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Autism Spectrum Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749421/dsm-5-changes-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-implications-for-comorbid-sleep-issues
#1
REVIEW
Ujjwal P Ramtekkar
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology...
July 27, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749236/are-males-and-females-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-more-similar-than-we-thought
#2
Joanna L Mussey, Nicole C Ginn, Laura G Klinger
Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity in a community-based sample of 566 males and 113 females with autism spectrum disorder ranging in age from 1 year, 9 months to 56 years, 4 months. Results suggest either very small or no gender differences in age at diagnosis, intelligence quotient, cognitive profiles, or autism spectrum disorder symptom severity...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749234/the-importance-of-critical-life-moments-an-explorative-study-of-successful-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Amanda A Webster, Susanne Garvis
Ten women with autism spectrum disorder participated in oral interviews in order to share their experiences since their diagnosis and to discuss the factors that had enabled them to achieve success in different aspects of their life. Participants were encouraged to share their perspectives on their success and to discuss the challenges they encountered in their daily lives and how they overcame these. Interviews were analysed using a narrative-themed approach. Participants indicated that both internal and external factors enabled them to achieve success in different aspects of their lives...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748335/the-broader-autism-phenotype-in-mothers-is-associated-with-increased-discordance-between-maternal-reported-and-clinician-observed-instruments-that-measure-child-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Eric Rubenstein, Rebecca Edmondson Pretzel, Gayle C Windham, Laura A Schieve, Lisa D Wiggins, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Andrew F Olshan, Annie G Howard, Brian W Pence, Lisa Young, Julie Daniels
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis relies on parent-reported and clinician-observed instruments. Sometimes, results between these instruments disagree. The broader autism phenotype (BAP) in parent-reporters may be associated with discordance. Study to Explore Early Development data (N = 712) were used to address whether mothers with BAP and children with ASD or non-ASD developmental disabilities were more likely than mothers without BAP to 'over-' or 'under-report' child ASD on ASD screeners or interviews compared with clinician observation or overall impression...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748334/effect-of-omega-3-and-6-supplementation-on-language-in-preterm-toddlers-exhibiting-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms
#5
Kelly W Sheppard, Kelly M Boone, Barbara Gracious, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Christopher Bartlett, Daniel L Coury, Sarah A Keim
Delayed language development may be an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Early intervention is critical for children with ASD, and the present study presents pilot data on a clinical trial of omega-3 and -6 fatty acid supplementation and language development, a secondary trial outcome, in children at risk for ASD. We randomized 31 children to receive an omega-3 and -6 supplement or a placebo for 3 months, and measured their language abilities at baseline and after supplementation. Gesture use, but not word production, increased for children in the treatment group more than children in the placebo group...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748332/demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-associated-with-engagement-in-behavioral-health-treatment-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Lisa A Croen, Naomi Shankute, Meghan Davignon, Maria L Massolo, Cathleen Yoshida
This study investigates demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation, continuation, and adherence to behavioral health treatment (BHT) among children with autism spectrum disorder. Among 293 insured children referred for applied behavior analysis (ABA) based BHT, 23% never initiated treatment. Among those initiating treatment, 31% discontinued treatment within 1 year of treatment initiation, and only 15% received 80% or more of recommended treatment hours. Younger age at referral to treatment, private health insurance, and receiving more than 10 h/week of BHT were associated with treatment engagement...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747993/adolescent-adaptive-behavior-profiles-in-williams-beuren-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Carolina Grego Del Cole, Sheila Cavalcante Caetano, Wagner Ribeiro, Arthur Melo E E Kümmer, Andrea Parolin Jackowski
BACKGROUND: Adaptive behavior can be impaired in different neurodevelopmental disorders and may be influenced by confounding factors, such as intelligence quotient (IQ) and socioeconomic classification. Our main objective was to verify whether adaptive behavior profiles differ in three conditions-Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS), Down syndrome (DS), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as compared with healthy controls (HC) and with each other. Although the literature points towards each disorder having a characteristic profile, no study has compared profiles to establish the specificity of each one...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747892/how-useful-is-electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-the-delineation-of-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Oana Gurau, William J Bosl, Charles R Newton
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormal neural connectivity. Presently, neural connectivity is a theoretical construct that cannot be easily measured. Research in network science and time series analysis suggests that neural network structure, a marker of neural activity, can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG). EEG can be quantified by different methods of analysis to potentially detect brain abnormalities. The aim of this review is to examine evidence for the utility of three methods of EEG signal analysis in the ASD diagnosis and subtype delineation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747876/structural-correlates-of-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Wataru Sato, Shota Uono, Takanori Kochiyama, Sayaka Yoshimura, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Morimitsu Sakihama, Motomi Toichi
Behavioral studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired ability to read the mind in the eyes. Although this impairment is central to their social malfunctioning, its structural neural correlates remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we assessed Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version (Eyes Test) and acquired structural magnetic resonance images in adults with high-functioning ASD (n = 19) and age-, sex- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing (TD) controls (n = 19)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747813/stress-among-parents-of-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-comparison-involving-physiological-indicators-and-parent-self-reports
#10
Ciara Padden, Jack E James
Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i...
