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inflammation and cognitive

Yu Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Xu Liu, Yumin Zheng, Lei Li, Su Meng
OBJECTIVE: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which significantly impacts the quality of people's life. Oxytocin is a hormone impacting the social cognition and interpersonal trust. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of oxytocin in autism. METHODS: Autistic mice models were established by valproate. Animal behaviors were assessed by open field test, tail suspension test, marble burying test and three-chamber social interaction test. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels or activities of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, reduced glutathione and reactive oxygen species...
August 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Laura Giusti, Cristina Angeloni, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Serena Lacerenza, Federica Ciregia, Maurizio Ronci, Andrea Urbani, Clementina Manera, Maria Digiacomo, Marco Macchia, Maria Rosa Mazzoni, Antonio Lucacchini, Silvana Hrelia
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that share common features like abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, impairment of mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Despite recent advances in the research of biomarkers, early diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy, there are no treatments that can halt the progression of these age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that long-term intake of a Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, correlates with better cognition in aged populations...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saima Zameer, Abul Kalam Najmi, Divya Vohora, Mohd Akhtar
Neurodegenerative disorders and osteoporosis share some common underlying pathological features including calcium overload, accumulation of toxic chemicals, inflammation and impaired protein prenylation by isoprenoids (farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate) appear later stage of life. Substantial number of pre-clinical and clinical reports as well as in vitro data univocally acknowledged the negative impact of altered post-translational modification (prenylation) of proteins like small GTPases (Rffhes, Rho, Rac etc...
March 30, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Mohammed Nuru, Nino Muradashvili, Anuradha Kalani, David Lominadze, Neetu Tyagi
Methionine is an essential amino acid found in rich quantities in average American diet such as meats, fish and eggs. Excessive consumption of such food often exceeds the normal requirement of the methionine in our body; which found to be related to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanistic pathways of methionine's influence on the brain are unclear. The present study is focus on the effects of high methionine, low folate and low vitamin B6/B12 (HM-LF-LV) diet on the dysfunction of neuronal and vascular specific markers in the brain...
August 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Wanghui Jing, Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in various central nervous systems (CNS) disorders including cognitive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, movement disorders, seizures and encephalopathy. Uremic retention products, oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood-brain barrier have been implicated as the major mediators of CKD-induced CNS disorders. However, mechanisms of CKD-induced cerebral tissue oxidative stress, inflammation and impaired blood brain barrier have not been fully elucidated and were explored...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Maryam Haghshomar, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Mehdi Shirin Shandiz, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by a series of pathological mechanisms which contribute to a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD which has shed light on our understanding of structural abnormalities underlying PD symptoms or its associations with pathological mechanisms. One of the white matter tracts shown to be disrupted in PD with a possible contribution to some PD symptoms is the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi
Physical activity-a lifestyle factor that is associated with immune function, neuroprotection, and energy metabolism-modulates the cellular and molecular processes in the brain that are vital for emotional and cognitive health, collective mechanisms that can go awry in depression. Physical activity optimizes the stress response, neurotransmitter level and function (e.g., serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic), myokine production (e.g., interleukin-6), transcription factor levels and correlates [e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Huixin Xu, Molly M Rajsombath, Pia Weikop, Dennis J Selkoe
Environmental enrichment (EE) is a rodent behavioral paradigm that can model the cognitive benefits to humans associated with intellectual activity and exercise. We recently discovered EE's anti-inflammatory protection of brain microglia against soluble oligomers of human amyloid β-protein (oAβ). Mechanistically, we report that the key factor in microglial protection by EE is chronically enhanced β-adrenergic signaling. Quantifying microglial morphology and inflammatory RNA profiles revealed that mice in standard housing (SH) fed the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol experienced similar protection of microglia against oAβ-induced inflammation as did mice in EE Conversely, mice in EE fed the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol lost microglial protection against oAβ...
August 9, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Elena Pezzolo, Unal Mutlu, Meike W Vernooij, Emmilia A Dowlatshahi, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni, Tamar Nijsten, M Arfan Ikram, Marlies Wakkee
BACKGROUND: Based on increased cardio-metabolic comorbidities, inflammation and an overlap in genetics with Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis patients may be at risk for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To compare cognition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-markers and dementia risk in psoriasis and non-psoriasis participants in the population-based Rotterdam Study. METHODS: We identified 318 psoriatic and 9678 non-psoriatic participants (mean age: 66...
August 6, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Maria Eriksdotter, Manuel Navarro-Oviedo, Sumonto Mitra, Lars Wahlberg, Bengt Linderoth, Lars O Tjernberg, Homira Behbahani
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early degeneration of cholinergic neurons and decreased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF). Thus, increasing the NGF levels by for instance encapsulated cell bio-delivery (ECB) is a potential treatment strategy. The results from our previous first-in-human studies on ECB of NGF to the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were promising, but indicated some variability of long-term viability of the encapsulated cells and associated reduced NGF-release. Here we studied the effect of amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), and CSF from AD, Lewy body dementia (LBD) or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) patients on the NGF overproducing cell line NGC-0295...
