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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553823/uridine-adenosine-tetraphosphate-and-purinergic-signaling-in-cardiovascular-system-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Zhichao Zhou, Takayuki Matsumoto, Vera Jankowski, John Pernow, S Jamal Mustafa, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4 A), biosynthesized by activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2, was initially identified as a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor in perfused rat kidney. Subsequently, the effect of Up4 A on vascular tone regulation was intensively investigated in arteries isolated from different vascular beds in rodents including rat pulmonary arteries, aortas, mesenteric and renal arteries as well as mouse aortas, in which Up4 A produces vascular contraction...
December 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553469/evaluation-of-commercial-kits-for-purification-of-circulating-free-dna
#2
Russell J Diefenbach, Jenny H Lee, Richard F Kefford, Helen Rizos
Analysis of liquid biopsies and the identification of non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of solid tumors has grown exponentially over the last few years. This has led to an increasing number of commercial kits optimised for the purification of circulating free (cf) DNA and RNA/miRNA from biofluids such as plasma, serum and urine. To optimise and standardise current practices we sought to evaluate the performance of spin column-based and magnetic bead-based commercial kits. The following commercial cfDNA purification kits were analysed in this study: QIAamp circulating nucleic acid kit (Qiagen, Germany); Plasma/serum cell-free circulating DNA Purification midi kit (Norgen Biotek, Canada); QIAamp minElute ccfDNA mini kit (Qiagen); Maxwell RSC ccfDNA plasma kit (Promega, USA); MagMAX cell-free DNA isolation kit (Applied Biosystems, USA); and NextPrep-Mag cfDNA isolation kit (Bioo Scientific, USA)...
December 2018: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553097/harmonization-of-pipeline-for-preclinical-multicenter-plasma-protein-and-mirna-biomarker-discovery-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-epileptogenesis
#3
Alaa Kamnaksh, Noora Puhakka, Idrish Ali, Gregory Smith, Roxanne Aniceto, Jesse McCullough, Shalini Das Gupta, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Rhys Brady, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Matt Hudson, Cesar Santana-Gomez, Riikka Immonen, Pedro Andrade de Abreu, Nigel Jones, Sandy Shultz, Richard J Staba, Terence J O'Brien, Denes Agoston, Asla Pitkänen
The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is an international, multicenter, multidisciplinary study aimed at preventing epileptogenesis (EpiBioS4Rx: https://epibios.loni.usc.edu/). One of the study's major objectives is the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive plasma protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that are sensitive, specific, and translatable to the human condition. Epilepsy due to structural brain abnormalities, secondary to neurological insults such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), currently represents ∼50% of all epilepsy cases...
November 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552897/identification-of-a-circulating-mirna-signature-in-extracellular-vesicles-collected-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#4
Daniel Saucier, Gabriel Wajnberg, Jeremy Roy, Annie-Pier Beauregard, Simi Chacko, Nicolas Crapoulet, Sébastien Fournier, Anirban Ghosh, Stephen M Lewis, Alier Marrero, Colleen O'Connell, Rodney J Ouellette, Pier Jr Morin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression that have received interest as disease biomarkers...
December 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552811/sexual-dysfunction-factors-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-not-only-prolactin
#5
Joaquín C Martín, María J Acuña, José Labrador, Matilde Blanco, Cristina Casas
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, its origins are still unclear. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY: to determine the prevalence and causal factors of sexual dysfunction in a group of outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The study was designed to be cross-sectional and naturalistic, including outpatients with schizophrenia undergoing second generation antipsychotic monotherapy. Patients receiving antidepressants and/or mood stabilisers were excluded...
November 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552304/interleukin-6-deficiency-modifies-the-effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-myocardial-expression-of-fatty-acid-transporters-and-myocardial-lipids
#6
P Mysliwiec, B Choromanska, M M Winnicka, K Kaminski, H Mysliwiec, J Dadan, E Supruniuk, A Chabowski
Chronic inflammation is a critical feature of obesity in the development of myocardial dysfunction. The observations that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as its connection with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance might suggest the involvement of this cytokine in metabolic disorders of the failing heart. In the present study we aimed to assess the effects of IL-6 ablation in mice fed with normal and high fat diet on the myocardial expression of glucose and fatty acid transporting proteins, and to evaluate the paralleled alterations in lipid content...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551950/comparison-of-adamts13-and-von-willebrand-factor-levels-and-activities-and-plasminogen-levels-in-plasma-products-currently-available-for-the-treatment-of-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-south-africa
#7
A C van Marle, J Joubert, S M Meiring
OBJECTIVE: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) results from a deficiency in the Von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS13. Treatment involves plasma exchange (PEX) therapy with either fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryosupernatant (CSP) or solvent/detergent-treated plasma (SDP), available in South Africa as Bioplasma FDP. The aim of the study was to generate in vitro data on these products, and to explore possible differences between the products that may offer treatment advantages...
