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Central Africa

Matthew Shupler, William Godwin, Joseph Frostad, Paul Gustafson, Raphael E Arku, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with dirty fuels is a leading health risk factor within Asia, Africa and Central/South America. The concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is an important metric to evaluate HAP risk, however epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant variation in HAP-PM2.5 concentrations at household, community and country levels. To quantify the global risk due to HAP exposure, novel estimation methods are needed, as financial and resource constraints render it difficult to monitor exposures in all relevant areas...
August 14, 2018: Environment International
Kennedy Makola Mbanzulu, Josué Kikana Zanga, Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Felly Mbaya Ntita, Junior Rika Matangila, Hypolite Mavoko Muhindo, Sylvain Mpoyi Wa Mpoyi, Michel Ntetani Aloni, Roger Wumba
Background: Malaria and schistosomiasis remain life-threatening public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. The infection pattern related to age indicates that preschool and school-age children are at the highest risk of malaria and schistosomiasis. Both parasitic infections, separately or combined, may have negative impacts on the haemoglobin concentration levels. The existing data revealed that artemisinin derivatives commonly used to cure malaria present also in antischistosomal activities...
2018: BioMed Research International
Denise Arroyo-Lambaer, Hazel Chapman, Marie Hale, David Blackburn
Amphibians are the vertebrate group with the highest number of species threatened with extinction, and habitat loss and fragmentation are considered to be among the leading causes of their declines and extinctions. Little is known of the population biology of amphibian species inhabiting montane forests in Central and West Africa, where anthropogenic activities such as farming and cattle raising are major threats to native biodiversity. We used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to assess the population genetic structure of two poorly known species, Cardioglossa schioetzi and Leptodactylodon bicolor (both in the Arthroleptidae), in and around Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve on the Mambilla Plateau in eastern Nigeria...
2018: PloS One
Mohamed M Ali, John Cleland
BACKGROUND: HIV and unintended pregnancy are major interrelated concerns in sub-Saharan Africa. Focussing on single women aged 15-24 years we assess trends in key behaviours that affect both outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of public-access data sets from 112 surveys from 36 countries in the region, conducted between 1991 and 2015. We examined trends over 20 years in primary abstinence (virginity), secondary abstinence (no sex in past 3 months) among sexually experienced women, current use of modern contraception and condom use at most recent coitus among sexually active women...
August 14, 2018: Reproductive Health
Mesfin Mengesha Tsegaye, Berhane Beyene, Workenesh Ayele, Almaz Abebe, Israel Tareke, Amadou Sall, Sergio Yactayo, Messeret E Shibeshi, Erin Staples, Desalegn Belay, Abrham Lilay, Abebe Alemu, Emana Alemu, Adugna Kume, Alemnesh H/Mariam, Olivier Ronveaux, Mesfin Tefera, Woubayehu Kassa, Abyot Bekele Weyessa, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Adamu Tayachew
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever, endemic in the tropical forests of Africa and Central and South America. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus (YFV). Ethiopia was affected by the largest YF outbreak since the vaccination era during 1960-1962. The recent YF outbreak occurred in 2013 in Southern part of the country. The current survey of was carried out to determine the YF seroprevalence so as to make recommendations from YF prevention and control in Ethiopia...
August 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nanny N M Soetedjo, Susan M McAllister, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Adela G Firanescu, Katharina Ronacher, Bachti Alisjahbana, Anca L Costache, Carlos Zubiate, Stephanus T Malherbe, Raspati C Koesoemadinata, Yoko V Laurence, Fiona Pearson, Sarah Kerry-Barnard, Rovina Ruslami, David A J Moore, Mihai Ioana, Leanie Kleynhans, Hikmat Pernama, Philip C Hill, Maria Mota, Gerhard Walzl, Hazel M Dockrell, Julia A Critchley, Reinout van Crevel
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and management of Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We systematically characterized consecutive DM patients attending public health services in urban settings in Indonesia, Peru, Romania and South Africa, collecting data on DM treatment history, complications, drug treatment, obesity, HbA1c, and cardiovascular risk profile; and assessing treatment gaps against relevant national guidelines...
