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Estrogen therapy

Nilgun Yildirim, Aykut Bahceci
Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of breast cancer. Until now, there have been no reports on the use of pertuzumab during pregnancy and on its potential effects on the fetus. Herein, we present a breast cancer patient who received trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. This 22-year-old patient initially diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to be negative for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor in the immunohistochemical examination...
September 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Norma Angélica Estrada Cruz, Julio César Almanza Pérez, Ángeles Fortis Barrera, Juan Manuel Gallardo, Leticia Manuel Apolinar, Julia Jeanett Segura Uribe, Sandra Orozco Suárez, Angélica Coyoy Salgado, Christian Guerra Araiza
In addition to oxidative stress due to the increase of free radicals, estrogen deficiency is associated with changes in enzymatic activity, glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG), and the content of oxidative markers such as malondialdehyde. Tibolone, a synthetic steroid, has been used as an elective treatment for the relief of menopausal symptoms. However, the acute effects of hormonal therapy with tibolone on metabolic parameters and oxidative stress markers associated with the first stages of estrogen deficiency are still unknown...
August 14, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Le Huang, Xinluan Wang, Huijuan Cao, Ling Li, Dick Ho-Kiu Chow, Li Tian, Heng Wu, Jiayong Zhang, Nan Wang, Lizhen Zheng, Xinsheng Yao, Zhijun Yang, Ling Qin
Targeting delivery system has been widely used in packaging drugs for medical therapies attributed to its high efficiency and efficacy. A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula consisting of Herba Epimedii has previously been shown to effectively treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. We have subsequently found that icaritin, which was a flavonoid isolated from both Herba Epimedii and its serum metabolites after oral administration, inhibited the adipogenic capacity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) while promoted their osteogenesis...
August 6, 2018: Biomaterials
Tao Zhang, Caterina De Carolis, Man Gene Chi-Wai, Chi-Chiu Wang
Endometriosis (EMS), an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disorder affects approximately 5-10% of the general female population of reproductive age and 20-90% of women with pelvic pain and infertility. Many immunological factors are known to contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of EMS, and both chronic local inflammation and autoantibodies in EMS shares many similarities with autoimmune diseases (AD). However, the autoimmune etiology in EMS remains controversial, and its evidence on autoimmune basis may be limited...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Yingchen Zhuo, Xueqian Li, Qiaowei Zheng, Xingjun Fan, Wenbing Ma, Jingguo Chen, Xue Zhao, Peipei Zhao, Xuanlin Liu, Fengru Tang, Kai Cheng, Weiyi Feng
Estradiol (E2) is a prime culprit for enhancing the progression of female hormone‑related cancers. Bone marrow‑derived cells (BMDCs) have been found to play a pivotal role in tumor growth. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are also found on certain subtypes of BMDCs, in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and certain tumor cells. However, the role of BMDCs in E2‑induced tumor biology is still unclear. Thus, the effects of E2 on ER‑negative 4T1 breast cancer growth, the mobilization and recruitment of BMDCs, and interactions among BMDCs, ECs, and 4T1 cells were investigated...
August 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Xu Hou, Samuel O Adeosun, Xueying Zhao, Rosanne Hill, Baoying Zheng, Reveena Reddy, Xiao Su, Jeffrey Meyer, Thomas Mosley, Jun Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: Estrogen therapy (ET), an effective treatment for perimenopausal depression, often fails to ameliorate symptoms when initiated late after the onset of menopause. Our previous work has suggested that alternative splicing of RNA might mediate these differential effects of ET. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with estradiol (E2) or vehicle 6 days (early ET) or 180 days (late ET) after ovariectomy (OVX). We investigated the differential expression of RNA splicing factors and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) protein using a customized RT2 Profiler PCR Array, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitation and behaviour changes in clinically relevant early and late ET...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Roger K C Ngan
Hormone therapy, rather than chemotherapy, is recommended for hormone-receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal receptor 2 negative (HER2-) advanced or metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, unless in visceral crisis in which chemotherapy is indicated. Hormonal monotherapy of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) or selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD), aromatase inhibitor (AI), or their combination as doublets, used to be the mainstay options as first-line (1L) therapy for most patients...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jack W Barrow, Nefize Turan, Pasang Wangmo, Anil K Roy, Gustavo Pradilla
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) continues to be a devastating neurological condition with a high risk of associated morbidity and mortality. Inflammation has been shown to increase the risk of complications associated with aSAH such as vasospasm and brain injury in animal models and humans. The goal of this review is to discuss the inflammatory mechanisms of aneurysm formation, rupture and vasospasm and explore the role of sex hormones in the inflammatory response to aSAH...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Iuliia Naumova, Camil Castelo-Branco
Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a silent epidemic that affects up to 50%-60% of postmenopausal women who are suffering in silence from this condition. Hormonal changes, especially hypoestrogenism inherent in menopause, are characterized by a variety of symptoms. More than half of menopausal women are concerned about the symptoms of VVA, such as dryness, burning, itching, vaginal discomfort, pain and burning when urinating, dyspareunia, and spotting during intercourse. All these manifestations significantly reduce the quality of life and cause discomfort in the sexual sphere...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Yi-Heng Lin, Ya-Hsin Chen, Heng-Yu Chang, Heng-Kien Au, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Yen-Hua Huang
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease that affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age and accounts for up to 50% of female infertility cases. It has been highly associated with poorer outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART), including decreased oocyte retrieval, lower implantation, and pregnancy rates. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated infertility is crucial for improving infertility treatment outcomes. Current theories regarding how endometriosis reduces fertility include anatomical distortion, ovulatory dysfunction, and niche inflammation-associated peritoneal or implantation defects...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tanya T Kwan, Aditya Bardia, Laura M Spring, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Mark Kalinich, Taronish Dubash, Tilak Sundaresan, Xin Hong, Joseph A LiCausi, Uyen Ho, Erin J Silva, Ben S Wittner, Lecia V Sequist, Ravi Kapur, David T Miyamoto, Mehmet Toner, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
The multiplicity of new therapies for breast cancer presents a challenge for treatment selection. We describe a 17-gene digital signature of breast circulating tumor cell (CTC)-derived transcripts enriched from blood, enabling high-sensitivity early monitoring of response. In a prospective cohort of localized breast cancer, an elevated CTC-Score after three cycles of neoadjuvant therapy is associated with residual disease at surgery (p=0.047). In a second prospective cohort with metastatic breast cancer, baseline CTC-Score correlates with overall survival (p= 0...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Bo Wang, Dongping Li, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Allison Farfus, Quinn Storozynsky, Megan Malach, Emily Carpenter, Jody Filkowski, Anne E Lykkesfeldt, Olga Kovalchuk
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Although the endocrine therapy that targets estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling has been well established as an effective adjuvant treatment for patients with ERα-positive breast cancers, long-term exposure may eventually lead to the development of acquired resistance to the anti-estrogen drugs, such as fulvestrant and tamoxifen. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying antiestrogen resistance and identification of the key molecules involved may help in overcoming antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer...
August 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Eleni Pitsouni, Themos Grigoriadis, Athanasios Douskos, Margarita Kyriakidou, Matthew E Falagas, Stavros Athanasiou
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) increases the probability of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The aim of the current study is to systematically assess data regarding sexual function and use of vaginal therapies, alternative to vaginal estrogens (VE), in menopausal women with GSM. PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched (May-September 2017) using combination keywords: "dyspareunia and vaginal therapy", "sexual function and vaginal therapy", "orgasm and vaginal therapy", "vaginal atrophy" and "genitourinary syndrome of menopause"...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mallory C Campbell, Laura Pontiggia, Ashley Y Russell, Roland Schwarting, Jeanette Camacho, Jean-Francois Jasmin, Isabelle Mercier
Breast cancers (BCas) that lack expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and have the poorest clinical outcome. Once these aggressive tumors progress to distant organs, the median survival decreases to 12 months. With endocrine therapies being ineffective in this BCa subtype, highly toxic chemo- and radiation therapies are the only options. A better understanding of the functional role(s) of molecular targets contributing to TNBC progression could help in the design and development of new treatments that are more targeted with less toxicity...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Hannah M Linden, Lanell M Peterson, Amy M Fowler
Molecular imaging using 16α-[18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) and 18 F-fluoro-furanyl-norprogesterone PET can assess in vivo function of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer. These experimental agents have been tested in many single-center clinical trials and show promise to elucidate prognosis and predict endocrine therapy response. The current multicenter trial of FES-PET imaging will help bring this radiotracer closer to clinical use. There is tremendous potential for these tracers to advance drug development, enhance understanding of estrogen receptor-positive tumor biology, and personalize treatment...
