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inflammation and cognitive

Dongjian Xia, Rubo Sui, Lianqiu Min, Ling Zhang, Zhuang Zhang
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the fastigial nucleus (FSN) plays an important role in the development of vascular dementia (VD). Both autophagy and inflammation are functionally involved in the pathogenesis of VD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of electrical cerebellar fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) in VD treatment, as well as the effect of FNS on autophagy and inflammation. METHODS: A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the effect of FNS on the learning and memory ability of VD rats...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Katherine H M Cox, Andrew Scholey, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and chronic inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in marine algae with potential antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The modulation of these risk factors using bioactive polyphenols may represent a useful strategy for disease prevention and management; research in humans, however, remains limited. This trial aims to determine the impact of a polyphenol-rich brown seaweed extract on fasting hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and inflammation...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Mani Iyer Prasanth, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
In general, fermented foods (FFs) are considered as functional foods. Since the awareness about the health benefits of FFs has increased, the consumption of FF also improved significantly in recent decades. Diabetes is one of the leading threats of the health span of an individual. The present manuscript details the general methods of the production of FFs, and the results of various studies (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies) on the antidiabetic properties of FFs. The fermentation method and the active microbes involved in the process play a crucial role in the functional properties of FFs...
December 13, 2018: Nutrients
Semil Selcen Gocmez, Tuğçe Demirtaş Şahin, Yusufhan Yazir, Gökhan Duruksu, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Selen Polat, Tijen Utkan
Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the development of vascular dementia (VD), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The previous studies have also reported that resveratrol improves cognitive and vascular endothelial functions in several pathological conditions. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on cognitive and vascular endothelial function and to explore the mechanisms of its effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of VD...
December 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Qing-Hua Li, Liang Yu, Zheng-Wei Yu, Xiao-Liang Fan, Wang-Xiang Yao, Cheng Ji, Fang Deng, Xian-Zhe Luo, Jian-Liang Sun
OBJECTIVE: Brain injury is implicated in pathogenesis of postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD). S100A12 is involved in inflammatory process and is recently known as a biomarker for brain injury. Herein, we clarified whether serum S100A12 levels are related to POD and POCD after hip fracture surgery in elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, we gauged S100A12 levels in preoperative and postoperative serum from 186 patients and serum from 186 controls...
December 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Tianyuan Ye, Xiangbao Meng, Ruiying Wang, Chenyang Zhang, Shuaibing He, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer more risks from diabetic encephalopathy such as cognitive dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. Numerous studies show that ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Gastrodin (Gas) , one major component of Gastrodia elata , is traditionally used in central nervous system disorders and is believed to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and other neuroprotective effects. This present study aims to explore the protective effects of Gas on diabetic encephalopathy...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luofang Peng, Maoen Zhu, Yong Yang, Yingqi Weng, Wangyuan Zou, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qulian Guo, Tao Zhong
Neonatal inflammation induces long-term effects on brain function. We investigated the effects of systematic neonatal inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection at postnatal day 3 (P3) and P5 in a mouse model of spatial memory capacity measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) task in adulthood. Subsequently, we assessed histone acetylation and immediate-early response gene expression (c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the hippocampus in response to MWM acquisition training. The LPS-treated mice exhibited a significant spatial cognitive impairment, which was accompanied by insufficient histone acetylation of the H4K12 specific lysine residue and repressed c-Fos gene expression immediately after acquisition training...
December 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Diego F Niño, Qinjie Zhou, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Laura Y Martin, Sanxia Wang, William B Fulton, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, Thomas Prindle, Fan Zhang, Joshua Crawford, Zhipeng Hou, Susumu Mori, Liam L Chen, Andrew Guajardo, Ali Fatemi, Mikhail Pletnikov, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe gastrointestinal disease of the premature infant. One of the most important long-term complications observed in children who survive NEC early in life is the development of profound neurological impairments. However, the pathways leading to NEC-associated neurological impairments remain unknown, thus limiting the development of prevention strategies. We have recently shown that NEC development is dependent on the expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, whose activation by bacteria in the newborn gut leads to mucosal inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Paola Italiani, Ilaria Puxeddu, Sabrina Napoletano, Emanuele Scala, Daniela Melillo, Simone Manocchio, Antonella Angiolillo, Paola Migliorini, Diana Boraschi, Emilia Vitale, Alfonso Di Costanzo
BACKGROUND: Although the mechanisms underlying AD neurodegeneration are not fully understood, it is now recognised that inflammation could play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of AD neurodegeneration. A neuro-inflammatory network, based on the anomalous activation of microglial cells, includes the production of a number of inflammatory cytokines both locally and systemically. These may serve as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for AD neurodegeneration. METHODS: We have measured the levels of the inflammation-related cytokines and receptors of the IL-1 family in serum of subjects with AD, compared to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjective memory complaints (SMC), and normal healthy subjects (NHS)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Olivier Desmedt, Valérie J V Broers, Giorgia Zamariola, Barbara Pachikian, Nathalie Delzenne, Olivier Luminet
Studies conducted in rodents have highlighted that neurobiological processes underlying cognition and affect are modulated by the gut microbiota. Certain dietary fibers are able to modulate the composition of gut microbiota and are thus considered prebiotics. A review of the impact of the available prebiotic intervention studies in humans on cognition and affect, addressing the potential mediating role of the microbiota, was conducted. PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were selected as sources. Fourteen articles were eligible for narrative synthesis...