2017: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747070/hooked-on-a-feeling-repetitive-cognition-and-internalizing-symptomatology-in-relation-to-autism-spectrum-symptomatology
#11
Elliot Gavin Keenan, Katherine Gotham, Matthew D Lerner
Repetitive cognition, including rumination such as that seen in depression, has been shown to correlate with depression symptoms in both typically developing individuals and individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Repetitive cognition is more common in autism spectrum disorder than in typically developing peers, as is depression; thus, this study evaluated the role of repetitive cognition in relation between autism spectrum symptomatology and depressive symptomatology. In all, 200 typically developing adults completed self-report questionnaires measuring autism spectrum symptomatology, different forms of repetitive cognition (general perseveration and depressive rumination), depression, and rejection sensitivity...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745267/revisiting-subcortical-brain-volume-correlates-of-autism-in-the-abide-dataset-effects-of-age-and-sex
#12
W Zhang, W Groen, M Mennes, C Greven, J Buitelaar, N Rommelse
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by substantial clinical, etiological and neurobiological heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, previous imaging studies have highlighted the role of specific cortical and subcortical structures in ASD and have forwarded the notion of an ASD specific neuroanatomy in which abnormalities in brain structures are present that can be used for diagnostic classification approaches. METHOD: A large (N = 859, 6-27 years, IQ 70-130) multi-center structural magnetic resonance imaging dataset was examined to specifically test ASD diagnostic effects regarding (sub)cortical volumes...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745261/examining-bidirectional-relationships-between-parenting-and-child-maladjustment-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-9-year-longitudinal-study-corrigendum
#13
Lisa M Dieleman, Sarah S W De Pauw, Bart Soenens, Wim Beyers, Peter Prinzie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744759/do-verbal-children-with-autism-comprehend-gesture-as-readily-as-typically-developing-children
#15
Nevena Dimitrova, Şeyda Özçalışkan, Lauren B Adamson
Gesture comprehension remains understudied, particularly in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have difficulties in gesture production. Using a novel gesture comprehension task, Study 1 examined how 2- to 4-year-old typically-developing (TD) children comprehend types of gestures and gesture-speech combinations, and showed better comprehension of deictic gestures and reinforcing gesture-speech combinations than iconic/conventional gestures and supplementary gesture-speech combinations at each age...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743994/autistic-traits-and-positive-psychotic-experiences-modulate-the-association-of-psychopathic-tendencies-with-theory-of-mind-in-opposite-directions
#16
Steven M Gillespie, Ian J Mitchell, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743966/pupil-adaptation-corresponds-to-quantitative-measures-of-autism-traits-in-children
#17
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
The pupil is known to reflect a range of psychological and physiological variables, including cognitive effort, arousal, attention, and even learning. Within autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some work has used pupil physiology to successfully classify patients with or without autism. As we have come to understand the heterogeneity of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between quantitative traits and physiological markers has become increasingly more important, as this may lead us closer to the underlying biological basis for atypical responses and behaviors...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743598/decrease-in-endogenous-brain-allopregnanolone-induces-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-like-behavior-in-mice-a-novel-animal-model-of-asd
#18
Ken Ebihara, Hironori Fujiwara, Suresh Awale, Dya Fita Dibwe, Ryota Araki, Takeshi Yabe, Kinzo Matsumto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of social impairments and restrictive repetitive behaviors. Recent evidence has implicated a dysfunction in the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of ASD. We investigated the role of endogenous allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroidal positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, in the regulation of ASD-like behavior in male mice using SKF105111 (SKF), an inhibitor of type I and type II 5α-reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of ALLO biosynthesis...
July 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743046/multi-informant-assessment-of-siblings-of-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-parent-child-discrepancies-in-at-risk-classification
#19
James A Rankin, Theodore S Tomeny, Tammy D Barry
BACKGROUND: The behavioral and emotional functioning of typically-developing (TD) siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been frequently assessed in the literature; however, these assessments typically include only one informant, rarely considering differences between parent and self-reports of sibling adjustment. AIMS: This study examined parent-youth reported informant discrepancies in behavioral and emotional functioning, including whether parent and youth reports yielded the same conclusions regarding TD sibling risk status...
July 22, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742278/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-developmental-delay-autism-spectrum-disorder-facial-dysmorphism-and-posterior-polymorphous-corneal-dystrophy-associated-with-zeb1-gene-deletion
#20
Ayeshah Chaudhry, Brian H Chung, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Marcela P Araya, Asim Ali, Elise Heon, David Chitayat
We report on a girl diagnosed prenatally with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) on fetal ultrasound and MRI. On postnatal follow-up she was noted to have developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, autism spectrum disorder, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPD). Array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis (Array-CGH) showed a 2.05 Mb de novo interstitial deletion at 10p11.23p11.22. The deleted region overlaps 1 OMIM Morbid Map gene, ZEB1 (the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox transcription factor 1), previously associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy type 3 (PPCD3)...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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