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David Costalago, Barbara Bauer, Maciej T Tomczak, Karl Lundström, Monika Winder
Seal populations are recovering in many regions around the world and, consequently, they are increasingly interacting with fisheries. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model for the offshore Central Baltic Sea to investigate the interactions between the changes in fish stocks and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population under different fishing and environmental scenarios for the twenty-first century. The assumed climate, eutrophication and cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries scenarios modified seal predation impacts on fish...
December 8, 2018: Ambio
Rodrigo L Vancini, Claudio Ab de Lira, Sarah A Anceschi, André V Rosa, Ana P Lima-Leopoldo, André S Leopoldo, Weverton Rufo-Tavares, Marilia S Andrade, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Background: Police officers are subjected to high work-related stress. This scenario of irregular and insalubrious working conditions may be related to an increase in psychiatric disorders and overweight. In particular, low levels of physical activity and high work stress levels may predispose police officers to obesity, poor lifestyles, and, consequently, major risk of psychological disorders. Thus, our aim was to profile the anxiety/depression symptoms and habitual physical activity (HPA) levels of Brazilian elite police officers classified by body mass index (BMI)...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Katrina A Macintosh, Jason Chin, Brent Jacobs, Dana Cordell, Richard W McDowell, Paul Butler, Philip M Haygarth, Paul Williams, John P Quinn, Vincent O'Flaherty, John W McGrath
Phosphorus is an essential part of the world food web and a non-substitutable nutrient in all biological systems. Losses of phosphorus occur along the food-supply chain and cause environmental degradation and eutrophication. A key global challenge is to meet rising worldwide food demand while protecting water and environmental quality, and seeking to manage uncertainty around potential future phosphorus price or supply shocks. This paper presents a stakeholder-generated conceptual model of potential transformative change for implementing phosphorus sustainability on the island of Ireland via an 'All-Island Phosphorus Sustainability' workshop...
November 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
I Álvarez-Manzaneda, F Guerrero, A I Del Arco, A Funes, L Cruz-Pizarro, I de Vicente
Magnetic microparticles (MPs) have been recently proposed as innovative and promising dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) adsorbents. However, before using them in a whole-lake restoration project, it is essential to assess their toxicological effects (direct and indirect) on aquatic biota. In the present study we hypothesized that zooplankton community is affected by MPs used for lake restoration. To test our hypothesis we designed a microcosms experiment (n = 15) containing lake water and surface sediment from a hypertrophic lake...
November 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jie Jiang, Anglu Shen, Hao Wang, Sanling Yuan
Phosphorus is an essential element for the growth and reproduction of algae. In recent years, the frequent outbreaks of algal blooms caused by eutrophication have drawn much attention to the influence of phosphate (P) uptake on the growth of algal cells. The previous study only considered the effect of total P pools on the P uptake process of algal cells and focused on the process as one stage, which is insufficient. P uptake by algae is actually a two-stage kinetic process because in many algae species, surface-adsorbed P pools account for a large proportion of total P pools...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Shuang Tong, Shouwei Wang, Yan Zhao, Chuanping Feng, Baocai Xu, Ming Zhu
Slaughterhouse wastewater is one of the most harmful agriculture and food industrial wastewaters. The emissions of not fully treated slaughtering wastewater would cause eutrophication of surface water and pollution of groundwater. This study investigated the nutrient removal performance for the enhanced alure-type biological system (E-ATBS) in the full-scale application. During the whole study period, COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were higher than 97.1%, 90.8% and 90.1%, respectively. The effluent concentrations were lower than the newest effluent standard in China to avoid the discharged water pollution...
November 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shuangshuang Li, Chengrong Peng, Taisheng Cheng, Chun Wang, Liangliang Guo, Dunhai Li
Biofilms mediate crucial biochemical processes in aquatic ecosystems. It was hypothesized that eutrophication may promote the growth of biofilms, resulting in larger numbers of functional genes. However, the metabolic activity and the roles of biofilms in N cycling will be affected by ambient inorganic nitrogen availability, not by the abundance of functional genes. Biofilms were cultured either with replete inorganic nitrogen (N-rep) or without exogenous inorganic nitrogen supply (N-def) in a flow incubator, and the N-cycling gene abundances (nifH, N2 fixation; amoA, ammonia oxidation, archaea and bacteria; nirS and nirK, denitrification) and enzyme activities (nitrogenase and nitrate reductase) were analyzed...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Qiaohua Zhao, Jing Wang, Jianjian Wang, Julian X L Wang
In this study, 44 profiles of gross primary productivity (GPP) and sunlight, along with water temperature, Chlorophyll-a (Chla) and nutrients, were observed in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake, China, in the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Effects of water temperature, light, and nutrient concentration were examined in relation to the GPP-unit-Chla (GPP of algae per Chla). The results showed that the optimum temperature for the GPP of phytoplankton was 27.9°C, the optimal PNA-unit-Chla (photon number absorbed by phytoplankton per Chla) was 0...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ruiping Liu, Tingting Guo, Min Ma, Mingquan Yan, Jing Qi, Chengzhi Hu, Gang Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu, Walter van der Meer
Coagulation is the best available method for removing intracellular organic matter (IOM), which is released from algae cells and is an important precursor to disinfection by-products in drinking water treatment. To gain insight into the best strategy to optimize IOM removal, the coagulation performance of two Al salts, i.e., aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl, containing 81.2% Al13 ), was investigated to illuminate the effect of Al species distribution on IOM removal. PACl showed better removal efficiency than AlCl3 with regard to the removal of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), owing to the higher charge neutralization effect and greater stability of pre-formed Al13 species...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Seong Won Nho, Hossam Abdelhamed, Debarati Paul, Seongbin Park, Michael J Mauel, Attila Karsi, Mark L Lawrence
Metagenomic analyses of microbial communities from aquatic sediments are relatively few, and there are no reported metagenomic studies on sediment from inland ponds used for aquaculture. Catfish ponds in the southeastern U.S. are eutrophic systems. They are fertilized to enhance algae growth and encourage natural food production, and catfish are fed with commercial feed from spring to fall. As result, catfish pond sediment (CPS) contains a very dense, diverse microbial community that has significant effects on the physiochemical parameters of pond dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lena Bergström, Martin Karlsson, Ulf Bergström, Leif Pihl, Patrik Kraufvelin
Understanding the relative impacts of pressures on coastal ecosystems is central for implementing relevant measures to reach environmental management objectives. Here, survey data on the species and size composition of coastal fish are evaluated in relation to fishing and eutrophication, by comparing a long-standing no-take area to an environmental gradient in the Baltic Sea. The no-take area represents an intermediate eutrophication level, but the species composition resembles that seen at low eutrophication in areas with fishing...
