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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314597/molecular-imaging-of-the-cholinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L T M Müller
One of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is expanding to studying cholinergic correlates of mobility impairments, dyskinesias, olfaction, sleep, visual hallucinations and risk taking behavior in this disorder...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309389/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-the-glutaminyl-cyclase-inhibitor-pq912-in-alzheimer-s-disease-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2a-study
#2
Philip Scheltens, Merja Hallikainen, Timo Grimmer, Thomas Duning, Alida A Gouw, Charlotte E Teunissen, Alle Meije Wink, Paul Maruff, John Harrison, Caroline M van Baal, Suzanne Bruins, Inge Lues, Niels D Prins
BACKGROUND: PQ912 is an inhibitor of the glutaminyl cyclase enzyme that plays a central role in the formation of synaptotoxic pyroglutamate-A-beta oligomers. We report on the first clinical study with PQ912 in subjects with biomarker-proven Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim was to determine the maximal tolerated dose, target occupancy and treatment-related pharmacodynamic effects. The exploratory efficacy readouts selected were tailored to the patient population with early AD. The therapeutic approach focuses on synaptic dysfunction as captured by various measures such as electroencephalography (EEG), synaptic biomarkers and sensitive cognitive tests...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298049/hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-hla-c-binding-stability-to-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-a-missing-piece-of-the-pathogenetic-puzzle
#3
Donato Zipeto, Michela Serena, Simona Mutascio, Francesca Parolini, Erica Diani, Elisabetta Guizzardi, Valentina Muraro, Emanuela Lattuada, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Marina Malena, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Giovanni Malerba, Maria Grazia Romanelli, Stefano Tamburin, Davide Gibellini
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are complications of HIV-1 infection. Viral infections are risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation in the brain, i.e., the inflammaging. The molecular mechanisms linking immunosenescence, inflammaging and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease, are largely unknown. ADC and HAND share some pathological features with AD and may offer some hints on the relationship between viral infections, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296384/cognitive-impairment-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-disease-burden-determinants-and-possible-future-interventions
#4
Martijn van Beers, Daisy J A Janssen, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols
Cognitive impairment (CI) is an important but an under-recognized extra-pulmonary feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is related to the burden of disability, worse health outcomes and impaired self-management. Areas covered: CI includes deterioration of a wide range of cognitive functions, such as memory and various executive functions. Risk of hospitalization might be higher in patients with COPD compared to those without, with CI negatively impacting the wellbeing of patients with COPD...
October 8, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294845/protection-of-brain-development-by-antenatal-magnesium-sulphate-for-infants-born-preterm
#5
REVIEW
Clément Chollat, Loic Sentilhes, Stéphane Marret
Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the most significant neurological disorder associated with preterm birth. It disrupts quality of life and places huge cost burdens on society. Antenatal magnesium sulphate administration to females before 32 weeks' gestation has proven to be an effective intervention to reduce the rate of CP. In models of hypoxia, hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and excitotoxicity in various animal species, magnesium sulphate preconditioning decreased the resulting lesion sizes and inflammatory cytokine levels, prevented cell death, and improved long-term cognitive and motor behaviours...
October 7, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290200/endocannabinoids-exercise-pain-and-a-path-to-health-with-aging
#6
REVIEW
Bruce A Watkins
Physical activity is an important lifestyle factor for growth, development, and sustained health throughout life. In recent years, the benefits of physical activity have drawn more attention to its physiological effects on the body, including well-being. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a focal point to ascertain the mechanisms for how exercise benefits the body and how it reduces or controls pain. The ECS, its ligands [the endocannabinoids (eCB)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes for the synthesis and degradation of eCB, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that serve as substrates, comprise a powerful biological organization of multiple controls that affects mood, inflammation, pain, and other neurological aspects of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system...
October 5, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288668/l-norvaline-reverses-cognitive-decline-and-synaptic-loss-in-a-murine-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Baruh Polis, Kolluru D Srikanth, Evan Elliott, Hava Gil-Henn, Abraham O Samson
The urea cycle is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Arginase-I (ARGI) accumulation at sites of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition is associated with L-arginine deprivation and neurodegeneration. An interaction between the arginase II (ARGII) and mTOR-ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 (S6K1) pathways promotes inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we treated triple-transgenic (3×Tg) mice exhibiting increased S6K1 activity and wild-type (WT) mice with L-norvaline, which inhibits both arginase and S6K1...
