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Central Africa

Danyang Li, Xueyang Li, Wei Cui, Huahao Shen, Hong Zhu, Yi Xia
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are potentially life-threatening complications of infection that are associated with high morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Fluid therapy is regarded as a crucial intervention during initial treatment of sepsis. Whether conservative or liberal fluid therapy can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether liberal versus conservative fluid therapy improves clinical outcomes in adults and children with initial sepsis and septic shock...
December 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ricardo I F Trindade, Plinio Jaqueto, Filipe Terra-Nova, Daniele Brandt, Gelvam A Hartmann, Joshua M Feinberg, Becky E Strauss, Valdir F Novello, Francisco W Cruz, Ivo Karmann, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards
The diminishing strength of the Earth's magnetic dipole over recent millennia is accompanied by the increasing prominence of the geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which spreads over the South Atlantic Ocean and South America. The longevity of this feature at millennial timescales is elusive because of the scarcity of continuous geomagnetic data for the region. Here, we report a unique geomagnetic record for the last ∼1500 y that combines the data of two well-dated stalagmites from Pau d'Alho cave, located close to the present-day minimum of the anomaly in central South America...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Illich Manfred Mombo, Eloïse Suquet, Larson Boundenga, Amandine Mveang-Nzoghe, Claude Maganga-Mboga, Céline Arnathau, Christine Sidobre, Eric M Leroy, Virginie Rougeron
Astroviruses (AstVs) are mostly responsible for mild to severe gastroenteritis infections in humans and animals. AstVs infect a wide range of host species, have a large genetic diversity with different circulating variants and are thus a high zoonotic risk for human populations. Among these host species, rodents are known to harbor several AstVs variants. Therefore, it is important to identify in rodent species which AstVs are circulating and evaluate their potential zoonotic risk for humans. In this context, this study aimed to screen the presence of AstVs in 267 rodents trapped in 2012 in Franceville and Makokou, two cities in Gabon...
December 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ahmed Awaisu, Maciej Niewada, Dan Greenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Michiel W P Jorissen, Antoine Pariselle, Tine Huyse, Emmanuel J Vreven, Jos Snoeks, Eva Decru, Thomas Kusters, Soleil Wamuini Lunkayilakio, Fidel Muterezi Bukinga, Tom Artois, Maarten P M Vanhove
The Lower Congo Basin is characterized by a mangrove-lined estuary at its mouth and, further upstream, by many hydrogeographical barriers such as rapids and narrow gorges. Five localities in the mangroves and four from (upstream) left bank tributaries or pools were sampled. On the gills of Coptodon tholloni, Coptodon rendalli, Hemichromis elongatus, Hemichromis stellifer and Tylochromis praecox, 17 species of parasites (Dactylogyridae & Gyrodactylidae, Monogenea) were found, eight of which are new to science...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Ornella Ciccone, Chishala Chabala, Owen Tembo, Manoj Mathew, Alice K Grollnek, Archana A Patel, Gretchen L Birbeck
Objective: Despite the heavy burden of epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa, there remains a relative paucity of neurophysiology services and limited published data on electroencephalography (EEG) features among African children. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics, EEG findings, and antiepileptic drug (AED) use among children referred for EEG to the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Methods: EEG referrals and reports from 2013-2015 were reviewed...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Caroline E Boeke, Vennie Nabitaka, Andrea Rowan, Katherine Guerra, Pamela Nawaggi, Vivienne Mulema, Victor Bigira, Eleanor Magongo, Patricia Mucheri, Andrew Musoke, Cordelia Katureebe
BACKGROUND: Despite gains in HIV testing and treatment access in sub-Saharan Africa, patient attrition from care remains a problem. Evidence is needed of real-world implementation of low-cost, scalable, and sustainable solutions to reduce attrition. We hypothesized that more proactive patient follow-up and enhanced counseling by health facilities would improve patient linkage and retention. METHODS: At 20 health facilities in Central Uganda, we implemented a quality of care improvement intervention package that included training lay health workers in best practices for patient follow-up and counseling, including improved appointment recordkeeping, phone calls and home visits to lost patients, and enhanced adherence counseling strategies; and strengthening oversight of these processes...
December 6, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Jane Flora Kazambwe
Background: Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some cancers and musculoskeletal disorders. In Malawi, the proportion of women who are overweight/obese has doubled, from 10% in 1992 to 21% in 2015-16. Therefore we aimed to explore the individual- and community-level factors associated with overweight and obesity among non-pregnant women of child-bearing age. Methods: Secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey was conducted...
