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Child and Adolescent Psychology

D K Kudayarov, E K Turdubaeva
Objective: This paper presents the results of a risk factors-analysis and the analysis of physical development of pre-school children born with a low birth weight to teenage mothers. Materials and Methods: The study has also identifed unfavorable factors affecting the birth of low weight children and the lag in physical development of preschool children born with low birth weight to adolescent mothers. Results: According to our research, children born out of wedlock are mostly born with low birth weight (66...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Laura Pryor, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Naja Hulvej Rod, Maria Melchior
Children exposed to socioeconomic adversity have elevated levels of psychological difficulties immediately and long-term. However, few studies have examined the consequences of long-term patterns of dynamic trajectories of family income. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) is a longitudinal, population-based birth cohort study (1996-2002). Data on household poverty from the year before birth until the child was 10 years of age (n = 12 measures) were obtained from the National Danish Registries and modeled using semiparametric group-based modeling...
November 22, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Bashkim Kadriu, Wen Gu, Panagiota Korenis, Jeffrey M Levine
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies shown that structural hippocampal alterations are present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis or schizophrenia. These findings indicate that in a subset of patients undergoing first-psychosis episode (FPE), hippocampal volume alterations are accompanied by associated cognitive and neuropsychological deficits. The combination of psychological deficits and neuroanatomical alterations, in turn, appears to increase treatment complexity and worsen clinical outcomes...
December 3, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Susan Imrie, Susan Golombok
This review examines the literature on the long-term outcomes for children and parents in families created through egg donation, focusing on child psychological adjustment, parental psychological health, and parent-child relationship quality. Where possible, outcomes were examined according to family disclosure status (i.e., whether or not the parents intended to tell/had told the child about their method of conception). The small body of empirical literature indicates that children and parents function well throughout childhood and into early adolescence, although there appear to be subtle differences in mother-child relationship quality...
December 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Erin K Howie, Leo Ng, Darren Beales, Joanne A McVeigh, Leon M Straker
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify early life factors that were associated with childhood and adolescent organized sport participation trajectories. DESIGN: Participants were in the Raine Study, a pregnancy cohort in Western Australia recruited from 1989 to 1991. METHODS: Three organized sport trajectories over ages 5-17years were previously identified for girls (n=824: consistent participators, dropouts, and non-participators in sport) and boys (n=855: consistent participators, dropouts, joiners - those who joined sport in adolescence)...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Montserrat Dolz, Jordina Tor, Elena De la Serna, Marta Pardo, Daniel Muñoz-Samons, Marta Rodríguez-Pascual, Olga Puig, Gisela Sugranyes, Judith Usall, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Inmaculada Baeza
AIM: Despite the interest in psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) in children and adolescents, information on the syndrome in this population is scarce. METHODS: Prospective naturalistic multi-site study in which 10- to 17-year-old help-seeking subjects who met PRS criteria (positive or negative attenuated symptoms; brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms; genetic risk or schizotypal personality disorder plus impairment in functioning) were included, along with 45 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
November 26, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
María Jesús Mardomingo Sanz, Carlos Sancho Mateo, Begoña Soler López
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidities have an impact on the social anxiety of children and adolescents, but there are practically no studies addressing this topic in adolescence. Our objective was to assess the degree of social anxiety and to analyse the presence of psychiatric comorbidities (PSCs) in adolescents with ADHD. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in patients aged 12 to 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-5)...
November 18, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Hyunjoo Na, Hanjong Park
This study was performed to investigate longitudinal effects of insufficient sleep on psychological problems among bullies and neutral students using the Korean Child and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) collected from 8th to 10th graders. At the first wave, 6.4% of students reported that they had bullied other students two or more times. Bullies having insufficient sleep duration at the first wave exhibited significantly higher aggression levels than bullies with sufficient sleep over time. Among neutral students, sleep insufficiency showed no longitudinal relationship with aggression...
December 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
María Vicent, María Rubio-Aparicio, Julio Sánchez-Meca, Carolina Gonzálvez
BACKGROUND: Perfectionism is a prevalent disposition of personality involved in the development and maintenance of a wide range of psychological disorders. The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) is the most usually applied test to assess perfectionism in children and adolescents. This study aimed: (a) to conduct a reliability generalization meta-analysis to estimate the average reliability of the CAPS scores and to search for characteristics of the studies that may explain the variability among reliability estimates, and (b) to estimate the reliability induction rate of the CAPS...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jason D Rights, David A Cole
Clinical psychologists studying child and adolescent populations commonly analyze hierarchically structured data via multilevel modeling (MLM). In clinical child and adolescent psychology, and in psychology more broadly, increasing emphasis is being placed on the reporting of effect size, such as R-squared (R2 ) measures of explained variance. In MLM, however, the literature on R2 had, until recently, suffered from several shortcomings: (a) the relations among existing measures were unknown, (b) methods for quantifying some types of explained variance were unavailable, (c) which (if any) measures should be used for model comparison was unclear, (d) most measures did not generalize to models with more than two levels, and (e) software to compute measures was unavailable...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
J Stochl, E Soneson, A P Wagner, G M Khandaker, I Goodyer, P B Jones
BACKGROUND: An increasing importance is being placed on mental health and wellbeing at individual and population levels. While there are several interventions that have been proposed to improve wellbeing, more evidence is needed to understand which aspects of wellbeing are most influential. This study aimed to identify key items that signal improvement of mental health and wellbeing. METHODS: Using network analysis, we identified the most central items in the graph network estimated from the well-established Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS)...
