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Wearable electronics

Jae Won Na, Hee Jun Kim, Seonghwan Hong, Hyun Jae Kim
A facile fabrication of polymer/metal-oxide hybrid semiconductors is introduced to overcome the intrinsically brittle nature of inorganic metal-oxide semiconductors. The fabrication of the hybrid semiconductors was enabled by plasma polymerization of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) via radio frequency magnetron sputtering process which is highly compatible with metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and PTFE are cosputtered to fabricate PTFE-incorporated IGZO thin-film transistors (IGZO:PTFE TFTs) and they exhibit a field-effect mobility of 10...
October 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thanh-Giang La, Shide Qiu, Dylan K Scott, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Jonathan W P Kuziek, Kyle E Mathewson, Jana Rieger, Hyun-Joong Chung
Wearable healthcare systems require skin-adhering electrodes that allow maximal comfort for patients as well as an electronics system to enable signal processing and transmittance. Textile-based electronics, known as "e-textiles," is a platform technology that allows comfort for patients. Here, two-layered e-textile patches are designed by controlled permeation of Ag-particle/fluoropolymer composite ink into a porous textile. The permeated ink forms a cladding onto the nanofibers in the textile substrate, which is beneficial for mechanical and electrical properties of the e-textile...
October 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Tao Chen, Qiongfeng Shi, Minglu Zhu, Tianyiyi He, Lining Sun, Lei Yang, Chengkuo Lee
Triboelectric nanogenerators and sensors can be applied as human-machine interfaces to the next generation of intelligent and interactive products, where flexible tactile sensors exhibit great advantages for diversified applications such as robotic control. In this paper, we present a self-powered, flexible, triboelectric sensor (SFTS) patch for finger trajectory sensing and further apply the collected information for robotic control. This innovative sensor consists of flexible and environmentally friendly materials, i...
October 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Elena Zdrachek, Eric Bakker
This review describes, with 186 references, progress in the field of potentiometric sensing in the period between January 2016 and August 2018. January 2016 was when the last fundamental review covering the topic of potentiometric sensors appeared in the special issue of Analytical Chemistry and was set as start date. This review starts with a description of progress in the development and improve-ment of reference electrodes, which represent an indispensable part of any electro-chemical cell and has a particularly important influence on the accuracy of potentiometric measurements...
October 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zhengyun Wang, Ting Liu, Yang Yu, Muhammad Asif, Ning Xu, Fei Xiao, Hongfang Liu
The emergence of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has sparked intensive attention and opened up the possibility of "crystal engineering." However, low conductivity, slow diffusion of guest molecules, as well as powder forms always hinder the development of MOF application, especially for biosensors and bioelectronics. Herein, a coffee ring-inspired strategy toward oriented self-assembly of a biomimetic MOF film following Murray's law is proposed, which can effectively reduce the transfer resistance...
October 18, 2018: Small
Dong Yang, Ruixia Yang, Shashank Priya, Shengzhong Liu
Flexible perovskite solar cells have attracted widespread research effort because of their promising potential in light-weight wearable, portable, flyable and deployable for ultralight-weight space and near-space applications. During just the past few years, the efficiency has exceeded 18% due to the high quality perovskite film achieved by various low-temperature fabrication methods and the great achievements in developing matched interface and electrode materials. This review focuses on the recent progress of flexible perovskite solar cells concerning: Low-temperature fabrication methods to improve the properties of perovskite films, such as full coverage, uniform morphology and good crystallinity; The demonstrated interface layers used in flexible perovskite solar cells, considering key figure-of-merit such as high transmittance, high carrier mobility, suitable band gap and easy fabrication via low-temperature methods; The flexible transparent electrode materials developed to enhance the mechanical stability of the devices; Mechanical and long-term environmental stability of flexible perovskite device; Outlook of flexible perovskite solar cell in portable electronic device and its cost; Prospective of commercialization feasibility of the flexible perovskite solar cells...