December 5, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551738/clinical-immunological-and-bacteriological-characteristics-of-h7n9-patients-nosocomially-co-infected-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-case-control-study
#8
William J Liu, Rongrong Zou, Yongfei Hu, Min Zhao, Chuansong Quan, Shuguang Tan, Kai Luo, Jing Yuan, Haixia Zheng, Jue Liu, Min Liu, Yuhai Bi, Jinghua Yan, Baoli Zhu, Dayan Wang, Guizhen Wu, Lei Liu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, George F Gao, Yingxia Liu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection has been described as one of the most prevalent bacterial co-infections. However, the clinical and laboratory features of this entity of H7N9 and A. baumannii co-infection have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: We collected clinical and laboratory data from laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases co-infected by A...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550937/levels-of-circulating-soluble-lr11-a-regulator-of-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-are-highly-associated-with-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-patients-with-carotid-artery-stenosis
#9
Masashi Harada, Meizi Jiang, Kensuke Terai, Hiroyuki Ebinuma, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Wolfgang J Schneider, Nobuo Sugo, Takeki Nagao, Hideaki Bujo
BACKGROUND: The levels of plasma sLR11, released from intimal SMCs, are positively associated with intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic subjects. We have evaluated the yet unknown pathological significance of sLR11 for plaque conditions in patients with carotid artery stenosis. METHODS: The presence of LR11 in carotid plaques was investigated using autopsy specimens. A clinical ultrasonography study for elucidating relationships between sLR11 and plaque condition was performed in 46 patients...
December 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550356/structural-deciphering-of-the-ng2-cspg4-proteoglycan-multifunctionality
#10
Elisa Tamburini, Alice Dallatomasina, Jade Quartararo, Barbara Cortelazzi, Domenica Mangieri, Mirca Lazzaretti, Roberto Perris
The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ( CSPG4) gene encodes a transmembrane proteoglycan (PG) constituting the largest and most structurally complex macromolecule of the human surfaceome. Its transcript shows an extensive evolutionary conservation and, due to the elaborated intracellular processing of the translated protein, it generates an array of glycoforms with the potential to exert variant-specific functions. CSPG4-mediated molecular events are articulated through the interaction with more than 40 putative ligands and the concurrent involvement of the ectodomain and cytoplasmic tail...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549024/amino-acid-transport-across-the-mammalian-intestine
#11
Stefan Bröer, Stephen J Fairweather
The small intestine mediates the absorption of amino acids after ingestion of protein and sustains the supply of amino acids to all tissues. The small intestine is an important contributor to plasma amino acid homeostasis, while amino acid transport in the large intestine is more relevant for bacterial metabolites and fluid secretion. A number of rare inherited disorders have contributed to the identification of amino acid transporters in epithelial cells of the small intestine, in particular cystinuria, lysinuric protein intolerance, Hartnup disorder, iminoglycinuria, and dicarboxylic aminoaciduria...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548390/metformin-inhibits-mitochondrial-adaptations-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-older-adults
#12
Adam R Konopka, Jaime L Laurin, Hayden M Schoenberg, Justin J Reid, William M Castor, Christopher A Wolff, Robert V Musci, Oscar D Safairad, Melissa A Linden, Laurie M Biela, Susan M Bailey, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Metformin and exercise independently improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of diabetes. Metformin was also recently proposed as a potential therapy to slow aging. However, recent evidence indicates that adding metformin to exercise antagonizes the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metformin diminishes the improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness after aerobic exercise training (AET) by inhibiting skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and protein synthesis in older adults (62 ± 1 years)...
December 11, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548258/increased-circulating-microparticles-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-propagate-inflammation-contributing-to-microvascular-dysfunction
#13
Qilong Feng, Christian J Stork, Sulei Xu, Dong Yuan, Xinghai Xia, Kyle B LaPenna, Ge Guo, Haoyu Sun, Li-Chong Xu, Christopher Siedlecki, Kathleen Brundage, Nate Sheaffer, Todd D Schell, Pingnian He
In various cardiovascular diseases, microparticles (MPs), the membrane-derived vesicles released during cell activation, are markedly increased in the circulation. These MPs have been recognized to play diverse roles in the regulation of cellular functions. However, current knowledge of MP function has been largely concluded from in vitro studies. The precise impact of disease-induced MPs on vascular inflammation and disease progression remain obscure. In this study we investigated the biogenesis, profile, and functional roles of circulating MPs using a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model with well-characterized microvascular functions...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548079/nonthermal-atmospheric-plasma-enhances-myoblast-differentiation-by-eliciting-stat3-phosphorylation
#14
Ju Kyeong Park, Yeon Soo Kim, Sung Un Kang, Yun Sang Lee, Ho-Ryun Won, Chul-Ho Kim
The use of nonthermal atmospheric plasma (NTP) in the biomedical field has recently expanded into cell death induction in cancer, infection prevention, inflammation treatment, and wound-healing enhancement. NTP has been demonstrated to enhance skin and muscle regeneration, but its effects on tissue regeneration, following deep tissue or muscle damage, remains underinvestigated. In this study, we determined the effects of NTP on muscle differentiation and the mechanisms of NTP's contribution to differentiation and regeneration...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547392/ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography-effectively-predicts-integrity-of-ventral-hernia-repair-using-acellular-dermal-matrix-augmented-with-platelet-rich-plasma-prp
#15
Jeffrey L Van Eps, Anuj Chaudhry, Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Christian Boada, Vishwanath Chegireddy, Fernando J Cabrera, Songyuan Tang, Ennio Tasciotti, Raffaella Righetti
BACKGROUND: Complications of ventral hernia repair (VHR) may be investigated by computed tomography or ultrasound (US) but neither modality gives a quantifiable metric of repair quality short of identifying hernia recurrence. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a growth factor-rich autologous blood product, has been shown to improve incorporation of native tissue with bioprosthetics. In this study, we investigate the effect of PRP on the incorporation and mechanical integrity of a non-crosslinked porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM) in a rodent model of VHR and the correlative ability of ultrasound shear wave elastography (US-SWE) to assess repair quality...