August 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jens Kamuf, Andreas Garcia-Bardon, Alexander Ziebart, Rainer Thomas, Konstantin Folkert, Katrin Frauenknecht, Serge C Thal, Erik K Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: The acute respiratory distress syndrome is not only associated with a high mortality, but also goes along with cognitive impairment in survivors. The cause for this cognitive impairment is still not clear. One possible mechanism could be cerebral inflammation as result of a "lung-brain-crosstalk". Even mechanical ventilation itself can induce cerebral inflammation. We hypothesized, that an acute lung injury aggravates the cerebral inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation itself and leads to neuronal damage...
2018: PloS One
Daniel P Moriarity, Brae Anne McArthur, Lauren M Ellman, Christopher L Coe, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
There is evidence that anxiety precedes the onset of depression and that rumination contributes to this risk pathway in adolescence. This study examined inflammatory biomarkers as mediators in a risk model of depressive symptoms secondary to anxiety symptoms among adolescents who ruminate. A sample of 140 adolescents (52% female, 54% African American, 40% Caucasian, 6% biracial, mean age at T1 = 16.5 years, SD = 1.2 years) provided blood samples on two visits (T1 and T2; mean time between T1 and T2 = 13...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Erik M G Olsson, Fredrika Norlund, Ronnie Pingel, Gunilla Burell, Mats Gulliksson, Anders Larsson, Bo Karlsson, Kurt Svärdsudd, Claes Held
BACKGROUND: The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) is a prospective randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stress management program for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The intervention reduced the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the present study was to analyze if the positive effects of the CBT program on clinical outcomes could have been mediated by changes in biomarkers for inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
J Russell Huie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, John K Yue, Marco Sorani, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey T Manley, Adam R Ferguson
The complex and heterogeneous nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has rendered the identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers elusive. A single acute biomarker may not be sufficient to categorize injury severity and/or predict outcome. Using multivariate dimension reduction analyses, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of a multianalyte panel of proteins as an ensemble biomarker for TBI. Serum was collected within 24 hours of injury in a cohort of 130 patients enrolled in the multicenter prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study and run on an array that measured 72 proteins...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Charles P Hinzman, Janet E Baulch, Khyati Y Mehta, Kirandeep Gill, Charles L Limoli, Amrita K Cheema
It is well known that ionizing radiation-induced toxicity to normal tissue has functional consequences in the brain. However, the underlying molecular alterations have yet to be elucidated. We have previously reported cognitive impairments with concomitant changes in dendritic complexity, spine density and inflammation in mice at 6-24 weeks postirradiation. The goal of this study was to determine whether metabolic changes in the mouse hippocampus after whole-body (4 Gy) or cranial (9 Gy) X-ray irradiation might trigger some of the incipient changes contributing to the persisting pathology in the radiation-injured brain...
August 7, 2018: Radiation Research
Ana C Silveira, Jane Pires Dias, Vanessa M Santos, Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Marco G Alves, Luis Rato, Branca M Silva
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two prevalent diseases in modern societies, which are caused mainly by current lifestyle, aging and genetic alterations. It has already been demonstrated that these two diseases are associated since individuals suffering from DM are prone to develop AD. Conversely, it is also known that individuals with AD are more susceptible to DM, namely type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, these two pathologies, although completely different in terms of symptomatology, end up sharing several mechanisms at the molecular level, being the most obvious the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Dorian A Lamis, Jameson K Hirsch, Kelley C Pugh, Raluca Topciu, Sheri A Nsamenang, Andrew Goodman, Paul R Duberstein
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder marked by inflammation of the central nervous system, is associated with a myriad of symptoms. Individuals with MS are more likely to experience depressive symptoms, perhaps due to perceived cognitive impairments. Thus, we aimed to explore perceived stress and sleep deficits as potential mediators of the association between perceived cognitive deficits and depressive symptoms. We recruited a sample of 77 MS participants from an outpatient, university-based MS clinic in the United States...
July 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jason Kilian, Masashi Kitazawa
As incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases rise, there is increasing interest in environmental factors which may contribute to disease onset and progression. Air pollution has been known as a major health hazard for decades. While its effects on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality have been extensively studied, growing evidence has emerged that exposure to polluted air is associated with impaired cognitive functions at all ages and increased risk of AD and other dementias in later life; this association is particularly notable with traffic related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, black carbon, and small diameter airborne solids and liquids known as particulate matter...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Mark T Mackay, Maja Steinlin
This review will discuss important developments in childhood arterial ischemic stroke over the past decade, focusing on improved understanding of the causes, consequences, and targets for intervention. Risk factors for childhood arterial ischemic stroke are different to adults. Infections, particularly herpes group viruses, are important precipitants for stroke. Non-atherosclerotic arteriopathies are the most common cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke and an important predictor of recurrent events. Recent advances include the identification of serum biomarkers for inflammation and endothelial injury, and imaging biomarkers to monitor for vascular progression...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
G Fond, M Faugere, C Faget-Agius, M Cermolacce, R Richieri, L Boyer, C Lançon
Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with, respectively, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), and cognitive disorders in the general population, and with positive and negative symptoms and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in a non-selected multicentric sample of SZ subjects in day hospital. Hypovitaminosis D was defined by blood vitamin D level < 25 nM. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Calgary Depression Rating Scale Score and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Score...
August 4, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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