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Central Africa

Cristian Ricci, Janet Carboo, Hannah Asare, Cornelius M Smuts, Robin Dolman, Martani Lombard
Child mortality is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa and is influenced by nutritional status. A conceptual framework were proposed to explain factors related to under nutrition. Previously proposed conceptual frameworks for under nutrition do not consider child mortality and describe factors related to under nutrition from a qualitative viewpoint only. A structural equation modelling approach was applied to the data from World Bank and FAO databases collected from over 37 Sub-Saharan Countries from 2000 to the most recent update...
October 13, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Dennis Nurjadi, Ralf Fleck, Andreas Lindner, Johannes Schäfer, Maximilian Gertler, Andreas Mueller, Heimo Lagler, Perry Jj Van Genderen, Eric Caumes, Sébastien Boutin, Esther Kuenzli, Joaquim Gascon, Anu Kantele, Martin P Grobusch, Klaus Heeg, Philipp Zanger
OBJECTIVES: Recently, following import by travel and migration, epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has caused nosocomial outbreaks in Europe, sometimes with a fatal outcome. We describe clinico-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA detected by the European Network for the Surveillance of imported S. aureus (www. from May 2011- November 2016. METHODS: Sentinel surveillance at thirteen travel-clinics enrolling patients with travel-associated skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and analysing lesion and nose swabs at one central laboratory...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Wolfgang WÜster, Laurent Chirio, Jean-franÇois Trape, Ivan Ineich, Kate Jackson, Eli Greenbaum, Cesar Barron, Chifundera Kusamba, ZoltÁn T Nagy, Richard Storey, Cara Hall, Catharine E WÜster, Axel Barlow, Donald G Broadley
Cobras are among the most widely known venomous snakes, and yet their taxonomy remains incompletely understood, particularly in Africa. Here, we use a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological data to diagnose species limits within the African forest cobra, Naja (Boulengerina) melanoleuca. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal deep divergences within this taxon. Congruent patterns of variation in mtDNA, nuclear genes and morphology support the recognition of five separate species, confirming the species status of N...
August 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Adrian L V Davis, Christian M Deschodt
Two new, putative, closely-related species of dung beetles are described in the genus Garreta Janssens, 1940 (tribe Gymnopleurini). Garreta australugens new species, is known from various dung types in the southeast lowlands of Africa (validated for South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe with a probable record from Botswana). It is, here, separated at species level from its putative closest relative, Garreta lugens (Fairmaire, 1891), recorded from the lowlands of northeast Africa (validated for Kenya with additional records from Ethiopia, Somalia and Tanzania)...
July 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Alex Gumovsky
Three new species groups and seven species of the genus Pediobius Walker are described from the Afrotropical realm: the marjoriae group, with P. marjoriae Kerrich (described from Uganda), P. rohombaya Gumovsky sp. n. (from the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, Uganda) and P. orungu Gumovsky sp. n. (from Gabon); the afroteres group with P. afroteres Gumovsky sp. n. (from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, DRC, Cameroon) and P. kafroteres Gumovsky sp...
June 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Delia Doreen Djuicy, Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé, Olivier Cassar, Jill-Léa Ramassamy, Antony Idam Mamimandjiami, Rodrigue Bikangui, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Gessain
BACKGROUND: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human oncoretrovirus that infects at least 5 to 10 million people worldwide and is associated with severe diseases. Africa appears as the largest HTLV-1 endemic area. However, the risk factors for the acquisition of HTLV-1 remain poorly understood in Central Africa. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological survey between 2013 and 2017, in rural areas of 6 provinces of Gabon, in a rainforest environment...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Triza Tonui, Pilar Corredor-Moreno, Esther Kanduma, Joyce Njuguna, Moses N Njahira, Steven G Nyanjom, Joana C Silva, Appolinaire Djikeng, Roger Pelle
Theileria parva is a protozoan parasite transmitted by the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus that causes East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle, resulting in substantial economic losses in the regions of southern, eastern and central Africa. The schizont form of the parasite transforms the bovine host lymphocytes into actively proliferating cancer-like cells. However, how T. parva causes bovine host cells to proliferate and maintain a cancerous phenotype following infection is still poorly understood. On the other hand, current efforts to develop improved vaccines have identified only a few candidate antigens...