November 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Suzanne Ford, Mike O'Driscoll, Anita MacDonald
Introduction: Many women with PKU are well-informed about the risks of maternal PKU but there are several barriers to achieving satisfactory metabolic control before and during pregnancy. Many studies have documented the outcome of maternal PKU infants, but very little has been reported about the experiences of women of reproductive age with PKU, particularly about their psychosexual development, pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal experience. Methods: In the UK, in a subsection of an online questionnaire conducted by the National Society for PKU (NSPKU) about living with PKU, women aged 18 years and over completed 9 closed questions about their pre-conception, pregnancy and post-natal experiences and an open-ended question on their reproductive health...
December 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Karin Thorslund, Elin Alfredsson, Ulf Axberg
Parenting a child through adolescence can be a challenge for many parents; adolescents go through notable developmental, physical, and psychological changes that affect the relationships around them. Most parents find parental support during these years important. These young people's relationships with their parents are important to their mental health, but although parental support is universally available to parents of younger children, it is still scarce for parents of adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore what factors are associated with interest in universal parental support through telephone interviews and questionnaires with 223 parents of 13- to 17-year-olds...
November 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Camille Pepin, Gina Muckle, Caroline Moisan, Nadine Forget-Dubois, Mylène Riva
About half of Nunavik Inuit live in overcrowded households compared to very few Canadians from the general population. Living in overcrowded households is associated with greater risks of suffering from mental health problems for Canadian adolescents. The present work aims at studying prospectively the hypothesised relationship between household overcrowding at childhood and psychological distress during adolescence among Nunavik Inuit, as well as the hypothesised relationship between these phenomena when they are both measure at adolescence...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Paola Andrea Ilabaca Baeza, José Manuel Gaete Fiscella
Child-to-parent violence has been defined as any act used by children to gain power and control by generating fear in their parents and that seeks to cause physical, psychological, and/or financial harm to their parents. This behavior puts family safety at risk due to the imbalance of power that it generates. For this reason, most abused parents feel guilty and humiliated. Child-to-parent violence has been historically underresearched compared with other studies about family violence. Most of the research conducted on this topic has been carried out in Europe and North America in the least decades...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Josie Pervola, Melanie F Myers, Michelle L McGowan, Cynthia A Prows
PURPOSE: The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics supports parents' opting in or out of secondary analysis of 59 genes when their child has clinical exome/genome sequencing. We explored the reasons adolescents choose to learn certain types of results and the reasons they want to involve or not involve parents in decision-making. METHODS: Adolescents recruited without clinical indication were offered independent, followed by joint choices with a parent to learn genomic results...
October 29, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Inés Aramburu Alegret, Carles Pérez-Testor, Josep Mercadal Rotger, Manel Salamero Baró, Montse Davins Pujols, Vinyet Mirabent Junyent, Berta Aznar Martínez, David Brodzinsky
This study evaluated the predictive relationship between the communicative openness and psychological adjustment of adopted adolescents, controlling for preplacement risk factors. One hundred Spanish international adoptees aged 12-18 took part in the study. Data were gathered with a structured interview, the Youth Self Report and the Adoption Communication Scale. A history of maltreatment prior to the adoption was associated with more closed communication between parents and children. Prenatal drug exposure shows a relationship with the presence of externalizing behaviors and attention problems in adolescents...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
S Tordjman, L Vaivre-Douret, S Chokron, S Kermarrec
We have been sensitized to children with high intellectual potential (HIP) having difficulties given the number of children consulting in our outpatient medico-psychological centres for scholastic problems (possibly leading to school failure), anxiety disorders or behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in which a high intellectual potential was discovered during psychological assessments. It is the contrast, and more precisely the paradox, between the high intellectual potential of these children and their scholastic difficulties (including school failure), and the psychic suffering expressed by some of them, which led us to question, challenge and propose therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children...
November 2018: L'Encéphale
Julia M Kobulsky, Susan Yoon, Charlotte L Bright, Guijin Lee, Boyoung Nam
Substantial research has linked childhood maltreatment to the development of substance use in adolescence. However, gender differences in the mechanisms that connect child abuse and neglect to substance use remain unclear. In this study, we applied multiple-group structural equation modeling in a sample of 1,161 youths (boys, n = 552; girls, n = 609) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine gender differences in the associations between childhood abuse and neglect exposure from ages 0-12 years and substance use severity at age 18 as mediated by early substance use at age 14 and psychological symptoms (anger, anxiety, and depression) at age 16...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elizabeth D Handley, Tangeria R Adams, Jody Todd Manly, Dante Cicchetti, Sheree L Toth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mother-daughter relationship quality and mother-daughter conflict represent mechanisms underlying the association between child maltreatment and adolescent passive or active suicide ideation. METHOD: The sample included 164 socioeconomically disadvantaged depressed adolescent girls and their mothers (adolescents: mean age = 14.00 years; 66.3% African-American, 21.3% white, 14.0% Latina). Structural equation modeling was used to test three simultaneous and distinct mediating pathways linking child maltreatment to adolescent suicide ideation: (1) mother-daughter relationship quality, (2) mother-daughter conflict, and 3) adolescent depressive symptoms...
October 17, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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