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bacterial drug resistance

Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Mona Singh, Ashima Bhaskar, Santosh Kumar, Parveen Sobia, Luc Van Kaer, Gobardhan Das
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M.tb variants. Multiple and extremely drug-resistant (MDR and XDR) variants of TB are now widespread throughout the globe, and totally drug-resistant (TDR) strains have appeared...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lidya Ketema, Zerihun Ketema, Bitsu Kiflu, Haile Alemayehu, Yitagele Terefe, Mohammed Ibrahim, Tadesse Eguale
Salmonella is one of the top causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. The primary sources of human Salmonella infection are food producing animals such as cattle, poultry, and swine. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and to determine the serovar distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. isolated from fecal (n=567) and carcass swab (n=159) samples of slaughtered cattle at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise and Kara'alo PLC, Abattoirs, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between January 2014 and April 2015...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mi Young Lim, Youna Cho, Mina Rho
The routine therapeutic use of antibiotics has caused resistance genes to be disseminated across microbial populations. In particular, bacterial strains having antibiotic resistance genes are frequently observed in the human microbiome. Moreover, multidrug-resistant pathogens are now widely spread, threatening public health. Such genes are transferred and spread among bacteria even in different environments. Advances in high throughput sequencing technology and computational algorithms have accelerated investigation into antibiotic resistance genes of bacteria...
December 2018: Current Genomics
Jiun-Ling Wang, Chih-Feng Kuo, Che-Ming Yeh, Jung-Ren Chen, Ming-Fang Cheng, Chih-Hsin Hung
Purpose: Few effective antibiotics are available for treating extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) sepsis. Phage therapy may show potential in treating XDRAB infections. Materials and methods: We studied φkm18p phage therapy in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice models of XDRAB bacteremia. Results: We observed survival rates of nearly 100% in groups given phage therapy concurrent with XDRAB at different multiplicities of infection...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Anne-Claire Groo, Nada Matougui, Anita Umerska, Patrick Saulnier
Introduction: Resistance to traditional antibiotics is an increasingly serious problem. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a new therapeutic class with great potential against infectious diseases, as they are less prone to induce resistance. Nanotechnology-based delivery strategies can improve the efficiency and stability of AMPs, particularly against proteolytic degradation. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are a new generation of biomimetic nanocarriers and were used in this study to deliver peptides...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Myassar Alekish, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Borhan Albiss, Sara Nawasrah
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and its possible alternative use for the treatment for mastitis in sheep and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZnO-NPs against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains isolated from subclinical mastitis cases in sheep. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pooled milk samples were collected from ewes with subclinical mastitis...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Kunal Batabyal, Abhiroop Banerjee, Susmita Pal, Samir Dey, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Indranil Samanta, Devi Prasad Isore, Abhishek Dharm Singh
Background: Milk is considered as complete food and an important part of human diet throughout the world including India. Bacterial contamination of milk such as Escherichia coli due to unhygienic condition and poor udder health can cause infections, especially in infants and elders or in immunocompromised persons. Possession of antimicrobial resistance genes by commensal bacteria present in milk makes the issue more serious. Aim: The study was aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Peter M Mbelele, Sagal Y Mohamed, Elingarami Sauli, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Kennedy K Addo, Scott K Heysell, Stellah G Mpagama
Early and accurate diagnosis and rigorous clinical and microbiological monitoring of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment can curb morbidity and mortality. While others are still under evaluation, the World Health Organization has recommended few novel molecular methods for MDR-TB diagnosis only. We present current molecular methods for diagnosis and monitoring of MDR-TB treatment in TB-endemic settings. A systematic meta-narrative review was conducted according to the RAMESES recommendations...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Qi-Wei Chen, Kai Dong, Han-Xiao Qin, Yi-Kai Yang, Jin-Lei He, Jiao Li, Zhi-Wan Zheng, Da-Li Chen, Jian-Ping Chen
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread obligatory parasitic protozoa which infect nearly all the warm-blooded animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. Current administration of the therapeutic drugs like the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine shows high rates of toxic side effects and encounters drug resistance in some cases. Resveratrol is a natural plant extracts with multiple functions, such as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-parasite activities. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of resveratrol upon the tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain extracellularly and intracellularly...