2018: PloS One
Natasha Ruth Saunders, Peter J Gill, Laura Holder, Simone Vigod, Paul Kurdyak, Sima Gandhi, Astrid Guttmann
BACKGROUND: Emergency department visits as a first point of contact for people with mental illness may reflect poor access to timely outpatient mental health care. We sought to determine the extent to which immigrants use the emergency department as an entryway into mental health services. METHODS: We used linked health and demographic administrative data sets to design a population-based cohort study. We included youth (aged 10-24 yr) with an incident mental health emergency department visit from 2010 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada ( n = 118 851)...
October 9, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Elizabeth Kemigisha, Deborah Nanjebe, Yap Boum, Céline Langendorf, Said Aberrane, Dan Nyehangane, Fabienne Nackers, Yolanda Mueller, Rémi Charrel, Richard A Murphy, Anne-Laure Page, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire
Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections in children in sub-Saharan Africa are often fatal. Potential contributors include late presentation, limited diagnostic capacity and inadequate treatment. A more nuanced understanding of treatment practices with a goal of optimizing such practices is critical to prevent avoidable case fatality. We describe empiric antimicrobial treatment, antibiotic resistance and treatment adequacy in a prospective cohort of 459 children aged two months to 12 years hospitalised for suspected acute CNS infections in Mbarara, Uganda, from 2009 to 2012...
2018: PloS One
L Gamble, A Gibson, S Mazeri, B M de C Bronsvoort, I Handel, R J Mellanby
Rabies kills approximately 60,000 people each year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, of which 40% of victims are less than 15 years old. Once clinical signs develop, the disease is almost invariably fatal. Globally, rabies has been estimated to cause 3∙7 million disability-adjusted life years and $8∙6B in economic losses annually. The vast majority of human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies infected dogs. Despite this loss of human life and resultant economic and societal costs, rabies can be prevented in both humans and dogs by vaccination...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Sami W Rifai, Cécile A J Girardin, Erika Berenguer, Jhon Del Aguila-Pasquel, Cecilia A L Dahlsjö, Christopher E Doughty, Kathryn J Jeffery, Sam Moore, Imma Oliveras, Terhi Riutta, Lucy M Rowland, Alejandro Araujo Murakami, Shalom D Addo-Danso, Paulo Brando, Chad Burton, Fidèle Evouna Ondo, Akwasi Duah-Gyamfi, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Renata Freitag, Fernando Hancco Pacha, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Forzia Ibrahim, Armel T Mbou, Vianet Mihindou Mihindou, Karine S Peixoto, Wanderley Rocha, Liana C Rossi, Marina Seixas, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Katharine A Abernethy, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Jos Barlow, Antonio C L da Costa, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben H Marimon-Junior, Patrick Meir, Daniel B Metcalfe, Oliver L Phillips, Lee J T White, Yadvinder Malhi
Meteorological extreme events such as El Niño events are expected to affect tropical forest net primary production (NPP) and woody growth, but there has been no large-scale empirical validation of this expectation. We collected a large high-temporal resolution dataset (for 1-13 years depending upon location) of more than 172 000 stem growth measurements using dendrometer bands from across 14 regions spanning Amazonia, Africa and Borneo in order to test how much month-to-month variation in stand-level woody growth of adult tree stems (NPPstem ) can be explained by seasonal variation and interannual meteorological anomalies...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Juan C Jimenez, Jonathan Barichivich, Cristian Mattar, Ken Takahashi, Andrés Santamaría-Artigas, José A Sobrino, Yadvinder Malhi
The recent 2015-2016 El Niño (EN) event was considered as strong as the EN in 1997-1998. Given such magnitude, it was expected to result in extreme warming and moisture anomalies in tropical areas. Here we characterize the spatial patterns of temperature anomalies and drought over tropical forests, including tropical South America (Amazonia), Africa and Asia/Indonesia during the 2015-2016 EN event. These spatial patterns of warming and drought are compared with those observed in previous strong EN events (1982-1983 and 1997-1998) and other moderate to strong EN events (e...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Alexandre M Ramos, Ross C Blamey, Iago Algarra, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Ricardo Tomé, Chris J C Reason, Ricardo M Trigo
A Lagrangian analysis is applied to identify the main moisture source areas associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) making landfall along the west coast of South Africa during the extended austral winter months from 1980 to 2014. The results show that areas that provide the anomalous uptake of moisture can be categorized into four regions: (1) the South Atlantic Ocean between 10°S and 30°S, (2) a clear local maximum in the eastern South Atlantic, (3) a continental source of anomalous uptake to the north of the Western Cape, and (4) over South America at a distance of more than 7000 km from the target region...
