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Bipolar Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231610/polygenic-risk-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-associate-with-addiction
#1
Gunnar W Reginsson, Andres Ingason, Jack Euesden, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Sigurgeir Olafsson, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson
We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10(-50) -1.4 × 10(-6) ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10(-9) -1...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230325/serum-phosphatidylinositol-as-a-biomarker-for-bipolar-disorder-liability
#2
Emma Em Knowles, Peter J Meikle, Kevin Huynh, Harald Hh Göring, Rene L Olvera, Samuel R Mathias, Ravi Duggirala, Laura Almasy, John Blangero, Joanne E Curran, David C Glahn
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) exhibit alterations in their phospholipid levels. It is unclear whether these alterations are a secondary consequence of illness state, or if phospholipids and illness risk overlap genetically. If the latter were true, then phospholipids might provide key insights into the pathophysiology of the illness. Therefore, we rank-ordered phospholipid classes by their genetic overlap with BPD risk in order to establish which class might be most informative in terms of increasing our understanding of illness pathophysiology...
February 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229904/regulation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signalling-underpinning-neurobiology-of-mood-disorders-and-depression
#3
Dimitris K Grammatopoulos
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have long been at the centre of investigations of the neurobiology of depression and mood disorders. Different facets of GPCR signalling pathways, including those controlling monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic hormonal systems are believed to be dysregulated in major depressive and bipolar disorders. Although these receptors are key molecular targets for a variety of therapeutic agents and continue to be the focus of intense pharmaceutical development, the molecular mechanisms activated by these GPCRs and underpin the pathological basis of mood disorders remain poorly understood...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229240/microglia-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-plays-a-potential-role-in-both-suicide-facilitation-and-prevention-in-affective-disorders
#4
Ralf Brisch, Johann Steiner, Christian Mawrin, Marta Krzyżanowska, Zbigniew Jankowski, Tomasz Gos
An involvement of the central serotonergic system has constantly been reported in the pathogenesis of suicide. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main source of serotonergic innervation of forebrain limbic structures disturbed in suicidal behaviour, in which an abnormal microglia reaction seems to play a role. In our present study, the density of microglia immunostained for the HLA-DR antigen was evaluated in the DRN. These analyses were carried out on paraffin-embedded brains from 24 suicidal and 21 non-suicidal patients; among them, 27 depressed (15 major depressive disorder and 12 bipolar disorder) and 18 schizophrenia (9 residual and 9 paranoid) patients and 22 matched controls without mental disorders...
February 22, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227673/colorimetric-determinations-of-lithium-levels-in-drop-volumes-of-human-plasma-for-monitoring-patients-with-bipolar-mood-disorder
#6
M Qassem, M Hickey, P A Kyriacou, M Qassem, M Hickey, P A Kyriacou, M Qassem, M Hickey, P A Kyriacou
Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225977/identifying-the-incidence-of-rash-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-patients-taking-lamotrigine-a-systematic-review-of-122-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Romi Bloom, Kyle T Amber
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and numerous off-label uses. The development of rash significantly affects its use. The most concerning of these adverse reactions is Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using lamotrigine as a monotherapy to quantify the incidence of cutaneous reactions, particularly Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Of a total of 4,364 papers regarding lamotrigine, 122 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225367/progranulin-gene-variation-affects-serum-progranulin-levels-differently-in-danish-bipolar-individuals-compared-with-healthy-controls
#8
Henriette N Buttenschøn, Marit N Nielsen, Gangadaar Thotakura, Chris W Lee, Anders Nykjær, Ole Mors, Simon Glerup
OBJECTIVES: The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls...
February 20, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224373/drug-induced-liver-injury-in-the-setting-of-glycogenic-hepatopathy
#9
Valmiki Maharaj, Matthew Fitz, Xianzdong Ding
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is an underdiagnosed complication of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It appears as an acute relapsing hepatitis with reversible transaminase elevations secondary to excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation. Patients are often asymptomatic but can present with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination shows hepatomegaly without splenomegaly. GH is diagnosed by biopsy as it is clinically indistinguishable from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a more common cause of hepatic dysfunction in diabetics...
