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synthetic control

James F Reuther, Samuel D Dahlhauser, Eric Van Anslyn
Dynamic assembly of macromolecules in biological systems is one of the fundamental processes that facilitates life. While such assembly most commonly uses non-covalent interactions, a set of dynamic reactions involving reversible covalent bonding is actively being exploited for assembly of functional materials, bottom-up assembly, and molecular machines. Herein, we highlight recent implementations and advancements of what we refer to as Tunable Orthogonal Reversible Covalent (TORC) bonds for these purposes, and provide our outlook for expansion, including the development of synthetically-encoded polynucleotide mimics...
August 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Arif Oguz Altunel
Watershed planning is a major issue in Turkey and other parts of the world. Surrounded by seawater on almost three-quarters of its international borders and by sheer mountains along the coastal regions and throughout the country, Turkey experiences a range of climatic changes, which constantly shape its topography. Recently, the occurrences of floods, landslides, and torrents have increased, forcing decision-makers to come up with solutions to manage and rehabilitate the upper watersheds in order to stop or limit the impact of disasters on downstream areas...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volha Dzmitruk, Evgeny Apartsin, Aliaksei Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Viktar Abashkin, Dzmitry Shcharbin, Maria Bryszewska
The lack of an appropriate intracellular delivery system for therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) is a major problem in molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicine. A relatively new class of highly symmetrical hyperbranched polymers, called dendrimers, shows promise for transporting small TNAs into both cells and target tissues. Dendrimers have intrinsic advantages for this purpose: their physico-chemical and biological properties can be controlled during synthesis, and they are able to transport large numbers of TNA molecules that can specifically suppress the expression of single or multiple targeted genes...
August 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Mia L Huang, Ember M Tota, Taryn M Lucas, Kamil Godula
Achieving molecular control over the formation of synaptic contacts in the nervous system can provide important insights into their regulation and can offer means for creating well-defined in vitro systems to evaluate modes of therapeutic intervention. Agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at postsynaptic sites is a hallmark of the formation of the neuromuscular junction, a synapse between motoneurons and muscle cells. In addition to the cognate agrin receptor, LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-4), muscle cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been proposed to contribute to AChR clustering by acting as agrin co-receptors...
August 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Dong Young Chung, Ji Mun Yoo, Subin Park, Gwan Yeong Jung, Jin Soo Kang, Chi-Yeong Ahn, Sang Kyu Kwak, Yung-Eun Sung
Transition metal dichalcogenides, especially MoS2 , are considered as promising electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Since the physicochemical properties of MoS2 and electrode morphology are highly sensitive factor for HER performance, designed synthesis is highly pursued. Here, an in situ method to prepare a 3D carbon/MoS2 hybrid catalyst, motivated by the graphene ribbon synthesis process, is reported. By rational design strategies, the hybrid electrocatalysts with cross-connected porous structure are obtained, and they show a high HER activity even comparable to the state-of-the-art MoS2 catalyst without appreciable activity loss in long-term operations...
August 10, 2018: Small
Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Yuya Oka, Tadao Yasuda, Tatsuyuki Koichi, Keisuke Muramatsu, Hiroaki Wada, Atsushi Shimojima, Kazuyuki Kuroda
Precise size control of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHNPs) is crucial for their applications in anion exchange, catalysis, and drug delivery systems. Here, we report the synthesis of LDHNPs through a reconstruction method, using tripodal ligands (e.g., tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane; THAM). We found that the mechanism of reconstruction at least includes a dissolution-recrystallization process rather than topotactic transformation. THAM is immobilized on the surface of recrystallized LDHNPs with tridentate linkages, suppressing their crystal growth especially in lateral directions...
August 10, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Goutam Banerjee, Pritam Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Biotechnological production of fragrances is a recent trend that has expanded rapidly in the last two decades. Vanillin is the second most demanded flavoring agent after saffron. Vanillin is extensively used in various applications, e.g., as a food additive in food and beverages and a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. PRESENT PERSPECTIVE: Vanillin is also considered as a valuable product for other applications, such as metal plating and production of other flavoring agents, herbicides, ripening agents, antifoaming agents, and personal and home-use products (such as in deodorants, air fresheners, and floor polishing agents)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Majid Daneshvar, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini
Sorption is the most effective approach to the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and wastewaters, but the removal of the adsorbents from water has always been a challenging problem which may be resolved by using magnetic separation. In this work, a magnetic bioadsorbent was prepared using low cost and high-performance sources and applied in Cr(VI) removal from a synthetic solution. Initially, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized from iron boring scraps by chemical co-precipitation method. Results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were around 40 nm in size and had a significant magnetization...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jon Quach, Janet Clinton, Georgia Dawson, Libby Smith, Tanya Serry, Sharon Goldfeld
Introduction: Literacy is fundamental for educational achievement, and in the longer term contributes substantially to a range of life skills. Literacy difficulties during the early years of school are associated with long-term impacts on academic success, with differences in academic achievement sustained through children's schooling. Therefore, addressing literacy difficulties during the early years of school is essential in reducing the risk of children progressing onto negative academic, psychosocial and vocational trajectories...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Sarika Gunjan, Tanuj Sharma, Kanchan Yadav, Bhavana S Chauhan, Sunil K Singh, Mohammad I Siddiqi, Renu Tripathi
Although over the last 15 years, prevalence of malaria became reduced by over half but developing resistance against artemisinin derivatives and its combinations, which are only ray of hope to treat resistant malaria set back the control efforts and the key hinderence to achieve the goal of malaria elimination till 2030. In spite these artemisinins are precious antimalarials, their action mechanism is yet to be fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produces by cleavage of endoperoxide bridge of artemisinin derivatives are known to be its antimalarial efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Calum T J Ferguson, Areej A Al-Khalaf, R Elwyn Isaac, Olivier J Cayre
Drosophila suzukii or spotted wing Drosophila is an economically important pest which can have a devastating impact on soft and stone fruit industries. Biological pesticides are being sought as alternatives to synthetic chemicals to control this invasive pest, but many are subject to degradation either in the environment or in the insect gut and as a result require protection. In this study we identified a sharp change in pH of the adult midgut from neutral to acidic (pH <3), which we then exploited to develop poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) microcapsules that respond to the change in midgut pH by dissolution and release of their cargo for uptake into the insect...