September 18, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Charles Richard Newton
Neurological conditions in children represent a significant proportion of the global burden of disease, since they contribute to premature mortality and years lived with disability. The burden of neurological conditions, as measured by the total disability adjusted live years has decreased significantly over the last 25 years (1990-2015), mainly due to the reduction in the mortality, as the years lived with disability has increased slightly. However, in some regions of the world, notably South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the burden remains high, driven by the high incidence of prematurity, neonatal encephalopathy and infections of the central nervous system...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Trust Saidi, Jill Fortuin, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: The emergence of nanomedicine in the past decade has changed the landscape of disease diagnosis and treatment. Nanomedicine makes use of nanostructures for applications in different fields of medicine, including drug delivery, biosensors, neuro-electronic interfaces, in vivo imaging, and cell-specific molecular interactions. Despite its relative infancy, nanomedicine has generated a significant body of research as evidenced by peer reviewed literature and several patents. This proposed systematic review will focus specifically on drug delivery systems in which nanoparticles are used to enhance the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drugs...
October 6, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Tim Lüddecke, Stefan Schulz, Sebastian Steinfartz, Miguel Vences
Terrestrial salamanders of the genus Salamandra represent one of the most prominent groups of amphibians. They are mainly distributed across Europe but also reach Northern Africa and the Near East. Members of the six currently accepted species have long been known to be poisonous; however, work on their toxins was mostly published in German language, and therefore, many nuances of these studies have remained hidden from the majority of herpetologists and toxinologists. Several Salamandra species are called fire salamanders due to their highly contrasted, black-yellow colouration which probably serves to deter predators, although thorough evidence for aposematism in Salamandra is still lacking...
September 4, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Linda Mureithi, James Michael Burnett, Adam Bertscher, René English
BACKGROUND: The general practitioner contracting initiative (GPCI) is a health systems strengthening initiative piloted in the first phase of national health insurance (NHI) implementation in South Africa as it progresses towards universal health coverage (UHC). GPCI aimed to address the shortage of doctors in the public sector by contracting-in private sector general practitioners (GPs) to render services in public primary health care clinics. This paper explores the early inception and emergence of the GPCI...
October 5, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Krishna D Rao, Ligia Paina, Marie-Gloriose Ingabire, Zubin C Shroff
BACKGROUND: Formal engagement with non-state providers (NSP) is an important strategy in many low-and-middle-income countries for extending coverage of publicly financed health services. The series of country studies reviewed in this paper - from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda - provide a unique opportunity to understand the dynamics of NSP engagement in different contexts. METHODS: A standard template was developed and used to summarize the main findings from the country studies...
October 5, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Aitebiremen Gift Omokhua, Muna Ali Abdalla, Johannes Van Staden, Lyndy Joy McGaw
BACKGROUND: Tithonia diversifolia and T. rotundifolia belong to the Asteraceae family and are native to Mexico and Central America. These plants have become invasive in parts of tropical Africa and Asia where they have become an ecological, agricultural and economic burden. Tithonia diversifolia is exploited by locals in its native and most parts of its invasive range as a source of medicines; however, T. rotundifolia is only used for medicinal purposes in one country in the native range (Venezuela) and none in the invasive range...
October 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nathalie Bouscaren, Sophie Pilleron, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-François Dartigues, Jean-Pierre Clément, Pierre-Marie Preux, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in older adults living in Central Africa and investigating its association with dementia using data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre population-based study was carried out among participants aged 73 (±7) years on average, living in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between November 2011 and December 2012...
October 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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