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synthetic control

Shazia Tabasum, Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Ansab Zaeem, Irfan Majeed, Muzamil Majeed, Aqdas Noreen, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, Khalid Mahmood Zia
Maize or corn is considered as very distinctive plant. Corn having better capability of utilizing sun light, is a noble way of getting a natural polymer known as starch. Amylopectin and amylase composition in the starch firmly affects the properties of the polysaccharide. Despite of application of CS as food for living being including the human and animals it has many other applications in industry. No doubt it has many flaws which can be controlled by adopting different modifications. Nowadays bio-degradable polymers are useful which are produced by corn starch...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rok Seon Choung, Shahryar Khaleghi Rostamkolaei, Josephine M Ju, Eric V Marietta, Carol T Van Dyke, J J Rajasekaran, Vasanth Jayaraman, Tianhao Wang, Kang Bei, Karenah E Rajasekaran, Karthik Krishna, Hari Krishnan Krishnamurthy, Joseph A Murray
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease has characteristics of an autoimmune disease, such as increased antibody levels to tissue transglutaminase (tTG). However, assays to measure these biomarkers in blood samples do not identify patients with sufficient accuracy for diagnosis or monitoring of celiac disease. We aimed to discover biomarkers of celiac disease derived from neoepitopes of deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) and tTG fragments and to determine if immune reactivity against these epitopes can identify patients with celiac disease with mucosal healing...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Shinichiro Fuse, Yuma Otake, Hiroyuki Nakamura
Peptide drugs have garnered much attention in recent years. However, conventional peptide synthesis requires an excess amounts of expensive reagents of low atom economy, and the large amount of waste produced by these reagents complicates the purification of desired peptides. Solid-phase approaches simplify the purification of these peptides, but these require expensive solid-phase, excess amounts of reagents, substrates, and solvents. This makes it important to develop high-yielding, cost-effective, and less wasteful synthetic approaches...
October 20, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Roberta Mancini, Tobias van der Bijl, Quentin Bourgeois-Jaarsma, Rizky Lasabuda, Alexander J Groffen
Recent advances in live Ca2+ imaging with increasing spatial and temporal resolution offer unprecedented opportunities, but also generate an unmet need for data processing. Here we developed SICT, a MATLAB program that automatically identifies rapid Ca2+ rises in time-lapse movies with low signal-to-noise ratios, using fluorescent indicators. A graphical user interface allows visual inspection of automatically detected events, reducing manual labour to less than 10% while maintaining quality control. The detection performance was tested using synthetic data with various signal-to-noise ratios...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lotta Selin, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Maria Jonsson, Anna Dencker, Gunnar Wallin, Eva Wiberg-Itzel, Elisabeth Almström, Max Petzold, Marie Berg
PROBLEM: Delayed labour progress is common in nulliparous women, often leading to caesarean section despite augmentation of labour with synthetic oxytocin. BACKGROUND: High- or low-dose oxytocin can be used for augmentation of delayed labour, but evidence for promoting high-dose is weak. Aim To ascertain the effect on caesarean section rate of high-dose versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation of delayed labour in nulliparous women. Methods Multicentre parallel double-blind randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials...
October 16, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Meiyu Gai, Wenhao Li, Johannes Frueh, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Surface mediated drug delivery is important for a large variety of applications, especially in medicine to control cell growth, prevent blood platelet activation on implants or for self-disinfecting devices (e.g. catheters). In industrial applications, controlled release of substances from surfaces is needed in a broad range of applications from anti-corrosion systems to anti-biofouling. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) based microcontainers (MCs) require several days production time, while MCs composed out of polylactic acid (PLA) are entirely hydrophobic, offering no functionality...