2018: PloS One
Wei Liu, Siraj Ali, Stephen Ammann, M Christina White
We report the development of of Pd(II)/cis-aryl sulfoxide-oxazoline (cis-ArSOX) catalysts for asymmetric C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with a variety of synthetically versatile nucleophiles. The modular, tunable, and oxidatively stable ArSOX scaffold is key to the unprecedented broad scope and high enantioselectivity (37 examples, avg. >90% ee). Pd(II)/cis-ArSOX is unique in its ability to effect high reactivity and catalyst-controlled diastereoselectivity on the alkylation of aliphatic olefins. We anticipate that this new chiral ligand class will find use in other transition metal catalyzed processes that operate under oxidative conditions...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yi Yang, Yu Lin, Liang Qiao
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now widely used to characterize bacterial samples for clinical diagnosis, food safety control, environmental monitoring, etc. However, existing standard approaches are only applied to analyze single colonies purified by plate culture that limits the approaches to cultivable bacteria and makes the whole approaches time-consuming. In this work, we propose a new framework to analyze MALDI-TOF spectra of bacterial mixtures and to directly characterize each component without purification procedures...
August 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Benjamin M Day, Fu-Sheng Guo, Richard A Layfield
The discovery of materials capable of storing magnetic information at the level of single molecules and even single atoms has fueled renewed interest in the slow magnetic relaxation properties of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The lanthanide elements, especially dysprosium, continue to play a pivotal role in the development of potential nanoscale applications of SMMs, including, for example, in molecular spintronics and quantum computing. Aside from their fundamentally fascinating physics, the realization of functional materials based on SMMs requires significant scientific and technical challenges to be overcome...
August 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kuan-Chung Su, Mary-Jane Tsang, Neil Emans, Iain M Cheeseman
A key goal for cell biological analyses is to assess the phenotypes that result from eliminating a target gene. For the past 25 years, the predominant strategy utilized in human tissue culture cells has been RNAi-mediated protein depletion. However, RNAi suffers well-documented off-target effects as well as incomplete and reversible protein depletion. The implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-based DNA cleavage has revolutionized the capacity to conduct functional studies in human cells. However, this approach is still under-utilized for conducting visual phenotypic analyses, particularly for essential genes that require conditional strategies to eliminate their gene products...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xiao Lian, Bing Yan
Logic circuit device and molecule computer are idealized binary tools to implement manifold signals transformation and operation, which is a basic component of integrated circuits and widely used in computer, CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) and communication fields. By combining the advantages of the synthetic feasibility and enantio-selective luminescent recognition, a logic device based on the lanthanide functional membrane has been constructed, for effective recognize enantiomer and judge the enantiomer excess of chair drug mixture...
August 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Franziska Thomas, Wolf Mathis Rink
Coiled Coils (CCs) are well-understood protein folding motifs. They appear in a variety of oligomer states and as homo- and heteromeric assemblies. This versatility and the general accessibility by de novo design makes them ideal building blocks for synthetic biology. This minireview highlights the efforts being made in designing small peptide catalysts or reaction templates based on the CC scaffold. First reports describe autocatalysis or mediation of peptide ligation based on CC recognition. Over the years, the designs became more advanced, catalyzing ester hydrolysis, acyl transfer and redox reactions with in part enzyme-like reactivity...
August 9, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cheryl M Immethun, Tae Seok Moon
Cyanobacteria are appealing hosts for green chemical synthesis due to their use of light and carbon dioxide. To optimize product yields and titers, specific and tunable regulation of the metabolic pathways is needed. Synthetic biology has increased and diversified the genetic tools available for biological process control. While early tool development focused on commonly used heterotrophs, there has been a recent expansion of tools for cyanobacteria. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used to edit the genome of cyanobacterial strains, while transcriptional regulation has been accomplished with CRISPR interference and RNA riboswitches...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bettina Müller, Julia Elrod, Marco Pensalfini, Raoul Hopf, Oliver Distler, Clemens Schiestl, Edoardo Mazza
Suction experiments have been extensively applied for skin characterization. In these tests the deformation behavior of superficial tissue layers determines the elevation of the skin surface observed when a predefined negative (suction) pressure history is applied. The ability of such measurements to differentiate between skin conditions is limited by the variability of the elevation response observed in repeated experiments. The scatter was shown to be associated with the force exerted by the observer when holding the instrument against the skin...
2018: PloS One
Peter Leonard, Emma Tarpey, William Finnegan, Xinmin Zhan
This Research Communication describes an investigation into the viability of an Intermittently Aerated Sequencing Batch Reactor (IASBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater at laboratory-scale. A number of operational parameters have been varied and the effect has been monitored in order to determine optimal conditions for maximising removal efficiencies. These operational parameters include Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT), Solids Retention Time (SRT), aeration rate and cycle length. Real dairy processing wastewater and synthetic wastewater have been treated using three laboratory-scale IASBR units in a temperature controlled room...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
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