December 6, 2018: Ambio
Josie Antonucci Di Carvalho, Stephen A Wickham
Aquatic habitats are often characterized by both high diversity and the threat of multiple anthropogenic stressors. Our research deals with temporal and spatial aspects of two of the main threats for biodiversity, namely eutrophication and fragmentation. It is known that pulsed nutrient addition creates temporal differences in environmental conditions, promoting higher diversity by preventing the best competitor from dominating. Furthermore, a metacommunity landscape with intermediate connectivity increases autotrophs' diversity and stability...
December 6, 2018: Oecologia
Catharina Alves-de-Souza, Tatiane S Benevides, Mariângela Menezes, Christian Jeanthon, Laure Guillou
We report for the first time the in situ dynamics of a vampyrellid in a marine system. A high sampling frequency (twice-weekly) was applied in a tropical eutrophic lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) for 5 years (2012-2016). The vampyrellid Hyalodiscus sp. specifically fed on the diatom Chaetoceros minimus during a short time window (~3 months), although the prey was intermittently detected as the dominant phytoplanktonic species over a longer period (~1 year). A classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey dynamic was observed between the two partners, with a significant modification of the short-term oscillations of the prey...
December 6, 2018: ISME Journal
Ying Tang, Meiyi Zhang, Guoxin Sun, Gang Pan
Many arsenic-bearing freshwaters are facing with eutrophication and consequent algae-induced anoxia/hypoxia events. However, arsenic cycling in eutrophic waters and its impact on public health are poorly understood. Laboratory simulation experiments are performed in this study to investigate the effect of algal blooms on the cycling of arsenic in a sediment-water-air system. We found that the anoxia induced by the degradation of algal biomass promoted an acute arsenic (mostly As(III)) release within two days from sediment to both the water and atmosphere, and the release effluxes were proportional to the algae dosage...
November 21, 2018: Water Research
Otaviana Cardoso Chaves, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Dário Alves da Silva Costa, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE) of 2009. The dependent variable (outcome) was the tertiles of BMI score (zBMI), and the main independent variable (exposure) was the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The models included age, school type, home goods and services score, and maternal schooling as adjustment variables...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Vaughn Mangal, Benjamin Robert Stenzler, Alexandre J Poulain, Celine Gueguen
The biological mobilization of mercury (Hg) into microbes capable of Hg methylation is one of the limiting steps in the formation of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Although algal dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been associated with increased MeHg production, the relationship between bacterial Hg uptake and algal DOM remains unexplored. In this study, we aimed to address how the quantity and quality of DOM freshly harvested from several algae affected the bacterial uptake of Hg using a biosensor capable of functioning both aerobically and anaerobically...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
C W Martin Wong, Inga Conti-Jerpe, Laurie J Raymundo, Caroline Dingle, Gonzalo Araujo, Alessandro Ponzo, David M Baker
Reef-based tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades yet its impacts on reef ecosystems are often overlooked. In Tan-awan, Oslob, Philippines, whale sharks are attracted to the shallow reefs where they are provisioned up to 50 tons y-1 of feed and this phenomenon in turn attracts >300,000 y-1 visitors. Given the intensive provisioning and concentrating tourism activities, we hypothesized that the whale shark tourism-impacted site (IS) will have greater impacts on reef degradation and higher anthropogenic nitrogen pollution level compared to its reference site (RS)...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Management
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Hollie Marshall, Luc De Meester, Thomas Alexander Davidson, Andrew P Beckerman, Luisa Orsini
Eutrophication and climate change are two of the most pressing environmental issues affecting up to 50% of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of environmental change are complicated by inherent difficulties of predicting the long-term impact of multiple stressors on natural populations. Here, we investigated the impact of temperature, food levels and carbamate insecticides, in isolation and in combination, on current and historical populations of the freshwater grazer Daphnia...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joana Beigbeder, Lata Soccalingame, Didier Perrin, Jean-Charles Bénézet, Anne Bergeret
Biocomposites has gained increasing attention in recent years. The environmental impacts of end-of-life (EoL) treatments of those emerging materials should be evaluated before they are produced and installed commercially, to ensure a minimal impact of these products all along their life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to evaluate environmental impacts of the EoL treatments of wood flour (WF) reinforced polypropylene (PP/WF) and flax fibers reinforced polylactic acid (PLA/Fl). The aim was to evaluate which EoL was the most environmental friendly to manage those emerging wastes in France and to help stakeholders of the waste sectors in their decisions...
January 2019: Waste Management
Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Lingkai Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xueyang Wu, Li Li, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 μM; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a...
December 3, 2018: Toxins
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