July 2018: PET Clinics
Steven A Buechler, Yesim Gökmen-Polar, Sunil S Badve
INTRODUCTION: Early stage estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer may be treated with chemotherapy in addition to hormone therapy. Currently available molecular signatures assess the risk of recurrence and the benefit of chemotherapy; however, these tests may have large intermediate risk groups, limiting their usefulness. METHODS: The EarlyR prognostic score was developed using integrative analysis of microarray data sets and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded-based quantitative real-time PCR assay and validated in Affymetrix data sets and METABRIC cohort using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
July 17, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Matthias Christgen, Stephan Bartels, Angelina Luft, Sascha Persing, Daniel Henkel, Ulrich Lehmann, Hans Kreipe
In addition to amplification, point mutations of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene (ERBB2) have been shown to activate the corresponding signaling pathway in breast cancer. The prevalence of ERBB2/HER2 mutation in bone metastasis of breast cancer and the associated phenotype are not known. In this study, bone metastases from breast cancer patients (n = 231) were analyzed for ERBB2/HER2 mutation. In 7 patients (3%; median age 70 years, range 50-83 years), gain-of-function mutations of ERBB2/HER2 were detected...
August 9, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
M Haffner-Luntzer, I Lackner, A Liedert, V Fischer, A Ignatius
Clinical and experimental studies demonstrate the potential of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) to enhance bone formation in the intact skeleton and during fracture healing. Moreover, it was shown that the effects of vibration therapy during fracture healing are highly dependent on the estrogen status of the vibrated individual and that estrogen receptor (ER) α signaling plays a major role in mechanotransduction of LMHFV. Because it is known that LMHFV can directly act on osteogenic cells, we hypothesize that the differential effects of LMHFV in the presence and absence of estrogen are mediated by ERα signaling in osteoblasts...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Edward B Garon, Jill M Siegfried, Laura P Stabile, Patricia A Young, Diana C Marquez-Garban, David J Park, Ravi Patel, Eddie H Hu, Saeed Sadeghi, Rupesh J Parikh, Karen L Reckamp, Brad Adams, Robert M Elashoff, David Elashoff, Tristan Grogan, He-Jing Wang, Sanja Dacic, Meghan Brennan, Yacgley Valdes, Simon Davenport, Steven M Dubinett, Michael F Press, Dennis J Slamon, Richard J Pietras
OBJECTIVES: This open-label, randomized phase II trial evaluated antitumor efficacy of an antiestrogen, fulvestrant, in combination with human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib, in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC, ECOG 0-2, previous chemotherapy unless patient refusal, and no prior EGFR-directed therapy were randomized 2:1 to erlotinib 150 mg oral daily plus 500 mg intramuscular fulvestrant on day 1, 15, 29 and every 28 days thereafter or erlotinib alone 150 mg oral daily...
September 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Jonathan T Lei, Jieya Shao, Jin Zhang, Michael Iglesia, Doug W Chan, Jin Cao, Meenakshi Anurag, Purba Singh, Xiaping He, Yoshimasa Kosaka, Ryoichi Matsunuma, Robert Crowder, Jeremy Hoog, Chanpheng Phommaly, Rodrigo Goncalves, Susana Ramalho, Raquel Mary Rodrigues Peres, Nindo Punturi, Cheryl Schmidt, Alex Bartram, Eric Jou, Vaishnavi Devarakonda, Kimberly R Holloway, W Victoria Lai, Oliver Hampton, Anna Rogers, Ethan Tobias, Poojan A Parikh, Sherri R Davies, Shunqiang Li, Cynthia X Ma, Vera J Suman, Kelly K Hunt, Mark A Watson, Katherine A Hoadley, E Aubrey Thompson, Xi Chen, Shyam M Kavuri, Chad J Creighton, Christopher A Maher, Charles M Perou, Svasti Haricharan, Matthew J Ellis
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) detects estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) fusion transcripts in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ ) breast cancer, but their role in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We examined multiple ESR1 fusions and found that two, both identified in advanced endocrine treatment-resistant disease, encoded stable and functional fusion proteins. In both examples, ESR1-e6>YAP1 and ESR1-e6>PCDH11X, ESR1 exons 1-6 were fused in frame to C-terminal sequences from the partner gene. Functional properties include estrogen-independent growth, constitutive expression of ER target genes, and anti-estrogen resistance...
August 7, 2018: Cell Reports
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