February 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224078/complications-of-anesthesia-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-due-to-undiagnosed-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-study
#10
Georgia Trakada, Lemonia Velentza, Angeliki Konsta, Athanasia Pataka, Paul Zarogoulidis, Dimitris Dikeos
This is a case description of two patients with bipolar affective disorder, who presented complications, possibly due to underlying, undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), during anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The first patient, just after receiving the second ECT, developed tachypnea with spasm of the upper airways and severe oxygen desaturation He was intubated and transferred to the medical intensive care unit where he was extubated 15 h later. The second patient, just after the eighth ECT, developed tachycardia and severe hypertension...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222534/a-meta-analysis-of-memantine-for%C3%A2-depression
#11
Taro Kishi, Shinji Matsunaga, Nakao Iwata
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on whether memantine was beneficial for the treatment of depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The analysis included double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of memantine in MDD and BD. The primary outcome measures for efficacy and safety were response rate and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222360/maintenance-therapy-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Leif Lindström, Eva Lindström, Mikael Nilsson, Malin Höistad
BACKGROUND: Second generations antipsychotics (SGA) are frequently used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and long-term effects of treatment with SGA, regardless of treatment strategy (SGA administered either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy), in comparison to placebo, lithium or valproate. Primary outcomes were relapses (mood episode recurrence) and discontinuation. METHOD: Clinical studies were identified through database searching in PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane Library and critically appraised based on the Cochrane Handbook...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222346/inhibitory-control-in-euthymic-bipolar-disorder-event-related-potentials-during-a-go-nogo-task
#13
A M Morsel, M Dhar, W Hulstijn, A Temmerman, M Morrens, B Sabbe
OBJECTIVES: Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are reported to have difficulties with inhibition, even in a euthymic state. However, the literature on cortical activity associated with response inhibition in BD remains ambiguous. This study investigates inhibition in euthymic BD using electrophysiological measures, while controlling for effects of specific medications. METHODS: Twenty patients with BD were compared with eighteen healthy controls on a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalogram was recorded...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220797/elevated-choline-containing-compound-levels-in-rapid-cycling-bipolar-disorder
#14
Bo Cao, Jeffrey A Stanley, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Benson Mwangi, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
Previous studies have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds [ie, glycerophosphocholine plus phosphocholine (GPC+PC)] in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Increased levels of GPC+PC suggest alterations in the membrane phospholipids metabolism in bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is considered as a severe course of bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether rapid cycling bipolar disorder is linked to highly altered membrane phospholipid metabolism...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220734/intentional-intravenous-mercury-injection
#15
G Yudelowitz
Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options.Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases,although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presentedfollowing self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury. Clinical and radiographic features, possible adverse clinical sequelae in preexistingmental illness and further complications are discussed, as well as possible treatment strategies in light of relevant literature...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#16
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216785/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#17
Nilesh Shah, Sandeep Grover, G Prasad Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215308/releasing-mechanism-of-neurotrophic-factors-via-polysialic-acid
#18
C Sato
Neurotrophins are well-characterized neurologically active molecules in the central nervous system. The regulation of these signaling molecules, which are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival, is critical for normal brain function. Among the different types of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in various brain functions, including memory consolidation, synaptic plasticity, and adult neurogenesis, and is therefore a key molecule for understanding comprehensive brain function and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214779/lithium-response-in-bipolar-disorder-no-difference-in-gadl1-gene-expression-between-cell-lines-from-excellent-responders-and-non-responders
#19
Jeverson Moreira, Cindie Courtin, Pierre A Geoffroy, Emmanuel Curis, Frank Bellivier, Cynthia Marie-Claire
Previous association studies have shown mixed results between glutamic acid decarboxylase like-1 (GADL1) gene polymorphism and prophylactic lithium response in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. In the present study, GADL1 gene expression was investigated in regard to lithium response, using Alda scale, in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) of 36 Caucasian BD patients. No difference in GADL1 expression was observed among LCLs from excellent-responders, non-responders or controls. Furthermore, lithium did not induce significant changes in GADL1 expression levels after 4 or 8 days...
February 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214436/impact-of-child-maltreatment-on-meaning-in-life-in-psychiatric-patients
#20
Sébastien Weibel, Sonia Vidal, Emilie Olié, Roland Hasler, Catherine Torriani, Paco Prada, Philippe Courtet, Sébastien Guillaume, Nader Perroud, Philippe Huguelet
Child maltreatment (CM) worsens prognosis and quality of life in several psychiatric conditions. Meaning in life is a construct which relates to the sense of purpose that one can perceive in life, and is a key aspect of recovery in psychiatric patients. The lasting impact of CM on meaning in life and its mediating variables have not been studied in patients with chronic persistent psychiatric conditions. One hundred and sixty-six patients with bipolar disorder (N=35), psychotic disorder (N=73), anorexia nervosa (N=30) or borderline personality disorder (N=28) were assessed for meaning in life (revised version of the Life Regard Index (LRI-R)), for CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)) and for internalized/externalized psychopathology...
February 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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