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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152432/acute-changes-in-mentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-treated-with-high-doses-of-dexamethasone
#1
Luis Dabul, Andrew Droney, Juan Oms, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#2
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132642/validity-of-arabic-version-of-the-two-question-quick-inventory-of-depression-qid-2-ar-screening-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-an-arab-environment-and-during-the-syrian-war
#3
A Kubitary, M A Alsaleh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the two-question Quick Inventory of Depression (QID-2-Ar) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients living in Syria during the war. METHODS: A total of 100 Syrian MS patients, aged 18-60 years, were recruited at Damascus Hospital and Ibn Al-Nafees Hospital to validate the QID-2-Ar, including analyses of its screening test parameters and its construct validity. RESULTS: The QID-2-Ar screening parameters for depression tested very positively, and its construct validity was also favorable (P<0...
November 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122693/vitamin-a-improves-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-decreases-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-a-pilot-study
#4
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Xiao Liu, Juan Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77.9% of autistic children were found to have vitamin A deficiency, and the concentration of vitamin A was negatively associated with the CARS score. In the present study, we sought to test whether vitamin A supplementation could improve autistic symptoms and decrease serum 5-HT levels...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038711/study-of-the-c677t-and-1298ac-polymorphic-genotypes-of-mthfr-gene-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Farida El-Baz, Mohammed Abd El-Aal, Tarek Moustafa Kamal, Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Amr Ahmed Othman
BACKGROUND: Autism is currently known as "a behaviorally defined syndrome" manifested as impairment in social communication, repetitive routines and restricted interests. There is an increased risk of ASDs associated with common mutations affecting the folate/methylation cycle. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify C677T and 1298AC polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR gene among a sample of Egyptian children with autism and to make a phenotype-genotype correlation for the autistic patients...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024875/social-networking-online-to-recover-from-opioid-use-disorder-a-study-of-community-interactions
#6
Alexandra R D'Agostino, Allison R Optican, Shaina J Sowles, Melissa J Krauss, Kiriam Escobar Lee, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
BACKGROUND: Social media has increasingly become a venue for health discourse and support, particularly for vulnerable individuals. This study examines user-generated content of an online Reddit community targeting individuals recovering from opiate addiction. METHODS: 100 Reddit posts and their comments were collected from the online community on August 19, 2016. Posts were qualitatively coded for opioid use disorder (OUD) criteria as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as well as other common themes...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018160/dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-published-cases
#7
Nicola Warren, Cullen O'Gorman, Alexander Lehn, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVES: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is an uncommon complication of the treatment of Parkinson's disease, characterised by addictive behaviour and excessive use of dopaminergic medication. DDS may frequently go unrecognised or misdiagnosed. We aimed to clarify current understanding of presentation, risk factors, comorbidities and management of DDS. METHODS: Case reports were identified through a systematic search of databases (PubMed, Embase) with the following terms: dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome, hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation, dopamine/levodopa addiction...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985260/validation-of-the-6-item-cognitive-impairment-test-and-the-4at-test-for-combined-delirium-and-dementia-screening-in-older-emergency-department-attendees
#8
Dawn O'Sullivan, Noeleen Brady, Edmund Manning, Emma O'Shea, Síle O'Grady, Niamh O 'Regan, Suzanne Timmons
Background: screening for cognitive impairment in Emergency Department (ED) requires short, reliable tools. Objective: to validate the 4AT and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT) for ED dementia and delirium screening. Design: diagnostic accuracy study. Setting/subjects: attendees aged ≥70 years in a tertiary care hospital's ED. Methods: trained researchers assessed participants using the Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98 and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, informing ultimate expert diagnosis using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) criteria for dementia and delirium (reference standards)...
September 1, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981223/-child-behavior-disorder-clinical-reasoning-in-general-practice
#9
N Kacenelenbogen
CONTEXT: in Belgium 70 % of the children aged 0 - 14 years have at least one annual contact with their family doctor, while for the same period, only 6 - 12 % of them will see a neuropaediatrician and/or a child psychiatrist, despite the fact that a diagnostic of Externalizing behavior before the age of 6 to 7 years, such as various ways of aggressiveness, of anger or of stealing will very often alert the family, the staff of creches or nursery as well as the teachers. Other children are showing signs of Internalizing behavior, very often together with depression or other forms of anxiety...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927969/comparison-of-metabolic-syndrome-prevalence-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-i-disorder
#10
Razieh Nayerifard, Majid Akbari Bureng, Alireza Zahiroddin, Massood Namjoo, Sepideh Rajezi
Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. METHODS: A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V...
May 4, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#11
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#12
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869952/risk-factors-for-delirium-in-older-medical-inpatients-in-tanzania
#13
Emma Grace Lewis, Jessica Banks, Stella-Maria Paddick, Ashanti Duinmaijer, Laura Tucker, Aloyce Kisoli, Jane Cletus, Carolyn Lissu, Kajiru Kilonzo, Glynis Cosker, Elizabeta Blagoja Mukaetova-Ladinska, Catherine Dotchin, William Gray, Richard Walker, Sarah Urasa
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for prevalent delirium in older hospitalised adults in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remain poorly characterised. METHODS: A total of 510 consecutive admissions of adults aged ≥60 years to acute medical wards of Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in northern Tanzania were recruited. Patients were assessed within 24 h of admission with a risk factor questionnaire, physiological observations, neurocognitive assessment, and informant interview...
September 5, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812287/racial-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-the-usa-testing-the-reverse-racism-hypothesis
#14
Bongki Woo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. METHOD: Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#15
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795065/psycho-social-and-mental-variables-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-traffic-accident-survivors-in-northern-iran
#16
Naema Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh, Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri, Hooman Shahsavari, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Hamid Haghani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psycho-social and mental variables associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a series of Iranian patients. METHODS: A total of 528 eligible accident survivors in pre-sampling of a randomized controlled trial targeting PTSD were included in this cross-sectional study. Psycho-social characteristics associated to PTSD were explored in these survivors in an outpatient clinic. They completed the questionnaires via interview between six weeks to six months after accident...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736421/pathological-disabled-transgender-the-ethics-history-laws-and-contradictions-in-models-that-best-serve-transgender-rights
#17
Lance Wahlert, Sabrina Gill
This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734238/decreased-levels-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutaş, Nilfer Şahin, Hayati Sınır, Ebru Fındıklı
Sex hormones, specially estrogen, and ıt is receptors plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ASD and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a recently discovered estrogen receptors, and also to study the relation of serum GPER levels with the severity of autistic symptoms. The present study included 45 children with drug naive ASD diagnosed by DSM-V criteria, aged between 3 and 12 years and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734237/the-spider-and-the-snake-a-psychometric-study-of-two-phobias-and-insights-from-the-hungarian-validation
#19
Andras N Zsido
Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period...
July 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655025/effect-of-buprenorphine-weekly-depot-cam2038-and-hydromorphone-blockade-in-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sharon L Walsh, Sandra D Comer, Michelle R Lofwall, Bradley Vince, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Debra Kelsh, Marion A Coe, Jermaine D Jones, Paul A Nuzzo, Fredrik Tiberg, Behshad Sheldon, Sonnie Kim
Importance: Buprenorphine is an efficacious, widely used treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Daily oral transmucosal formulations can be associated with misuse, diversion, and nonadherence; these limitations may be obviated by a sustained release formulation. Objective: To evaluate the ability of a novel, weekly, subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulation, CAM2038, to block euphorigenic opioid effects and suppress opioid withdrawal in non-treatment-seeking individuals with OUD...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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