December 4, 2018: International Health
April D Kimmel, Rose S Bono, Olivia Keiser, Jean D Sinayobye, Janne Estill, Deo Mujwara, Olga Tymejczyk, Denis Nash
Objective: Despite widespread uptake, only half of sub-Saharan African countries have fully implemented the World Health Organization's 'treat all' policy, hindering achievement of global HIV targets. We examined literature on mathematical modelling studies that sought to inform scale-up and implementation of 'treat all' in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We conducted a scoping review, a research synthesis to assess emerging evidence and identify gaps, of peer-reviewed literature, extracting study characteristics on 'treat all' policies and assumptions, setting, key populations, outcomes and findings...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Lisa L Abuogi, John M Humphrey, Christian Mpody, Marcel Yotebieng, Pamela M Murnane, Kate Clouse, Lindah Otieno, Craig R Cohen, Kara Wools-Kaloustian
The implementation of the 2013 World Health Organization Option B+ recommendations for HIV treatment during pregnancy has helped drive significant progress in achieving universal treatment for pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Yet, critical research and implementation gaps exist in achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. To help guide researchers, programmers and policymakers in prioritising these areas, we undertook a comprehensive review of the progress, gaps and research needs to achieve the 90-90-90 targets for this population in the Option B+ era, including early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) for HIV-exposed infants...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Elizabeth Zaniewski, Olga Tymejczyk, Azar Kariminia, Sophie Desmonde, Valériane Leroy, Nathan Ford, Annette H Sohn, Denis Nash, Marcel Yotebieng, Morna Cornell, Keri N Althoff, Peter F Rebeiro, Matthias Egger
Partnerships between researchers and policymakers can improve uptake and integration of scientific evidence. This article describes the research-policy partnership between the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) ( and the World Health Organization (WHO), which was established in 2014. IeDEA is an international research consortium, which analyses data on almost 2 million people living with HIV under care in routine settings in 46 countries in Asia-Pacific, the Caribbean, Central and South America, North America and sub-Saharan Africa...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
H O Akhiwu, E S Yiltok, A O Ebonyi, S Gomerep, N Y Shehu, E P Amaechi, A E Onukak, P Iduh, A A Oyagbemi, G Omame, P M Ashir, D Z Egah, S Oguche
Background: Lassa fever (LF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. The clinical presentation and course is variable, making diagnosis difficult. Aim: To report the outbreak and identify the common clinical presentations of LF in paediatric patients in Jos, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients managed for LF during the June-August 2017 outbreak. LF was suspected in cases with: fever of less than 3 weeks' duration that had not responded to antimalarials or antibiotics, myalgia, abdominal pain, prostration and history of contact with any person diagnosed with LF...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Marc Schröder, Maarit Lockhoff, Frank Fell, John Forsythe, Tim Trent, Ralf Bennartz, Eva Borbas, Michael G Bosilovich, Elisa Castelli, Hans Hersbach, Misako Kachi, Shinya Kobayashi, E Robert Kursinski, Diego Loyola, Carl Mears, Rene Preusker, William B Rossow, Suranjana Saha
The Global Energy and Water cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) Data and Assessments Panel (GDAP) initiated the GEWEX Water Vapor Assessment (G-VAP), which has the main objectives to quantify the current state of art in water vapour products being constructed for climate applications and to support the selection process of suitable water vapour products by GDAP for its production of globally consistent water and energy cycle products. During the construction of the G-VAP data archive, freely available and mature satellite and reanalysis data records with a minimum temporal coverage of 10 years were considered...
2018: Earth System Science Data
Peter G Hawkes
During an environmental impact assessment survey of a proposed tailings storage facility for a platinum mine in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa, five adult and five larval specimens of a new species of Boloponera were found while excavating soil to a depth of 10-15 cm at the base of a tree in riparian woodland. These specimens represent a 3400 km range extension and the first reported record of the genus since its description in 2006, which was based on a single specimen collected in the Central African Republic in 2001...
2018: ZooKeys
Sascha P Rosskopf, Jana Held, Markus Gmeiner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Pierre-Blaise Matsiégui, Isabella Eckerle, Natalie Weber, Kai Matuschewski, Juliane Schaer
Haemosporida are arthropod-borne blood parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including numerous species of bats. Here, we present data of haemosporidian infections in different bat species that were surveyed in Ngounié province, Gabon. We detected Nycteria parasites in Rhinolophus bats and Polychromophilus in Miniopterus minor, a rare and poorly known bat species. Strikingly, no Hepatocystis parasites, which are abundant in epauletted fruit bats elsewhere in Africa, were detected. Our findings suggest that Hepatocystis infections in bats display diverse regional patterns of distribution and transmission dynamics, that cannot be predicted from host abundance...
November 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mariatha Yazbek, Julie Jomeen
OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe the use of the partogram in private hospitals in South Africa. DESIGN: an explanatory mixed method design. In-depth interviews were conducted with the midwives and midwife specialists to explicate the significance of the initial quantitative questionnaires. SETTING: a private maternity hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 11 midwives and 3 advanced midwives working in the labour unit of the private maternity hospital...
November 23, 2018: Midwifery
Getachew Mullu Kassa, A O Arowojolu, A A Odukogbe, Alemayehu Worku Yalew
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the period between 10 and 19 years with peculiar physical, social, psychological and reproductive health characteristics. Rates of adolescent pregnancy are increasing in developing countries, with higher occurrences of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The few studies conducted on adolescent pregnancy in Africa present inconsistent and inconclusive findings on the distribution of the problems. Also, there was no meta-analysis study conducted in this area in Africa...
November 29, 2018: Reproductive Health
Margarate Nzala Munakampe, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Adolescents face significant barriers to contraception access and utilization that result in adverse health effects of early pregnancy and childbirth. Unsafe abortions continue to occur partly due to failure to prevent pregnancies, with Sub-Saharan Africa contributing the most significant burden of all unsafe abortions among young people globally, of which a quarter occurs in those aged 15-19 years. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the contraceptive and abortion knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in low and middle-income countries to increase the understanding of the sexual and reproductive health dynamics that they face...
November 29, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk-outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk-outcome associations. METHODS: We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
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