October 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Soleyman Hosseinzadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Shahryar Pashaei, Zahra Khodaparast
In this study, a unique stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite was prepared via surface reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of acrylic acid and N‑isopropyl acrylamide onto chitosan and subsequent in situ synthesis of magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. In the next age, the structure and morphology of synthetic magnetic nanocomposite were characterized by FTIR, XRD, VSM, SEM, and TEM techniques. The modified hydrogel nanocomposite was employed as an excellent carrier for controlled releasing of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kazunari Nakajima, Xifeng Guo, Yoshiaki Nishibayashi
Cross-coupling reactions of alkenyl halides with 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines as alkylation reagents have been achieved by combination of nickel and photoredox catalysts. Alkenyl halides bearing alkyl and aryl substituents are available. Particularly, in the use of aryl-substituted alkenyl halides, cross-coupling reactions are associated with E to Z isomerization of alkenes. Thus, Z-isomers of the products are obtained as major products. The present strategy provides a novel synthetic method to control the stereochemistry around alkenes...
October 19, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Andrew N Thomas, Robert A Root, R Clark Lantz, A Eduardo Sáez, Jon Chorover
Environmental contamination from legacy mine-waste deposits is a persistent problem due to the long history of hard-rock mining. Sulfide ore deposits can contain elevated levels of toxic metal(loid)s that, when mobilized by weathering upon O2 and H2 O infusion, can result in groundwater contamination. Dry-climate and lack of vegetative cover result in near-surface pedogenic processes that produce fine-particulate secondary minerals that can be translocated as geo-dusts leading to ingestion or inhalation exposure in nearby communities...
April 2018: GeoHealth
Settimio Pacelli, Sayantani Basu, Cory Berkland, Jinxi Wang, Arghya Paul
Introduction: Physical and mechanical properties of ceramic-based scaffolds can be modulated by introducing hydrogel coatings on their surface. For instance, hydrogels can be used as elastic layers to overcome the brittleness of synthetic ceramic materials or to control the delivery of essential osteogenic factors. In this work, we aimed to achieve both goals by fabricating a novel cytocompatible hydrogel made of gelatin-alginate as a coating for beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds...
June 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Ahmed Khaled Hanafy, Souzy F Shinaishin, Ghada Nour Eldeen, Riham M Aly
BACKGROUND: There has been an urge to shift from conventional therapies to the more promising regenerative strategy since conventional treatment relies on synthetic materials to fill defects and replace missing tissues, lacking the ability to restore the tissues' physiological architecture and function. AIM: The present study focused on the assessment of the role of two commonly used biomaterials namely; mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and nano hydroxy-apatite as promoters of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Lijun Ye, Xinna Zhu, Tao Wu, Wen Wang, Dongdong Zhao, Changhao Bi, Xueli Zhang
Background: One important metabolic engineering strategy is to localize the enzymes close to their substrates for improved catalytic efficiency. However, localization configurations become more complex the greater the number of enzymes and substrates is involved. Indeed, optimizing synthetic pathways by localizing multiple enzymes remains a challenge. Terpenes are one of the most valuable and abundant natural product groups. Phytoene, lycopene and β-carotene serve as common intermediates for the synthesis of many carotenoids and derivative compounds, which are hydrophobic long-chain terpenoids, insoluble in water and usually accumulate in membrane compartments...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yujiao Qu, Julia Legen, Jürgen Arndt, Stephanie Henkel, Galina Hoppe, Christopher Thieme, Giovanna Ranzini, Jose M Muino, Andreas Weihe, Uwe Ohler, Gert Weber, Oren Ostersetzer, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
Chloroplasts (and other plastids) harbor their own genetic material, with a bacterial-like gene-expression systems. Chloroplast RNA metabolism is complex and is predominantly mediated by nuclear-encoded RNA-binding proteins. In addition to these nuclear factors, the chloroplast-encoded intron maturase MatK has been suggested to perform as a splicing factor for a subset of chloroplast introns. MatK is essential for plant cell survival in tobacco, and thus null mutants have not yet been isolated. We therefore attempted to over-express MatK from a neutral site in the chloroplast, placing it under the control of a theophylline-inducible riboswitch...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Claire I A van Houdt, Paulo R Gabbai-Armelin, Paula M Lopez-Perez, Dietmar J O Ulrich, John A Jansen, Ana Claudia M Renno, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