October 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287152/-%C3%AE-bisabolol-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-memory-deficits-through-reduction-of-proinflammatory-markers-induced-by-permanent-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#8
Mara Yone Dias Fernandes, Marta Regina Santos do Carmo, Analu Aragão Fonteles, Julliana Catharina de Sousa Neves, Ana Thaís Araújo da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Pereira, Emerson de Oliveira Ferreira, Neila Maria Rocha de Lima, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Geanne Matos de Andrade
The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke involves multiple events such as inflammation and oxidative stress which will lead to neuronal death and cognitive deficits. The (-)-α-bisabolol is a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol found in various plants and mainly in Matricaria chamomilla, which exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of (-)-α-bisabolol in mice underwent permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO)...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282360/neuroprotective-effects-of-amylin-analogues-on-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-and-cognition
#9
John Grizzanti, Rachel Corrigan, Gemma Casadesus
Type II diabetes (T2D) has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, both AD and T2D have similar characteristics including amyloid peptide aggregation, decreased metabolism, and increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite their prevalence, therapies for these diseases are limited. To date, most therapies for AD have targeted amyloid-β or tau. Unfortunately, most of these clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful, creating a crucial need for novel therapies...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281647/chronic-oral-application-of-a-periodontal-pathogen-results-in-brain-inflammation-neurodegeneration-and-amyloid-beta-production-in-wild-type-mice
#10
Vladimir Ilievski, Paulina K Zuchowska, Stefan J Green, Peter T Toth, Michael E Ragozzino, Khuong Le, Haider W Aljewari, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds, Keiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The results from cross sectional and longitudinal studies show that periodontitis is closely associated with cognitive impairment (CI) and Alzhemer's Disease (AD). Further, studies using animal model of periodontitis and human post-mortem brain tissues from subjects with AD strongly suggest that a gram-negative periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and/or its product gingipain is/are translocated to the brain. However, neuropathology resulting from Pg oral application is not known...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281641/systemic-inflammation-and-eye-diseases-the-beijing-eye-study
#11
Jost B Jonas, Wen Bin Wei, Liang Xu, Ya Xing Wang
PURPOSE: Systemic inflammation is potentially associated with ocular diseases such as late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the serum concentration of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as surrogate of systemic inflammation, we examined potential associations between the serum hs-CRP concentration and the presence and degree of eye diseases. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study included 3468 Chinese individuals. The study participants underwent a standardized interview and a detailed ophthalmic examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281028/chronic-family-stress-and-adolescent-health-the-moderating-role-of-emotion-regulation
#12
Emily J Jones, Phoebe H Lam, Lauren C Hoffer, Edith Chen, Hannah M C Schreier
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether the association between chronic family stress and physiological measures is moderated by emotion regulation strategies in an adolescent sample. METHODS: Chronic family stress was assessed via a semistructured interview and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and suppression) via questionnaire among 261 adolescents (14.57 (1.07) years). Several metabolic (waist-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and inflammatory markers (basal and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in response to bacterial challenge) as well as glucocorticoid sensitivity were assessed...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280789/effects-of-il-1%C3%AE-on-hippocampus-cell-apoptosis-and-learning-ability-of-vascular-dementia-rats
#13
L-L Guo, D-S Wang, Y-Y Xu, K-G Cui
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dementia (VD) is a type of memory, cognition, and behavior disorder caused by ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. It is a common pathogenesis of dementia that is only second to Alzheimer's disease. Inflammation plays a key role in VD. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a kind of pro-inflammatory cytokine, while its mechanism in VD occurrence and development is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The healthy male rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group, VD model group (established by bilateral common carotid artery ligation), and IL-1β group (treated by IL-1β monoclonal antibody intracerebroventricular injection on based on model group)...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279624/increased-oxidative-stress-and-coenzyme-q10-deficiency-in-centenarians
#14
Midori Nagase, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Nozomi Matsumoto, Yasumichi Arai, Nobuyoshi Hirose
Aging populations are expanding worldwide, and the increasing requirement for nursing care has become a serious problem. Furthermore, successful aging is one of the highest priorities for individuals and societies. Centenarians are an informative cohort to study and inflammation has been found to be a key factor in predicting cognition and physical capabilities. Inflammation scores have been determined based on the levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein, however, serum antioxidants and lipid profiles have not been carefully examined...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279001/potential-roles-of-neurotensin-on-cognition-in-conditions-of-obese-insulin-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Napatsorn Saiyasit, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Neurotensin is an endogenous tridecapeptide that can be found in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Under normal physiological conditions, neurotensin is involved in the regulation of pain, body temperature, physical activity, appetite as well as learning and memory. In addition, it plays an important role in fat metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of neurotensin levels were associated with several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, mood disorders, and obesity associated eating disorders...