October 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Saisai Wang, Xianli Gu, Linlin Wang, Chun Wu, Qi Liu, Lingyu Zhao, Yufan Xue, Wenyao Li, Yichuan Rui, Jingli Xu, Mei Ding
The new demands for energy storage systems have been placed with demands for flexible wearable electronics. Herein, rugby-like GeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) have been directly grown on carbon cloth (GeO₂ NPs/CC) through a one-step hydrolysis process at room temperature, which can be used as a self-supporting flexible anode for lithium ion battery (LIBs). The rugby-like GeO₂ NPs/CC showed an improved lithium-storage performance with features of high reversible capacity ~2000 mA·h·g-1 even after 100 cycles and good cycling stability...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jiaqing Xiong, Peng Cui, Xiaoliang Chen, Jiangxin Wang, Kaushik Parida, Meng-Fang Lin, Pooi See Lee
Textiles that are capable of harvesting biomechanical energy via triboelectric effects are of interest for self-powered wearable electronics. Fabrication of conformable and durable textiles with high triboelectric outputs remains challenging. Here we propose a washable skin-touch-actuated textile-based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy from both voluntary and involuntary body motions. Black phosphorus encapsulated with hydrophobic cellulose oleoyl ester nanoparticles serves as a synergetic electron-trapping coating, rendering a textile nanogenerator with long-term reliability and high triboelectricity regardless of various extreme deformations, severe washing, and extended environmental exposure...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Andrzej Pepłowski, Piotr A Walter, Daniel Janczak, Żaneta Górecka, Wojciech Święszkowski, Małgorzata Jakubowska
Novel printable composites based on high aspect ratio graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), fabricated without using solvents, and at room temperature, that can be employed for flexible, standalone conducting lines for wearable electronics are presented. The percolation threshold of examined composites was determined to be as low as 0.147 vol% content of GNPs. Obtained sheet resistance values were as low as 6.1 Ω/sq. Stretching and bending tests are presented, proving suitability of the composite for flexible applications as the composite retains its conductivity even after 180° folding and 13...
October 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yonggang Wang, Xiaofeng Lei, Xizheng Liu, Wenqing Ma, Zhen Cao, Yi Ding
Flexible Li-air batteries (LABs) have been considered as promising power sources for wearable electronics due to its higher energy density. However, when operated in ambient air, it suffers tremendous issues including Li anode passivation, poor cycle life as well as leakage of liquid electrolyte. Herein, we present a LAB with a tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME, G4) gel electrolyte, in which the gel is in-situ formed through a cross-linking reaction between the liquid G4 and the Lithium Ethylenediamine (LiEDA) grown on the surface of Li anode...
October 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jing Liu, Bryan Yan, Yuanting Zhang, Xiao-Rong Ding, Su Peng, Ni Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To fight the "silent killer" hypertension, continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring has been one of the most desired functions in wearable electronics. However, current BP measuring principles and protocols either involve a vessel occlusion process with a cuff or require multiple sensing nodes on the body, which makes it difficult to implement them in compact wearable electronics like smartwatches and wristbands with long-term wearability. METHODS: In this work, we proposed a highly-compact multi-wavelength photoplethysmography (MWPPG) module and a depth-resolved MWPPG approach for continuous monitoring of BP and systemic vascular resistance (SVR)...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Zhisheng Lv, Yuxin Tang, Zhiqiang Zhu, Jiaqi Wei, Wenlong Li, Huarong Xia, Ying Jiang, Zhiyuan Liu, Yifei Luo, Xiang Ge, Yanyan Zhang, Renheng Wang, Wei Zhang, Xian Jun Loh, Xiaodong Chen
Traditional stretchable supercapacitors, possessing a thin electrode and a 2D shape, have limited areal specific areal capacitance and are incompatible with 3D wearables. To overcome the limitations of 2D stretchable supercapacitors, it is highly desirable to develop 3D stretchable supercapacitors with higher mass loading and customizable shapes. In this work, a new 3D stretchable supercapacitor inspired by a honeycomb lantern based on an expandable honeycomb composite electrode composed of polypyrrole/black-phosphorous oxide electrodeposited on carbon nanotube film is reported...
October 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sung Bong Kim, KunHyuck Lee, Milan S Raj, Boram Lee, Jonathan T Reeder, Jahyun Koo, Aurélie Hourlier-Fargette, Amay J Bandodkar, Sang Min Won, Yurina Sekine, Jungil Choi, Yi Zhang, Jangryeol Yoon, Bong Hoon Kim, Yeojeong Yun, Seojin Lee, Jiho Shin, Jeonghyun Kim, Roozbeh Ghaffari, John A Rogers
Sweat excretion is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, environmental factors, and health status. Conventional means for measuring the properties of sweat yield accurate results but their requirements for sampling and analytics do not allow for use in the field. Emerging wearable devices offer significant advantages over existing approaches, but each has significant drawbacks associated with bulk and weight, inability to quantify volumetric sweat rate and loss, robustness, and/or inadequate accuracy in biochemical analysis...
