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bacterial drug resistance

E J Growcott, T A Cariaga, L Morris, X Zang, S Lopez, D A Ansaldi, J Gold, L Gamboa, T Roth, R L Simmons, C S Osborne
Objectives: The neutropenic murine thigh infection model and a dose-fractionation approach were used to determine the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of LYS228, a novel monobactam antibiotic with activity against Enterobacteriaceae including carbapenem-resistant strains. Methods: Mice (n = 4 per group) were inoculated with Enterobacteriaceae strains via intramuscular injection. Two hours post-bacterial inoculation, treatment with LYS228 was initiated...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jennifer Shiu, Grace Ting, Tony Kl Kiang
Delafloxacin has recently received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. This article provides a balanced and comprehensive systematic critique of the literature in order to provide an up-to-date summary of its clinical pharmacology. Oral delafloxacin is rapidly absorbed and exhibits comparable exposure characteristics (300 mg intravenous versus 450 mg oral) between the two formulations, allowing easy transition from intravenous to oral therapy...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Andreea Baricz, Adela Teban, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Edina Szekeres, Anca Farkas, Maria Nica, Amalia Dascălu, Corina Oprișan, Paris Lavin, Cristian Coman
The aim of this paper is to describe a new variant of Janthinobacterium lividum - ROICE173, isolated from Antarctic snow, and to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the crude bacterial extract against 200 multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria of both clinical and environmental origin, displaying various antibiotic resistance patterns. ROICE173 is extremotolerant, grows at high pH (5.5-9.5), in high salinity (3%) and in the presence of different xenobiotic compounds and various antibiotics. The best violacein yield (4...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Heylmann, Jennifer Badura, Huong Becker, Jörg Fahrer, Bernd Kaina
Activation of T cells, a major fraction of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCS), is essential for the immune response. Genotoxic stress resulting from ionizing radiation (IR) and chemical agents, including anticancer drugs, has serious impact on T cells and, therefore, on the immune status. Here we compared the sensitivity of non-stimulated (non-proliferating) vs. CD3/CD28-stimulated (proliferating) PBLC to IR. PBLCs were highly sensitive to IR and, surprisingly, stimulation to proliferation resulted in resistance to IR...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Kelli Wuerth, Amy H Y Lee, Reza Falsafi, Erin E Gill, Robert E W Hancock
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial pneumonia and infects patients with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa lung infections are difficult to treat due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and strains with multi-drug resistance are becoming more prevalent. Here we examined the use of a small host defense peptide, innate defense regulator 1002 (IDR-1002), in an acute P. aeruginosa lung infection in vivo. IDR-1002 significantly reduced the bacterial burden in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as MCP-1 in the BALF and serum, KC in the serum, and IL-6 in the BALF...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Tracy Toliver-Kinsky, Weihua Cui, Gabor Törö, Seung-Jin Lee, Konstantin Shatalin, Evgeny Nudler, Csaba Szabo
The biological mediator hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is produced by bacteria and has been shown to be cytoprotective against oxidative stress and to increase the sensitivity of various bacteria to a range of antibiotic drugs. Here we evaluated whether bacterial H2 S provides resistance against the immune response, using two bacterial species that are common sources of nosocomial infections, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Elevations in H2 S increased the resistance of both species to immune-mediated killing...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Samuel Kilcher, Martin J Loessner
Viruses of bacteria (bacteriophages or phages) are highly evolved nanomachines that recognize bacterial cell walls, deliver genetic information, and kill or transform their targets with unparalleled specificity. For a long time, the use of genetically modified phages was limited to phage display approaches and fundamental research. This is mostly because phage engineering has been a complex and time-consuming task, applicable for only a few well characterized model phages. Recent advances in sequencing technology and molecular biology gave rise to rapid and precise tools that enable modification of less-well-characterized phages...
October 12, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Damayanti Bagchi, V S Sharan Rathnam, Peter Lemmens, Indranil Banerjee, Samir Kumar Pal
Nanomaterials with antimicrobial properties triggered by external stimuli appear to be a promising and innovative substitute for the destruction of antibiotic-resistant superbugs as they can induce multiple disruptions in the cellular mechanism. This study demonstrates the use of squaraine (SQ) dye as the photosensitive material, activated in the near-infrared tissue-transparent therapeutic window. The dye has been covalently attached to the ZnO nanoparticle surface, forming ZnO-SQ nanohybrids. The formation of the nanohybrids is confirmed using Fourier transform infrared and other optical spectroscopic methods...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Jiangkun Dai, Wenjia Dan, Siyu Ren, Congguo Shang, Junru Wang
Thirty-three new quaternization harman analogues were synthesized and their antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria were evaluated. The structure-activity relationships were summarized and compounds 4f, 4i, 4l, 4u, 4w, 4x and 5c showed excellent antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, good thermal stability and "drug-like" properties. In particular, compound 4x exhibited better bactericidal effect (4-fold superiority against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) than standard drugs fosfomycin sodium and ampicillin sodium (minimum inhibitory concentration = 50 nmol/mL)...