September 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276955/replacement-of-microglia-in-the-aged-brain-reverses-cognitive-synaptic-and-neuronal-deficits-in-mice
#16
Monica R P Elmore, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Enikö A Kramár, Lilach Soreq, Rafael J Lee, Stephanie T Pham, Allison R Najafi, Elizabeth E Spangenberg, Marcelo A Wood, Brian L West, Kim N Green
Microglia, the resident immune cell of the brain, can be eliminated via pharmacological inhibition of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). Withdrawal of CSF1R inhibition then stimulates microglial repopulation, effectively replacing the microglial compartment. In the aged brain, microglia take on a "primed" phenotype and studies indicate that this coincides with age-related cognitive decline. Here, we investigated the effects of replacing the aged microglial compartment with new microglia using CSF1R inhibitor-induced microglial repopulation...
October 2, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275499/cognitive-dysfunction-in-atrial-fibrillation
#17
REVIEW
Malini Madhavan, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Jonathan P Piccini, Bernard J Gersh
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults, and its incidence and prevalence increase with age. The risk of cognitive impairment and dementia also increases with age, and both AF and cognitive impairment or dementia share important risk factors. In meta-analyses of published studies, AF is associated with a 2.4-fold and 1.4-fold increase in the risk of dementia in patients with or without a history of stroke, respectively. This association is independent of shared risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus...
October 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273893/elevated-c-reactive-protein-as-a-predictor-of-a-random-one-year-clinical-course-in-the-first-ten-years-of-schizophrenia
#18
Leticia Gonzalez-Blanco, Maria P Garcia-Portilla, Leticia Garcia-Alvarez, Lorena de la Fuente-Tomas, Celso Iglesias Garcia, Pilar A Saiz, Julio Bobes
We investigate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels could predict the clinical course of patients with schizophrenia in a prospective study of 50 stable outpatients during a random 1-year period within the first 10 years of illness. Positive, negative, depressive, and cognitive symptoms were evaluated. Patients with low-grade inflammation (CRP = 3-10 mg/L; 28%) at baseline showed significant worsening of PANSS-positive and general psychopathology at 1-year follow-up compared with those with CRP ≤ 3 mg/L...
August 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271706/the-creative-psychosocial-genomic-healing-experience-cpghe-and-gene-expression-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-feasibility-study
#19
Francisco V Muñoz, Linda Larkey
Background: Biomarkers associated with inflammation and immune function are increasingly being used to examine mechanisms of the effects of mind-body therapies. Less researched are biomarkers associated with cognitive and executive functioning in the study of mind-body therapy mechanisms and effects. This study explored the feasibility of recruiting breast cancer patients (BCPs) and implementation fidelity of participation in a research project utilizing the 4-stage Creative Psychosocial Genomic Healing Experience (CPGHE), a mind-body protocol that is theorized to create epigenetic effects via targeted psychological change in emotional triggers in coping with cancer...
April 2018: Advances in Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268095/inflammation-caused-by-peripheral-immune-cells-across-into-injured-mouse-blood-brain-barrier-can-worsen-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-isoflurane
#20
Honghua Zhu, Wei Liu, Hao Fang
BACKGROUND: Disruption to the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a leading factor associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Despite this, the underlying mechanism by which BBB disruption promotes POCD in the elderly population has not yet been not fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, we established a POCD mice model using isoflurane, and observed the highly expressed occludin and claudin 5 in brain tissues concomitant with the increased enrichment of CD4 positive cells and NK cells in the hippocampus of POCD mice compared to normal and non-POCD control...
September 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
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