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J Plasma

N C Gareis, E Angeli, E Huber, N R Salvetti, F M Rodríguez, H H Ortega, G J Hein, F Rey
High-producing dairy cows frequently suffer metabolic alterations that cause different diseases, which could decrease the reproductive efficiency of the herd. Among these reproductive disorders, cystic ovarian disease (COD) has been related to alterations in metabolites and hormonal factors such as insulin, adiponectin and leptin. The aim of this study was to determine the protein expression of adiponectin and some of its downstream targets in ovarian follicles of control cows and cows with clinical diagnosis of COD...
August 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Simone Perazzolo, Laura M Shireman, Josefin Koehn, Lisa A McConnachie, John C Kraft, Danny D Shen, Rodney J Y Ho
Drug combination nanoparticles (DcNP) administered subcutaneously represent a potential long-acting lymphatic-targeting treatment for HIV-infection. The DcNP containing lopinavir-ritonavir-tenofovir, Targeted-Long-Acting-Antiretroviral-Therapy product candidate 101 (TLC-ART 101), has shown to provide long-acting lymphocyte-targeting performance in non-human primates. To extend the TLC-ART platform, we replaced TLC-ART 101 lopinavir with second-generation protease inhibitor, atazanavir. Pharmacokinetics of atazanavir-ritonavir-tenofovir DcNP was assessed in macaques, in comparison to the equivalent free drug formulation and to the TLC-ART 101...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Marat Fudim, Rahul Loungani, Shannon M Doerfler, Adrian Coles, Stephen J Greene, Lauren B Cooper, Mona Fiuzat, Christopher M O'Connor, Joseph G Rogers, Robert J Mentz
INTRODUCTION: Worsening renal function (WRF) can occur throughout a hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF). However, decongestion can be measured in different ways and the prognostic implications of WRF in the setting of different measures of decongestion are unclear. METHODS: Patients (N = 433) from the ESCAPE were classified by measures of decongestion during hospitalization: hemodynamic (right atrial pressure ≤8 mmHg and/or wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg at discharge), clinical (≤1 sign of congestion at discharge), hemoconcentration (any increase in hemoglobin) and estimated plasma volume using the Hakim formula (5% reduction in plasma volume)...
July 29, 2018: American Heart Journal
Dannielle Zierath, Theresa Olmstead, Astiana Stults, Angela Shen, Allison Kunze, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND: A robust adrenergic response following stroke impairs lymphocyte function, which may prevent the development of autoimmune responses to brain antigens. We tested whether inhibition of the sympathetic response after stroke would increase the propensity for developing autoimmune responses to brain antigens. METHODS: Male Lewis rats were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA) prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), labetalol after MCAO, or appropriate controls...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, David M Maahs, Michael Seid, Jamie Crandell, Franziska K Bishop, Kimberly A Driscoll, Christine M Hunter, Jessica C Kichler, Debra Standiford, Joan M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes commonly have poor glycaemic control. We aimed to test the efficacy of a newly developed adaptive behavioral intervention (Flexible Lifestyles Empowering Change; FLEX) on metabolic and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Young people (13-16 years, type 1 diabetes duration >1 year, HbA1c of 64-119 mmol/mol [8·0-13·0%], and without other serious medical conditions or pregnancy) from two clinical sites (Colorado and Ohio, USA) were eligible for enrolment...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
M Burger, P J Skrodzki, J Lin, J Nees, K Krushelnick, I Jovanovic
Studies of high-power ultrashort laser pulse interaction with matter are not only of fundamental scientific interest, but are also highly relevant to applications in the domain of remote sensing. Here, we investigate the effect of laser wavelength on coupling of femtosecond laser filaments to solid targets. Three central wavelengths have been used to produce filaments: 0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 µm. We find that, unlike the case of conventional tight focusing, use of shorter wavelengths does not necessarily produce more efficient ablation...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Jon G Divine, Joseph F Clark, Angelo J Colosimo, John P Detherage, Michael A Donaworth, Kimberly A Hasselfeld, Aaron Himmler, Joseph T Rauch, Robert E Mangine
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify changes in blood biomarkers that would indicate excessive muscle breakdown during the initial 10 days of preseason training in collegiate American football players and subsequently increase their risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Preseason, heat acclimatization period. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five Division I American football players...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Annalaura Mastrangelo, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francisco J Rupérez, Julie A Chowen, Coral Barbas, Jesús Argente
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) gene have recently been shown to cause postnatal growth failure in two prepubertal patients from a non-consanguineous Spanish family due to the resulting decrease in IGF1 bioavailability. Although a specific pharmacological treatment of this entity is yet to be established, both children received progressive subcutaneous doses (40 to 120 μg/kg) of rhIGF1 twice daily for 2 years. The improvements in growth, hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density have been previously reported...
