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synthetic control

Stefano Carli, Giulia Fioravanti, Andrea Armirotti, Francesca Ciarpella, Mirko Prato, Giuliana Ottonello, Marco Salerno, Alice Scarpellini, Daniela Perrone, Elena Marchesi, Davide Ricci, Luciano Fadiga
Localized drug delivery represents one of the most challenging uses of systems based on conductive polymer films. Typically, anionic drugs are incorporated within conductive polymers through the electrostatic interaction with the positively charged polymer. Following this approach, the synthetic glucocorticoid Dexamethasone-phosphate is often delivered from neural probes to reduce the inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Encouraged by recent literature on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), we incorporated for the first time this natural bile acid within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)...
December 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Daria Esyunina, Danil Pupov, Andrey Kulbachinskiy
Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) serves as a primase during replication of single-stranded plasmids and filamentous phages. Primer RNA (prRNA) synthesis from the origin regions of these replicons depends on the σ factor that normally participates in promoter recognition. However, it was proposed that σ may not be required for origin recognition but is rather involved in RNA extension by RNAP. Here, by analyzing the natural replication origin of bacteriophage M13 and synthetic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) templates, we show that interactions of σ with promoter-like motifs stabilize priming complexes and can control prRNA synthesis by trapping RNAP on the template...
December 8, 2018: FEBS Letters
Alexander Alabugin
Photoactive molecules enable much of modern biology and biochemistry - a vast library of fluorescent chromophores is used to track and label cellular structures and macromolecules. However, photochemistry is better-known to the synthetic or physical organic chemist as a "light switch" that turns on unusual excited-state reactivity, isomerization, or dynamic adjustment of structure. This review details a rapidly growing approach to bio-photochemistry that uses low-energy near-IR wavelengths not only for imaging, but for close spatial control over chemical switching events in biosystems...
December 7, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Ali Entezari, Iman Roohani, Guanglong Li, Colin R Dunstan, Pierre Rognon, Qing Li, Xinquan Jiang, Hala Zreiqat
The successful regeneration of functional bone tissue in critical-size defects remains a significant clinical challenge. To address this challenge, synthetic bone scaffolds are widely developed, but remarkably few are translated to the clinic due to poor performance in vivo. Here, it is demonstrated how architectural design of 3D printed scaffolds can improve in vivo outcomes. Ceramic scaffolds with different pore sizes and permeabilities, but with similar porosity and interconnectivity, are implanted in rabbit calvaria for 12 weeks, and then the explants are harvested for microcomputed tomography evaluation of the volume and functionality of newly formed bone...
December 7, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Mariana Morais Tavares Colferai, Gabriela Momente Miquelin, Denise Steiner
BACKGROUND: Melasma is an acquired, chronic, recurrent hypermelanosis that occurs exclusively in areas exposed to the sun. Its treatment can be very challenging. Tranexamic acid (TA) is an inhibitor of plasmin, and it is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine that reversibly blocks binding sites on the plasminogen molecule, inhibiting the plasminogen activator from converting plasminogen to plasmin. AIMS: This study evaluated the efficacy of oral TA in the treatment of melasma in patients from a philanthropic dermatological clinic...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Xiaoju Li, Huixiao Yang, Zijian Zhang, Zhonghai Yan, Huling Lv, Yan Zhang, Bin Wu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of concentrated growth factor exudate (CGFe) on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α. From the peripheral blood of healthy donors, CGFe was prepared according to the Sacco protocol after 7 days of incubation. The hPDLCs were cultured by a tissue explant method and identified with anti‑vimentin and anti‑cytokeratin antibodies. Cells were subjected to four different treatments: i) Control; ii) TNF‑α (10 ng/ml); iii) CGFe (concentration 50%); and iv) CGFe+TNF‑α...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rebeca Gutiérrez-Moreno, David Mota-Sanchez, Carlos A Blanco, Mark E Whalon, Henry Terán-Santofimio, J Concepcion Rodriguez-Maciel, Christina DiFonzo