Osteoporosis represents a major health problem in terms of compromising bone strength and increasing the risk of bone fractures. It can be medically treated with bisphosphonates, which act systemically upon oral or venous administration. Further, bone regenerative treatments in osteoporotic conditions present a challenge. Here, we focused on the development of a synthetic bone substitute material with local diminishing effects on osteoporosis. Composites were created using calcium phosphate cement (CPC; 60 wt%) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA; 40 wt%), which were loaded with alendronate (ALN)...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charanya Ramachandran, Virender S Sangwan, Ilida Ortega, Upendra Bhatnagar, Sadik Mohmad Abdulhamid Mulla, Rob McKean, Sheila MacNeil
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the local and systemic response to poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) 50:50 membranes, developed as synthetic biodegradable alternatives to the use of human donor amniotic membrane in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency. METHODS: PLGA membranes of 2  cm diameter and 50  µm thickness were placed on one eye of rabbits and secured in place using fibrin glue and a bandage contact lens, suturing the eye close with a single stitch...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Kyung-Won Jung, Brian Hyun Choi, Kyung Guen Song, Jae-Woo Choi
This study focuses on the optimization of synthetic conditions for preparing marine macroalgae-derived activated carbon/iron oxide magnetic composites (AC/Fe-MC) and its feasibility for the removal of acetylsalicylic acid from aqueous media. Response surface methodology coupled with a 3k Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimal conditions (independent variables: impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and activation time) towards two response variables (production yield and adsorption capacity)...
October 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Fatma Ersöz, Mehmet İnan
Milk-clotting enzymes used in the dairy industry can be obtained from different sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Recombinant chymosin is the best alternative for the dairy industry due to the differences in physicochemical properties of coagulating enzymes and scarcity of chymosin from animal sources. In this study, glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of yak chymosin were extracellularly produced in a methylotrophic yeast, Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris). Synthetic yak prochymosin genes were cloned into the pPICZαA vector, expressed in P...
October 15, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Madushanka Manathunga, Xuchun Yang, Massimo Olivucci
Rhodopsins hosting synthetic retinal protonated Schiff base analogues are important for developing tools for optogenetics and high-resolution imaging. The ideal spectroscopic properties of such analogues include long-wavelength absorption/emission and fast/hindered photoisomerization. While the former may be achieved, for instance, by elongating the chromophore π-system, the latter requires a detailed understanding of the substituent effects (i.e. steric or electronic) on the chromophore light-induced dynamics...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Muhammed P U Haris, Rangarajan Bakthavatsalam, Samir Shaikh, Bhushan P Kore, Dhanashree Moghe, Rajesh G Gonnade, D D Sarma, Dinesh Kabra, Janardan Kundu
Low dimensional lead halide perovskites have attracted huge research interest due to their structural diversity and remarkable photophysical properties. The ability to controllably change dimensionality/structure of perovskites remains highly challenging. Here, we report synthetic control on structure/dimensionality of ethylenediammonium (ED) lead bromide perovskite from a two dimensionally networked (2DN) sheet to a one dimensionally networked (1DN) chain structure. Intercalation of solvent molecules into the perovskite plays a crucial role in directing the final dimensionality/structure...
October 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Huifeng Wang, Yang Hu, Dylan Lynch, Megan Young, Shengxi Li, Hongbo Cong, Fu-Jian Xu, Gang Cheng
To address the lack of blood compatibility and antifouling properties of polyurethanes (PUs), a novel zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine urethane) (PCBHU) platform with excellent antifouling and tunable mechanical properties is presented. PCBHU was synthesized via the condensation polymerization of diisocyanate with carboxybetaine (CB)-based triols. Postpolymerization hydrolysis of triol segments at the interface generates zwitterionic CB functional groups that provide superior antifouling properties via the enhanced hydration capacities of CB groups...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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