August 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Zana A Carver, Alice A Han, Charles Timchalk, Thomas J Weber, Kimberly J Tyrrell, Ryan L Sontag, Teresa Luders, William B Chrisler, Karl K Weitz, Jordan N Smith
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for non-invasive biomonitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in saliva. Using an in vitro rat salivary gland epithelial cell (SGEC) system, a collection of experiments investigating chemical protein binding, temporal and directional transport, as well as competitive transport with para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a substrate for renal organic anion transporters, was conducted to identify cellular transport parameters required to computationally model salivary transport of 2,4-D...
August 14, 2018: Toxicology
Michael J Jurczak, Saumya Saini, Simona Ioja, Diana K Costa, Nnamdi Udeh, Xiaojian Zhao, Jean M Whaley, Richard G Kibbey
Inhibition of the sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) has received growing acceptance as a novel, safe and effective means to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the renal glucose threshold and reduces plasma glucose by promoting glucose excretion in urine. Both animal studies and clinical trials in man suggest that SGLT2 inhibition has the potential to improve pancreatic β-cell function by reducing glucose toxicity. However, there is limited data exploring how reducing glucotoxicity via SGLT2 inhibition affects rates of β-cell proliferation and death throughout life in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
August 17, 2018: Islets
J Vieira, J T Mendonça, F Quéré
We propose a twisted plasma accelerator capable of generating relativistic electron vortex beams with helical current profiles. The angular momentum of these vortex bunches is quantized, dominates their transverse motion, and results in spiraling particle trajectories around the twisted wakefield. We focus on a laser wakefield acceleration scenario, driven by a laser beam with a helical spatiotemporal intensity profile, also known as a light spring. We find that these light springs can rotate as they excite the twisted plasma wakefield, providing a new mechanism to control the twisted wakefield phase velocity and enhance energy gain and trapping efficiency beyond planar wakefields...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
S G Baek, G M Wallace, P T Bonoli, D Brunner, I C Faust, A E Hubbard, J W Hughes, B LaBombard, R R Parker, M Porkolab, S Shiraiwa, S Wukitch
Efficient lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is demonstrated at densities up to n[over ¯]_{e}≈1.5×10^{20}  m^{-3} in diverted plasmas on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak by operating at increased plasma current-and therefore reduced Greenwald density fraction. This density exceeds the nominal "LH density limit" at n[over ¯]_{e}≈1.0×10^{20}  m^{-3} reported previously, above which an anomalous loss of current drive efficiency was observed. The recovery of current drive efficiency to a level consistent with engineering scalings is correlated with a reduction in density shoulders and turbulence levels in the far scrape-off layer...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
D C M van den Bekerom, J M Palomares Linares, E M van Veldhuizen, S Nijdam, M C M van de Sanden, G J van Rooij
The contribution of higher vibrational levels to the rotational spectrum of linear polyatomic molecules with a center of symmetry (CO2 and C2 H2 ) is assessed. An apparent nuclear degeneracy is analytically formulated by vibrational averaging and compared to numerical averaging over vibrational levels. It enables inferring the vibrational temperature of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes from the ratio of even to odd peaks in the rotational Raman spectrum. The contribution from higher vibrational levels is already observable at room temperature as g˜e/o =0...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Angela M Groves, Jacqueline P Williams, Eric Hernady, Christina Reed, Bruce Fenton, Tanzy Love, Jacob N Finkelstein, Carl J Johnston
Biomarkers could play an essential role during triage in the aftermath of a radiological event, where exposure to radiation will be heterogeneous and complicated by concurrent trauma. Used alongside biodosimetry, biomarkers can identify victims in need of treatment for acute radiation effects, and might also provide valuable information on later developing consequences that need to be addressed as part of a treatment strategy. Indeed, because the lung is particularly sensitive to radiation and resultant late effects not only affect quality of life, but can also lead to morbidity, the risk of developing downstream pulmonary complications in exposed individuals requires assessment...