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main pests of corn in many areas of the American continent. The reliance on pesticides to control fall armyworm has led to the development of insecticide resistance in many regions. We determined the resistance levels of fall armyworm to insecticides of different modes of action in fall armyworm populations from Puerto Rico and several Mexican states with different insecticide use patterns. Mexican populations that expressed higher resistance ratios (RR50) were: Sonora (20-fold to chlorpyriphos), Oaxaca (19-fold to permethrin), and Sinaloa (10-fold to flubendamide)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zhan-Qi Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Hai-Qing Li, Ya-Ming Jiang, Ming-Ya Cao, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Min-Hui Pan
Background: Silkworm genetic engineering is widely used in gene function, silk engineering and disease-resistant engineering in most of Asia. Some of the earliest promoter elements are used to control the development of silkworm transgenic expression and gene therapy. However, the low expression and specificity of natural promoters limit the applications of genetic engineering. To construct a highly efficient synthetic inducible promoter in the Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), we analyzed the regulatory elements and functional regions of the B...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Masoumeh Albooghobeish, Ali Ghomeishi, Sara Adarvishi, Abdolkazem Neisi, Kamran Mahmoodi, Masoomeh Asadi, Fereshteh Amiri, Nasrin Khajeh Ali, Maryam Kouchak, Saba Arya Nasab
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), as one of the complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, occurs in over 40% - 77% of cases. Considering the numerous complications of synthetic drugs, there is a growing tendency towards the use of herbal medicines due to their unique features. Ginger root is one of the herbal compounds effective on nausea and vomiting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative Zintoma capsules on PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
October 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Laverne Melón, Rebecca Hammond, Mike Lewis, Jamie Maguire
Preclinical testing of treatments for postpartum depression (PPD) has been limited due to the lack of available animal models of such a complex disorder. To address this limitation, our laboratory has generated unique preclinical mouse models that exhibit abnormal postpartum behaviors. Mice with a loss or reduction in the expression of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) δ subunit ( Gabrd -/- or Gabrd +/- , respectively) and mice that lack the K+ /Cl- co-transporter, KCC2, specifically in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons (KCC2/Crh mice) exhibit depression-like behaviors restricted to the postpartum period and deficits in maternal care, which serve as useful tools for testing novel therapeutic compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kevin Samael Olascoaga-Del Angel, Grecia Sánchez-Evangelista, Israel Carmona-Navarrete, María Del Carmen Galicia-Sánchez, Angélica Gómez-Luna, Susan Janneth Islas-Arrollo, Jorge Ismael Castañeda-Sánchez
Microorganisms that cause diseases in humans are constantly evolving, which represents a challenge in the search for effective treatments against them. Even when currently there are several pharmacological alternatives available, sometimes they are inefficient for the control of infectious diseases, especially because pathogens have generated multiple resistance mechanisms against them. Antimicrobial peptides have been described in many species of organisms, from fungi, plants and insects to humans; currently, there are molecules that appear as a solution that can be effective in modern therapeutics...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Chao Wang, Gang Wang, Xu Feng, Peter Shepherd, Jie Zhang, Mengfan Tang, Zhen Chen, Mrinal Srivastava, Megan E McLaughlin, Nora M Navone, Glen Traver Hart, Junjie Chen
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and RAD3 related (ATR) protein kinase plays critical roles in ensuring DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle control in response to replication stress, making ATR inhibition a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. To identify genes whose loss makes tumor cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibition, we performed CRISPR/Cas9-based whole-genome screens in 3 independent cell lines treated with a highly selective ATR inhibitor, AZD6738. These screens uncovered a comprehensive genome-wide profile of ATR inhibitor sensitivity...
December 7, 2018: Oncogene
Ka-Hei Siu, Wilfred Chen
Predictable control over gene expression is essential to elicit desired synthetic cellular phenotypes. Although CRISPR-Cas9 offers a simple RNA-guided method for targeted transcriptional control, it lacks the ability to integrate endogenous cellular information for efficient signal processing. Here, we present a new class of riboregulators termed toehold-gated gRNA (thgRNA) by integrating toehold riboswitches into sgRNA scaffolds, and demonstrate their programmability for multiplexed regulation in Escherichia coli with minimal cross-talks...
