or vascular conditions. We present our iNPH standardized protocol at the Geneva University Hospitals involving a multispecialty team of behavioral neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, engineers, and physical therapists...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604048/talking-is-harder-than-listening-the-time-course-of-dual-task-costs-during-naturalistic-conversation
#12
April M C Lee, Stefania Cerisano, Karin R Humphreys, Scott Watter
Many studies have shown that the cognitive demands of language use are a substantial cause of central dual-task costs, including costs on concurrent driving performance. More recently, several studies have considered whether language production or comprehension is inherently more difficult with respect to costs on concurrent performance, with mixed results. This assessment is particularly difficult given the open question of how one should best equate and compare production and comprehension demands and performance...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604046/everyday-attention
#13
Evan F Risko, Alan Kingstone
Understanding the basic mechanisms underlying attentional function using naturalistic stimuli, tasks, and/or settings is the focus of everyday attention research. Interest in everyday approaches to attention research has increased recently-arguably riding a more general wave of support for such considerations in experimental psychology. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology attempts to capture the emerging enthusiasm for studying everyday attention by bringing together work from a wide array of attentional domains (e...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600677/ensemble-coding-remains-accurate-under-object-and-spatial-visual-working-memory-load
#14
Michael L Epstein, Tatiana A Emmanouil
A number of studies have provided evidence that the visual system statistically summarizes large amounts of information that would exceed the limitations of attention and working memory (ensemble coding). However the necessity of working memory resources for ensemble coding has not yet been tested directly. In the current study, we used a dual task design to test the effect of object and spatial visual working memory load on size averaging accuracy. In Experiment 1, we tested participants' accuracy in comparing the mean size of two sets under various levels of object visual working memory load...
June 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600676/the-contributions-of-visual-and-central-attention-to-visual-working-memory
#15
Alessandra S Souza, Klaus Oberauer
We investigated the role of two kinds of attention-visual and central attention-for the maintenance of visual representations in working memory (WM). In Experiment 1 we directed attention to individual items in WM by presenting cues during the retention interval of a continuous delayed-estimation task, and instructing participants to think of the cued items. Attending to items improved recall commensurate with the frequency with which items were attended (0, 1, or 2 times). Experiments 1 and 3 further tested which kind of attention-visual or central-was involved in WM maintenance...
June 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596731/gait-is-associated-with-cognitive-flexibility-a-dual-tasking-study-in-healthy-older-people
#16
Markus A Hobert, Sinja I Meyer, Sandra E Hasmann, Florian G Metzger, Ulrike Suenkel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Objectives: To analyze which gait parameters are primarily influenced by cognitive flexibility, and whether such an effect depends on the walking condition used. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Tübingen evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders. Participants: A total of 661 non-demented individuals (49-80 years). Measurements: A gait assessment with four conditions was performed: a 20 m walk at convenient speed (C), at fast speed (F), at fast speed while checking boxes (FB), and while subtracting serial 7s (FS)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592844/the-complexity-of-standing-postural-sway-associates-with-future-falls-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-mobilize-boston-study
#17
Junhong Zhou, Daniel Habtemariam, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, Lewis A Lipsitz, Brad Manor
Standing postural control is complex, meaning that it is dependent upon numerous inputs interacting across multiple temporal-spatial scales. Diminished physiologic complexity of postural sway has been linked to reduced ability to adapt to stressors. We hypothesized that older adults with lower postural sway complexity would experience more falls in the future. 738 adults aged ≥70 years completed the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB) test and assessments of single and dual-task standing postural control...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589244/does-spinal-excitability-scale-to-the-difficulty-of-the-dual-task
#18
Devon M Day, Mario T Boivin, Allan L Adkin, Craig D Tokuno
PURPOSE: This study examined whether spinal excitability, as measured by the soleus Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), is scaled to the difficulty level of the dual-task being performed. METHODS: Twenty-two participants completed a combination of three balance task and three secondary cognitive (visuo-motor) task difficulty levels for a total of nine dual-task conditions. An additional eight participants were tested while performing the same three balance task difficulty levels on its own (i...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588547/improving-dual-task-walking-paradigms-to-detect-prodromal-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#19
Maroua Belghali, Nathalie Chastan, Damien Davenne, Leslie M Decker
Gait control is a complex movement, relying on spinal, subcortical, and cortical structures. The presence of deficits in one or more of these structures will result in changes in gait automaticity and control, as is the case in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). By reviewing recent findings in this field of research, current studies have shown that gait performance assessment under dual-task conditions could contribute to predict both of these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581300/reverse-ego-depletion-acts-of-self-control-can-improve-subsequent-performance-in-indian-cultural-contexts
#20
Krishna Savani, Veronika Job
The strength model of self-control has been predominantly tested with people from Western cultures. The present research asks whether the phenomenon of ego-depletion generalizes to a culture emphasizing the virtues of exerting mental self-control in everyday life. A pilot study found that whereas Americans tended to believe that exerting willpower on mental tasks is depleting, Indians tended to believe that exerting willpower is energizing. Using dual task ego-depletion paradigms, Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c found reverse ego-depletion among Indian participants, such that participants exhibited better mental self-control on a subsequent task after initially working on strenuous rather than nonstrenuous cognitive tasks...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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