December 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Laura Emilia Toader, Gabriela Camelia Roşu, Bogdan Cătălin, Ionica Pirici, Ion Cristian Gîlceavă, Valeria Carmen Albu, Anca Maria Istrate-Ofiţeru, Dafin Fior Mureşanu, Daniel Pirici
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Limor Raz, Yi Yang, Jeffrey Thompson, Sasha Hobson, John Pesko, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Gary Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Currently there are no treatments besides the control of vascular risk factors. We tested two MMP-9 inhibitors that improved outcome in acute stroke: DP-460 and SB-3CT...
2018: PloS One
Adam K Walker, Aeson Chang, Alexandra I Ziegler, Haryana M Dhillon, Janette L Vardy, Erica K Sloan
Cancer patients with non-central nervous system tumors often suffer from cognitive impairment. While chemotherapy has long been attributed as the cause of these memory, learning and concentration difficulties, we recently observed cognitive impairment in cancer patients prior to treatment. This suggests the cancer alone may be sufficient to induce cognitive impairment, however the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that we can experimentally replicate the clinical phenomenon of cancer-associated cognitive impairment and we identify inflammation as a causal mechanism...
2018: PloS One
Knut A Hestad, Jonathan Chinyama, Menon J Anitha, Mary S Ngoma, J Allen McCutchan, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may result in neurocognitive deficits, but the effects of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB+), a common comorbid condition in HIV infection, on cognition in HIV infections are unknown. Accordingly, we examined the effects of TB+, on neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected (HIV+) Zambian adults. SETTING: All participants were drawn from HIV clinics in and around Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. METHODS: Participants were 275 HIV+, of whom 237 were HIV+ and TB-negative (HIV+/TB-), and 38 also had pulmonary TB+ (HIV+/TB+)...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related, progressive neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline and responsible for most cases of dementia in the elderly. Late-onset or sporadic AD accounts for > 95% of cases, with age at onset > 65 years. Currently there are no drugs or other therapeutic agents available to prevent or delay the progression of AD. The cellular and molecular changes occurring in the brains of individuals with AD include accumulation of β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, decrease of acetylcholine neurotransmitter, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Yftach Gepner, J R Hoffman, M W Hoffman, H Zelicha, H Cohen, I Ostfeld
INTRODUCTION: Intense military operations during deployment or training are associated with elevations in inflammatory cytokine markers. However, the influence of an inflammatory response on military-specific skills is unclear. This study examined the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillar acidic protein, markers of inflammation, marksmanship and cognitive function following a week of intense military field training. METHODS: Twenty male soldiers (20...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Clara Nilholm, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund, Kaj Blennow, Elisabet Englund, Oskar Hansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Bodil Ohlsson
Food may induce inflammation and favor development of metabolic diseases, which have been associated with increased inflammation and potential risk of cognitive impairment. It is customary to know whether food or disease promote inflammation. Our hypothesis was that Okinawan-based Nordic (O-BN) diet leads to decreased circulating concentrations of inflammatory and neural biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the O-BN diet on inflammatory and neural responses. First, 2 different breakfasts; one standard and another O-BN-based, were given in random order to 19 healthy volunteers...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Frank M Schmidt, Christian Sander, Juliane Minkwitz, Roland Mergl, Bethan Dalton, Lesca M Holdt, Daniel Teupser, Ulrich Hegerl, Hubertus Himmerich
Background: The personality trait neuroticism has been implicated in a poor response to stress, may relate to increased concentrations of cytokines and the development of depression. Inflammatory mechanisms may also be associated with the onset, severity and symptoms of depression. Both are related to poor antidepressant treatment outcome. Therefore, mediators of inflammation may bridge the relationship between neuroticism and depression. Methods: To disentangle these interrelationships, the associations between neuroticism (according to NEO-PIR-N), depressive symptoms (BDI-II scores) and serum levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, GM-CSF were investigated in a group of 212 participants, consisting of 37 depressed and 175 non-depressed subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tianyuan Ye, Xiangbao Meng, Yadong Zhai, Weijie Xie, Ruiying Wang, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk for cognitive dysfunction. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and inflammation play crucial roles in DM. Gastrodin (Gas), the main component of Gastrodia elata , possesses anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. This present study aims to investigate whether Gas could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in DM and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 2 DM were used in this study. After administration of Gas for 5 weeks, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum, TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA and SOD in the hippocampus were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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