December 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547226/increases-in-cytosolic-ca-2-induce-dynamin-and-calcineurin-dependent-internalisation-of-cftr
#16
Waseema Patel, Patrick J Moore, M Flori Sassano, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Andrei A Aleksandrov, Margarida D Amaral, Robert Tarran, Michael A Gray
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on CFTR was dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ . However, the underlying mechanism for this Ca2+ -dependent, internalisation of CFTR is unknown...
December 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547073/experimentally-determined-trace-element-partition-coefficients-between-hibonite-melilite-spinel-and-silicate-melts
#17
D Loroch, S Klemme, J Berndt, A Rohrbach
This article provides new data on mineral/melt partitioning in systems relevant to the evolution of chondrites, Calcium Aluminum-Rich Inclusions (CAI) in chondrites and related meteorites. The data set includes experimentally determined mineral/melt partition coefficients between hibonite (CaAl12 O19 ), melilite (Ca2 (Al,Mg)2 SiO7 ), spinel (MgAl2 O4 ) and silicate melts for a wide range of trace elements: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, r, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Pb, Th and U...
December 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545956/electrophilic-fatty-acid-nitroalkenes-are-systemically-transported-and-distributed-upon-esterification-to-complex-lipids
#18
Marco Fazzari, Dario A Vitturi, Steven R Woodcock, Sonia R Salvatore, Bruce A Freeman, Francisco J Schopfer
Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) showed beneficial signaling actions in preclinical studies, and safety in Phase 1 clinical trials. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of NO2-FA is complicated by the capability of electrophilic fatty acids to alkylate thiols reversibly, become esterified in various complex lipids, and the instability of the nitroalkene moiety during enzymatic and base hydrolysis. Herein, we report the mechanism and kinetics of absorption, metabolism, and distribution of the endogenously-detectable and prototypical NO2-FA 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA) in dogs after oral administration...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545831/affimer-proteins-as-a-tool-to-modulate-fibrinolysis-stabilize-the-blood-clot-and-reduce-bleeding-complications
#19
Katherine J Kearney, Nikoletta Pechlivani, Rhodri King, Christian Tiede, Fladia Phoenix, Ramsah Cheah, Fraser L Macrae, Katie J Simmons, Iain W Manfield, Kerrie A Smith, Benjamin E J Spurgeon, Khalid M Naseem, Robert A S Ariens, Michael J McPherson, Darren C Tomlinson, Ramzi A Ajjan
Bleeding complications secondary to surgery, trauma, or coagulation disorders are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Although fibrin sealants are considered to minimize blood loss, this is not widely adopted due to high cost and/or risk of infection. We present a novel methodology employing non-antibody fibrinogen-binding proteins, termed Affimers, to stabilize fibrin networks with the potential to control excessive bleeding. Two fibrinogen-specific Affimer proteins, F5 and G2, were identified and characterized for their effects on clot structure/fibrinolysis using turbidimetric and permeation analyses, confocal and electron microscopy...
December 13, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545748/effect-of-alcohol-ingestion-on-plasma-glucose-kinetics-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#20
María Belén Acevedo, Ramiro Ferrando, Bruce W Patterson, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) increases the rate of alcohol absorption so that peak blood alcohol concentration is 2-fold higher after surgery compared with concentrations reached after consuming the same amount presurgery. Because high doses of alcohol can lead to hypoglycemia, patients may be at increased risk of developing hypoglycemia after alcohol ingestion. OBJECTIVES: We conducted 2 studies to test the hypothesis that the consumption of approximately 2 standard drinks of alcohol would decrease glycemia more after RYGB than before surgery...
November 2, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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