December 10, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sandra Story, Michael J Skriba, Krishnagopal Maiti, Nihar Ranjan, Natalya N Degtyareva, Keith D Green, Verjine Khodaverdian, Adegboyega K Oyelere, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Dev P Arya
The development of new ligands that have comparable or enhanced therapeutic efficacy relative to current drugs is vital to the health of the global community in the short and long term. One strategy to accomplish this goal is to functionalize sites on current antimicrobials to enhance specificity and affinity while abating resistance mechanisms of infectious organisms. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of pyrene-neomycin B (PYR-NEO) conjugates, their binding affinity to A-site RNA targets, resistance to aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), and antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacterial strains of clinical relevance...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Alice Bricheux, Lauriane Lengenhagger, Sévérine Hughes, Abderrahim Karmime, Pierre Lescuyer, Angela Huttner
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactam antibiotics is increasingly employed to ensure adequate antibiotic exposure and slow emergence of resistance. Imipenem's therapeutic range has not been defined; we report plasma concentrations and clinical outcomes of patients receiving imipenem for bacterial infections. METHODS: All hospitalised adult patients undergoing imipenem TDM during therapy for suspected or confirmed bacterial infections between 1 January 2013 and 28 February 2017 were included in this single-centre retrospective cohort...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Samia M Omar, Nabila A Maziad, Nourhan M El-Tantawy
PURPOSE: Inhalable pulmonary delivery of isoniazid (INH) may improve the efficacy and reduce drug-resistant problem. METHOD: INH-loaded chitosan microparticles (Cs-Mps-1-3) were prepared as inhalable carrier for the previously prepared INH-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyitaconic acid nanoparticles (NPs) using spray-drying technique. Here, Cs-Mps-1-3 are composed of Cs: INH-loaded NPs: Free INH at w/w ratios (1:1:0), (1: 0:1), and (1:1:1), respectively. Subsequently, the prepared Cs-Mps-1-3 characterizations were studied...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Jasmin Kuratli, Theresa Pesch, Hanna Marti, Cory Ann Leonard, Christian Blenn, Paul Torgerson, Nicole Borel
Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of infectious blindness and represents the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Considering the potential side effects of antibiotic therapy and increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed that water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS) reduced C. trachomatis infectivity. Furthermore, wIRA/VIS irradiation led to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines similar to that observed upon C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kasahun Gorems, Getenet Beyene, Melkamu Berhane, Zeleke Mekonnen
Background: Otitis media is among the leading causes of childhood illnesses although it can also affect the adults resulting in frequent physician visits, drug prescription and a key contributor to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors, bacterial profile, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from patients with discharging ears which clinically equates to draining otitis media in developing countries with limited medical resources such as otoscope...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Monika I Konaklieva
Over the past century, a multitude of derivatives of structural scaffolds with established antimicrobial potential have been prepared and tested, and a variety of new scaffolds have emerged. The effectiveness of antibiotics, however, is in sharp decline because of the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms. The prevalence of drug resistance, both in clinical and community settings, is a consequence of bacterial ingenuity in altering pathways and/or cell morphology, making it a persistent threat to human health...
December 7, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Xunzhou Yu, Danfeng He, Ximu Zhang, Hongmei Zhang, Jinlin Song, DeZhi Shi, Yahan Fan, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Deng
Since generating toxic reactive oxygen (ROS) is largely dependent on oxygen, bacteria infected wounds hypoxia significantly inhibits photodynamic therapy's (PDT) antibacterial efficiency. Therefore, a novel therapeutic method for eradicating multidrug-resistant bacteria is developed based on the light-activated alkyl free radical generation (that is oxygen-independent). According to the polydopamine coated carboxyl graphene (PDA@CG), an initiator-loaded and pH-sensitive heat-producible hybrid of bactericides was synthesized...
December 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ahmed A Al-Naqshbandi, Mahmoud A Chawsheen, Haval H Abdulqader
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health-associated problem worldwide. Like other medical conditions, UTI patients may suffer from poor treatment outcomes due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Determining patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in uropathogens will guide physicians to choose the best antibiotics for treating affected patients. In this project we aimed to evaluate the frequencies of pathogens associated with UTI and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Wanxin Li, Guibin Wang, Song Zhang, Yuying Fu, Yuhang Jiang, Xiaojun Yang, Xiangmin Lin
Previously, a maltose-specific channel porin, LamB was found to be associate with multi-drug resistance in a lamB deleted strain, but the exact mechanisms require further elucidation. Herein, differential protein expression between the Escherichia coli mutant strain ΔlamB and the wild type strain BW25113, with and without ciprofloxacin (CFLX), was identified using iTRAQ based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); while differential metabolite expression was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Peyman Avakh Majelan, Mehdi Mahdavi, Mohammad Hossein Yazdi, Elaheh Salimi, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen, its clinical importance is exacerbated by the spread of multi-drug resistant strains. The potential future failure of antibiotic therapy necessitates the development of novel control regimes, including new immunotherapeutic approaches. S. aureus has a large repertoire of surface components with potential for immunological targeting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel member of staphylococcal conserved antigen family (ScaF) as a factor to elicit cellular and humoral immunity...
December 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Monsur Ali, Anatoly Splenkin, Ellena Peterson, Weian Zhao
Pathogenic bacteria pose a serious public health threat. Rapid and cost effective detection of such bacteria remains a major challenge. Here, we present a DNAzyme-based fluorescent paper sensor for Klebsiella pneumoniae. The DNAzyme was generated by an in vitro selection technique to cleave a fluorogenic DNA-RNA chimeric substrate in the presence of K. pneumoniae. The DNAzyme was printed on a paper substrate in a 96 well format to serve as mix-and-read fluorescent assay which exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) 105 CFUs/mL...
December 6, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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