October 9, 2018: Small
Chunya Wang, Kailun Xia, Huimin Wang, Xiaoping Liang, Zhe Yin, Yingying Zhang
Flexible and wearable electronics are attracting wide attention due to their potential applications in wearable human health monitoring and care systems. Carbon materials have combined superiorities such as good electrical conductivity, intrinsic and structural flexibility, light weight, high chemical and thermal stability, ease of chemical functionalization, as well as potential mass production, enabling them to be promising candidate materials for flexible and wearable electronics. Consequently, great efforts are devoted to the controlled fabrication of carbon materials with rationally designed structures for applications in next-generation electronics...
October 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Qijun Zong, Qichong Zhang, Xue Mei, Qiulong Li, Zhenyu Zhou, Dong Li, Mingyuan Chen, Feiyang Shi, Juan Sun, Yagang Yao, Zengxing Zhang
Flexible fiber-shaped supercapacitors hold promising potential in the area of portable and wearable electronics. Unfortunately, their general application is hindered by the restricted energy densities due to low operating voltage and small specific. Herein, an all-solid-state fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor (FASC) possessing ultrahigh energy density is reported, in which the positive electrode was designed as Na-doped MnO2 nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) and the negative electrode as MoS2 nanosheets coated CNTFs...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lushuai Zhang, Wesley Viola, Trisha L Andrew
Lightweight energy storage technologies are integral for powering emerging wearable health monitors and smart garments. In-plane, interdigitated microsupercapacitors (MSCs) hold the greatest promise to be integrated into wearable electronics, due to their miniaturized footprint, as compared to conventional, multilayered supercapacitors and batteries. Constructing MSCs directly on textiles, while retaining the fabric's pliability and tactile quality, will provide uniquely wearable energy storage systems. However, relative to plastic-backed or paper-based MSCs, garment-integrated MSCs are underreported...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Josue Ferri, Clara Perez Fuster, Raúl Llinares Llopis, Jorge Moreno, Eduardo Garcia-Breijo
Many types of solutions have been studied and developed in order to give the user feedback when using touchpads, buttons, or keyboards in textile industry. Their application on textiles could allow a wide range of applications in the field of medicine, sports or the automotive industry. In this work, we introduce a novel solution that combines a 2D touchpad with an electroluminescent display (ELD). This approach physically has two circuits over a flexible textile substrate using the screen-printing technique for wearable electronics applications...
October 2, 2018: Sensors
Sevda Agaoglu, Priscilla Diep, Matthew Martini, Samudhyatha Kt, Murat Baday, I Emre Araci
Wearable technologies have potential to transform healthcare by providing continuous measurements of physiological parameters. Sensors that passively monitor physiological pressure without using electronic components are ideal for wearable contact lenses because they are easy to interface with the cornea and the external environment. Here, we report a passive integrated microfluidic sensor with a novel transduction mechanism that converts small strain changes into a large fluidic volume expansion, detectable by a smart-phone camera...
October 2, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Wei Yan, Alexis Page, Tung Nguyen-Dang, Yunpeng Qu, Federica Sordo, Lei Wei, Fabien Sorin
The ability to integrate complex electronic and optoelectronic functionalities within soft and thin fibers is one of today's key advanced manufacturing challenges. Multifunctional and connected fiber devices will be at the heart of the development of smart textiles and wearable devices. These devices also offer novel opportunities for surgical probes and tools, robotics and prostheses, communication systems, and portable energy harvesters. Among the various fiber-processing methods, the preform-to-fiber thermal drawing technique is a very promising process that is used to fabricate multimaterial fibers with complex architectures at micro- and nanoscale feature sizes...
September 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
Dong-Seok Kim, Hwang-Jae Lee, Su-Hyun Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Junwon Jang, Byung-Ok Choi, Gyu-Ha Ryu, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Stair ascent is one of the most important and challenging activities of daily living to maintain mobility and independence in elderly adults. Recently, various types of wearable walking assist robots have been developed to improve gait function and metabolic efficiency for elderly adults. Several studies have shown that walking assist robots can improve cardiopulmonary metabolic efficiency during level walking in elderly. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating the effect of walking assist robots on cardiopulmonary metabolic efficiency during stair walking in elderly adults...
September 29, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
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