December 10, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
O G Shults, O V Vopilova, A A Shults
Analysed herein is the experience of the first eight ultrasonographic studies of peripheral arteries with dynamic contrast enhancement using sulphur hexafluoride («SonoVue») carried out in patients after previously performed femoropopliteal bypass grafting with a synthetic prosthesis (in seven cases the distal anastomosis of the bypass graft was located below the fissure of the knee joint and in one case - above the fissure of the knee joint). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed averagely 12.5±4...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Syed Usama Bin Farrukh, Ibrahim Javed, Abdul Qayyum Ather, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Meshari Alazmi, Xin Gao, Ghayoor Abbas Chotana, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Rahman Shah Zaib Saleem
We have carried out a docking inspired synthesis and screening of a library of diazenyl-derivatives of pyridazinylpyrazolone molecules for their ability to modulate the amyloidogenic self-assembly of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). hIAPP is a 37-residue peptide which is involved in glycemic control along with insulin. Its extracellular fibrillar assemblies in pancreatic β-cells are responsible for type 2 diabetes. A three-step synthetic scheme was used to prepare these novel compounds using 2-(6-chloropyridazin-3-yl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one as a key intermediate that was reacted with various diazo electrophiles to generate a library of compounds with yields ranging from 64 to 85%...
November 28, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Mohamed Mahmoud El-Seweidy, Rawia Sarhan Amin, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Reham Raafat El-Zeiky, Naif A Al-Gabri
10-Dehydrogingerdione is a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor of natural origin. Some synthetic CETP inhibitors have recently been reported to suppress proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Therefore, the present study aimed mainly to clarify the effect of 10-Dehydrogingerdione on cellular adhesion inflammatory molecules, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction markers in addition to PCSK9 as compared to atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rabbits. Dyslipidemia was induced in 30 male rabbits, distributed in 3 equal groups through feeding dietary cholesterol (0...
December 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Clarence Maikuri Mang'era, Ahmed Hassanali, Fathiya M Khamis, Martin K Rono, Wilber Lwande, Charles Mbogo, Paul O Mireji
Plant-based constituents have been proposed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides for control of mosquito vectors of malaria. In this study, we first screened the effects of methanolic leaf extracts of curry tree (Murraya koenigii) growing in tropical (Mombasa, Malindi) and semi-arid (Kibwezi, and Makindu) ecological zones of Kenya on third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae. Extracts of the plant from the semi-arid region, and particularly from Kibwezi, led to high mortality of the larvae. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plants from Kibwezi was then undertaken and the most active fraction (20 fold more potent than the crude extract) was then analyzed by Liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS) and a number of constituents were identified, including a major alkaloid constituent, Neplanocin A (5)...
December 7, 2018: Acta Tropica
Lingdong Li, Yanan Jin, Hao Zhou, Hande Wang
Two novel zwitterionic N-chlorohydantoin biocides, containing an N-chlorohydantoin unit and a sulfobetaine unit or a carboxybetaine unit, were chemically synthesized and characterized. Using the quaternary ammonium N-chlorohydantoin as control, the antibacterial activity of synthetic zwitterionic N-chlorohydantoins was challenged and the antibacterial data showed that carboxybetaine N-chlorohydantoin exhibited distinctively higher biocidal efficacy than QA counterpart, while sulfobetaine N-chlorohydantoin displayed slightly inferior antimicrobial efficacy...
October 23, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jiazhen Chen, Qiaoling Ruan, Yaojie Shen, Sen Wang, Lingyun Shao, Wenhong Zhang
The Region of D eletion 2 (RD2) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes reserved antigens that contribute to bacterial virulence. Among these antigens, Rv1983, Rv1986, Rv1987, and Rv1989c have been shown to be immunodominant in infected cattle; however, their diagnostic utility has not been evaluated in humans. In this study, we screened 87 overlapping synthetic peptides encoded by five RD2 proteins for diagnosing tuberculosis epitopes in 50 active tuberculosis (TB) cases, 31 non-tuberculosis patients and 36 healthy individuals...
December 5, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Minhee Park, Nikit Patel, Albert J Keung, Ahmad S Khalil
Chemical modifications to DNA and histone proteins are involved in epigenetic programs underlying cellular differentiation and development. Regulatory networks involving molecular writers and readers of chromatin marks are thought to control these programs. Guided by this common principle, we established an orthogonal epigenetic regulatory system in mammalian cells using N6-methyladenine (m6A), a DNA modification not commonly found in metazoan epigenomes. Our system utilizes synthetic factors that write and read m6A and consequently recruit transcriptional regulators to control reporter loci...
November 29, 2018: Cell
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