August 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar, Mary Nyakato, Agatha Kutessa, Jackie Namukooli, Titus Ssesanga, Celeste Joyce, Barbara Laughton, Janet Grab, Miriam Chernoff, Tichaona Vhembo, Lee Fairlie, Portia Kamthunzi, Michael Boivin
Compromised neurodevelopment (ND) among infants and children is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Standardized testing of ND is frequently prohibitive in these contexts, as tests require skilled staff for their application. In this paper, we present a quality assurance (QA) model (QualiND) for standardized ND testing, discussing findings and implications from our experience applying the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II). The QualiND model was implemented within IMPAACT P1104s study, a multisite, prospective study including 615 children affected by HIV...
August 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Etienne Patin, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Central Africa, a forested region that supports an exceptionally high biodiversity, hosts the world's largest group of hunter-gatherers, who live in close proximity with groups that have adopted agriculture over the past 5000 years. Our understanding of the prehistory of these populations has been dramatically hampered by the almost total absence of fossil remains in this region, a limitation that has recently been circumvented by population genomics approaches. Different studies have estimated that ancestors of rainforest hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers separated more than 60 000 years ago, supporting the occurrence of ancient population structure in Africa since the Late Pleistocene...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Tebit E Kwenti
Malaria and HIV, two of the world's most deadly diseases, are widespread, but their distribution overlaps greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, malaria and HIV coinfection (MHC) is common in the region. In this paper, pertinent publications on the prevalence, impact, and treatment strategies of MHC obtained by searching major electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were reviewed, and it was found that the prevalence of MHC in SSA was 0.7%-47.5% overall...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
Joshua Rhein, Kathy H Hullsiek, Emily E Evans, Lillian Tugume, Edwin Nuwagira, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Reuben Kiggundu, Edward Mpoza, Abdu K Musubire, Ananta S Bangdiwala, Nathan C Bahr, Darlisha A Williams, Mahsa Abassi, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, David R Boulware
Background: Increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability has been associated with more patients developing cryptococcosis after ART initiation. Despite this changing epidemiology, data regarding cryptococcal meningitis in those already receiving ART are limited. We compared clinical presentations and outcomes among ART-naïve and ART-experienced Ugandans. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 605 HIV-infected persons with first-episode cryptococcal meningitis from August 2013 to May 2017 who received amphotericin-based combination therapy...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Vikas Pathania, A W Kashif, R N Aggarwal
Background: Cutaneous myiasis is the infestation of the skin by larvae (maggots) of the order Diptera (two winged). Being an imported and sporadic illness, furuncular myiasis often poses a diagnostic challenge to the treating physician. This traditionally endemic entity is being more frequently reported worldwide as 'vacation' disease in travellers returning from these regions. However, there is a paucity of large scale study, especially on individuals occupationally stationed for longer periods of time in these endemic geographic locations...
July 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Joseph K B Matovu, Rose Kisa, Esther Buregyeya, Harriet Chemusto, Shaban Mugerwa, William Musoke, Caroline J Vrana, Angela M Malek, Jeffrey E Korte, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can improve HIV-testing rates in 'hard-to-reach' populations, including men. We explored HIVST perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative study implemented as part of a pilot, cluster-randomized oral HIVST intervention trial among 1,514 pregnant women attending antenatal care services at three health facilities in Central Uganda...
2018: Global Health Action
Alcides Moniz Munguambe, António Eugénio Castro Cardoso de Almeida, Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Charlotte Elizabeth Come, Tomás Francisco Zimba, José Paulo Langa, Ivano de Filippis, Eduardo Samo Gudo
INTRODUCTION: In sub Saharan Africa, the epidemiology, including the distribution of serogroups of strains of N. meningitidis is poorly investigated in countries outside "the meningitis belt". This study was conducted with the aim to determine the distribution of serogroups of strains of N. meningitidis causing meningococcal meningitis in children and adults in Mozambique. METHODS: A total of 106 PCR confirmed Neisseria meningitidis Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples or isolates were obtained from the biobank of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) surveillance being implemented by the National Institute of Health, at three central hospitals in Mozambique, from January to December 2014...