August 17, 2018: Radiation Research
Sarah L Gray, Kelly E Hall, Lisa L Powell, Julie Schildt, Ann M Brearley, Greg J Beilman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate initial tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2 ) in dogs presenting to an emergency room (ER) for acute hemorrhage. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight dogs with acute hemorrhage were enrolled between July 2009 and October 2010. Seventy-eight normal dogs from a previous observational study were included to represent healthy controls ("no shock")...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
A Belanche, J Cooke, E Jones, H J Worgan, C J Newbold
Artificial rearing of young animals represents a challenge in modern ruminant production systems. This work aims to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of the type of rearing on the animal's health, growth, feed utilization and carcass performance. A total of 24 pregnant ewes carrying triplets were used. Within each triplet set, lambs were randomly allocated to one experimental treatment: natural rearing on the ewe (NN); ewe colostrum for 24 h followed by artificial rearing with milk replacer (NA) and 50 g of colostrum alternative supplementation followed by artificial rearing (AA)...
August 17, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jacqueline A Hannam, Brian J Anderson, Amanda Potts
BACKGROUND: The impact of tramadol in children given acetaminophen-ibuprofen combination therapy is uncertain in acute pediatric pain management. A model describing the interaction between these three drugs would be useful to understand the role of supplemental analgesic therapy. METHODS: Children undergoing tonsillectomy were given oral paracetamol and ibuprofen perioperatively. Blood was taken for paracetamol and ibuprofen drug assay on up to six occasions over 6 h after the initial dose...
August 16, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Laura J den Hartigh, Leela Goodspeed, Shari A Wang, Heidi L Kenerson, Mohamed Omer, Kevin D O'Brien, Warren Ladiges, Raymond Yeung, Savitha Subramanian
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether chronic oral rapamycin promotes beneficial effects on glucose/lipid metabolism and energy balance when administered to mice with an obesogenic diet rich in saturated fat and sucrose has not been explored. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic oral rapamycin reduces body weight and fat gain, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic steatosis when administered to mice with a high fat high sucrose diet...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Susan A Safley, Norma S Kenyon, Dora M Berman, Graham F Barber, Melissa Willman, Stephanie Duncanson, Neal Iwakoshi, Robert Holdcraft, Lawrence Gazda, Peter Thompson, I Raul Badell, Athanassios Sambanis, Camillo Ricordi, Collin J Weber
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic donors would provide an unlimited source of islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The goal of this study was to assess the function of microencapsulated adult porcine islets (APIs) transplanted ip in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic non-human primates (NHPs) given targeted immunosuppression. METHODS: APIs were encapsulated in: (a) single barium-gelled alginate capsules or (b) double alginate capsules with an inner, islet-containing compartment and a durable, biocompatible outer alginate layer...
August 17, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Fernando Gomez-Peralta, Cristina Abreu, Sara Gomez-Rodriguez, Rafael J Barranco, Guillermo E Umpierrez
The safety and efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic agents or basal insulin are well established. DPP4 inhibitors stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon production. As monotherapy, they reduce the hemoglobin A1c level by about 0.6-0.8%. The addition of a DPP4 inhibitor to basal insulin is an attractive option, because they lower both postprandial and fasting plasma glucose concentrations without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or weight gain...
August 16, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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