October 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yu-Han Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Bing-Yu Yao, Zih-Syun Fang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yuan-Chih Chang, Te-Li Chen, Che-Ming Jack Hu
Amidst the ever-rising threat of antibiotics resistance, colistin, a decade-old antibiotic with lingering toxicity concern, is increasingly prescribed to treat many drug-resistant, gram-negative bacteria. With the aim of improving the safety profile while preserving the antimicrobial activity of colistin, a nanoformulation is herein developed through coacervate complexation with polyanionic peptides. Upon controlled mixing of cationic colistin with polyglutamic acids, formation of liquid coacervates was demonstrated...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Gaspar Banfalvi
The in vitro susceptibility of gentamicin fractions against Fusarium growth was the subject of this retrospective study. Fusariosis was earlier an exceptionally rare human disease and an unrealistic idea to treat soil saprophytes and plant pathogens with expensive antibiotics such as gentamicins or their minor components. Disseminated fusariosis is now the second most frequent lethal fungal infection after aspergillosis especially in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancy. Results of this study obtained between May and November 1973 were interesting but not practicable and remained unpublished...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Konstantinos Vazouras, Romain Basmaci, Julia Bielicki, Laura Folgori, Theoklis Zaoutis, Mike Sharland, Yingfen Hsia
PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections among children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antimicrobials used for febrile UTIs in paediatric clinical trials and meta-analyse the observed cure rates and reasons for treatment failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane central databases between January 1, 1990, and November 24, 2016, combining MeSH and free-text terms for: "urinary tract infections", AND "therapeutics", AND "clinical trials" in children (age range 0-18 years)...
October 11, 2018: Drugs
Xi Wen, Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Cell-cell interactions play an important role in bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, we asked whether neighbor proximity is sufficient to generate single-cell variation in antibiotic resistance due to local differences in antibiotic concentrations. To test this, we focused on multidrug efflux pumps because recent studies have revealed that expression of pumps is heterogeneous across populations. Efflux pumps can export antibiotics, leading to elevated resistance relative to cells with low or no pump expression...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ye Zhao, Hui Liu, Qing Wang, Bingjun Li
The global abuse and misuse of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections has resulted in the ubiquitous existence of these drugs in aquatic environments, which causes frequent antimicrobial resistance and pollution in ecosystems. However, the chronic effects of antimicrobial agents on aquatic animal growth and health have not been fully evaluated. In the present study, three typical antibiotics (tetracycline, erythromycin, and norfloxacin) were administered orally to juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus for 45 days, to mimic the long-term use of antibiotics...
October 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joveeta Joseph, Savitri Sharma, Vivek Pravin Dave
BACKGROUND: To report microbiological diagnostic dilemma posed by observation of unusual morphology of bacteria in the vitreous sample of a series of three cases of bacterial endophthalmitis. RESULTS: A non-comparative, descriptive case series is described. All three cases presented to the retina-vitreous clinic with a clinical diagnosis of acute endophthalmitis between January and April 2018. Two patients had a past history of cataract surgery, and one had antecedent trauma within 1-2 days of presentation...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Chenxi Shi, Minmin Li, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xin Ma, Yicong Chang, Rui Li, Changwen Li, Jingshan He, Fangping Liu
Bacterial biofilms have been demonstrated to be closely related to clinical infections and mainly contribute to drug resistance. Berberine, which is the main component of Coptis chinensis , has been reported to have efficient antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of combination of berberine with ciprofloxacin (CIP) to inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation and the effect on the related genes ( rpoE , luxS , ompR ) expressions. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of the combination of berberine with CIP is 0...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
M W McCarthy
In June 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved plazomicin, a novel neoglycoside, for the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections who have limited or no alternative treatment options. This approval was based on substantial preclinical and clinical work, and marks an important advance in the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. This manuscript reviews the in vivo and in vitro work that led to the approval of plazomicin and examines how the drug may be used in the years ahead to treat patients with aggressive and life-threatening infections...
September 2018: Drugs of Today
Min Kyung Kim, Nahee Kang, Su Jin Ko, Jonggwan Park, Eunji Park, Dong Won Shin, Seo Hyun Kim, Seung A Lee, Ji In Lee, Seung Hyun Lee, Eun Gi Ha, Seung Hun Jeon, Yoonkyung Park
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising therapeutic agents for treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Previous studies showed that magainin 2 (isolated from African clawed fogs Xenopus laevis ) has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of magainin 2 against Acinetobacter baumannii . Magainin 2 showed excellent antibacterial activity against A. baumannii strains and high stability at physiological salt concentrations...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fan Yang, Yiting Feng, Xin Fan, Man Zhang, Chen Wang, Weifeng Zhao, Changsheng Zhao
Antibiotics have been widely used in clinical applications to treat pathogenic infections at present, but the problem of drug-resistance associated with the abuse of antibiotics has become a large threat to human beings. Herein, we developed an antibacterial nanoagent by coating quaternized chitosan (QCS) on the surface of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles-anchored graphene oxide (GO), which enabled QCS and GO to achieve synergistic effects on killing the drug-resistant bacteria. Systematical antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared nanoagent had antibacterial ability, which was significantly enhanced after the introduction of near-infrared (NIR)...
September 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Eun Jung Kim, Jaeseong Oh, Kyounghoon Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, Jae-Yong Chung, Joo-Hee Hwang, Eun Young Nam, Hyoung Sook Kim, Moonsuk Kim, Jeong Su Park, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Junghan Song, Hong Bin Kim
BACKGROUND: Colistin is increasingly used as the last therapeutic option for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. To ensure safe and efficacious use of colistin, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed due to its narrow therapeutic window. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of colistin and to guide TDM in colistin-treated patients in Korea. METHODS: In a prospective study, we analysed PK characteristics in 15 patients who intravenously received colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) twice per day...
October 3, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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