2018: PloS One
Aimé Lumaka, Valerie Race, Hilde Peeters, Anniek Corveleyn, Zeynep Coban-Akdemir, Shalini N Jhangiani, Xiaofei Song, Gerrye Mubungu, Jennifer Posey, James R Lupski, Joris R Vermeesch, Prosper Lukusa, Koenraad Devriendt
Pathogenic variants account for 4 to 41% of patients with intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD). In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of ID is thought to be higher, but data in Central Africa are limited to some case reports. In addition, clinical descriptions of some syndromes are not available for this population. This study aimed at providing an estimate for the fraction of ID/DD for which an underlying etiological genetic cause may be elucidated and provide insights into their clinical presentation in special institutions in a Central African country...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Marie-Josèphe Horner, Ande Salima, Chrissie Chilima, Matthews Mukatipa, Wiza Kumwenda, Coxcilly Kampani, Fred Chimzimu, Bal Mukunda, Tamiwe Tomoka, Maurice Mulenga, Richard Nyasosela, Steady Chasimpha, Charles Dzamalala, Satish Gopal
Purpose Cancer surveillance provides a critical evidence base to guide cancer control efforts, yet population-based coverage in Africa is sparse. Hospital-based registries may help fill this need by providing local epidemiologic data to guide policy and forecast local health care needs. We report the epidemiology of patients with cancer recorded by a de novo hospital-based cancer registry at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi, the sole provider of comprehensive oncology services for half the country and location of a high-volume pathology laboratory...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Miriam Casey-Bryars, Richard Reeve, Umesh Bastola, Nick J Knowles, Harriet Auty, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Veronica L Fowler, Robert Fyumagwa, Rudovick Kazwala, Tito Kibona, Alasdair King, Donald P King, Felix Lankester, Anna B Ludi, Ahmed Lugelo, Francois F Maree, Deogratius Mshanga, Gloria Ndhlovu, Krupali Parekh, David J Paton, Brian Perry, Jemma Wadsworth, Satya Parida, Daniel T Haydon, Thomas L Marsh, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo
Livestock production in Africa is key to national economies, food security and rural livelihoods, and > 85% of livestock keepers live in extreme poverty. With poverty elimination central to the Sustainable Development Goals, livestock keepers are therefore critically important. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious livestock disease widespread in Africa that contributes to this poverty. Despite its US$2.3 billion impact, control of the disease is not prioritized: standard vaccination regimens are too costly, its impact on the poorest is underestimated, and its epidemiology is too weakly understood...
August 6, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Evangelia-Georgia Kostaki, Timokratis Karamitros, Garyfallia Stefanou, Ioannis Mamais, Konstantinos Angelis, Angelos Hatzakis, Anna Kramvis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a global public health problem. In order to establish how HBV was disseminated across different geographic regions, we estimated the levels of regional clustering for genotypes D and A. We used 916 HBV-D and 493 HBV-A full-length sequences to reconstruct their global phylogeny. Phylogeographic analysis was conducted by reconstruction of ancestral states using the criterion of parsimony. The putative origin of genotype D was in North Africa/Middle East. HBV-D sequences form low levels of regional clustering for the Middle East and Southern Europe...
August 7, 2018: ELife
Heike Wanke, Marcel Gaj, Matthias Beyer, Paul Koeniger, Josefina T Hamutoko
The study area is the Namibian part of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), located in central northern Namibia. The CEB is home to 40 % of Namibia's population, and most of the people live in rural areas. These people depend on both surface and groundwater resources which are limited in this dryland (mean annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 550 mm/a). The isotopic signatures of δ18 O and δ2 H from water samples (n = 61) collected over a course of 9 years from various research projects and existing (but mainly unpublished) data of meteoric water of the CEB (10 sites) were evaluated and local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) developed...
August 6, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Mackenzie Kwak, Colin Somerville, Sheryl van Nunen
Tick-induced mammalian meat allergy has become an emergent allergy world-wide after van Nunen et al. first described the association between tick bites and the development of mammalian meat allergy in 2007. Cases of mammalian meat allergy have now been reported on all 6 continents where humans are bitten by ticks, in 17 countries - Australia, United States of America (USA), Europe (France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Italy, and Norway), Asia (Korea and Japan), Central America (Panama), South America (Brazil), and Africa (South Africa and Ivory Coast)...
July 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Kurt B Waldman, Robert B Richardson
Changing climatic conditions present new challenges for agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. Sorghum has proven to be an adaptable and resilient crop despite limited funding for crop development. Recent breeding efforts target hybrid and perennial technologies that may facilitate adaptation to climate change. Advantages of perennial crops over their annual counterparts include improved soil quality and water conservation and reduced inputs and labor requirements. In contrast, hybrid crops are often bred for improved grain yield and earlier maturation to avoid variable conditions...
August 2018: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
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