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Felix J Boivin, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Proper renal function relies on the tightly regulated development of nephrons and collecting ducts. This process, known as tubulogenesis, involves dynamic cellular and molecular changes that instruct cells to form highly organized tubes of epithelial cells which compartmentalize the renal interstitium and tubular lumen via assembly of a selective barrier. The integrity and diversity of the various renal epithelia is achieved via formation of intercellular protein complexes along the apical-basal axis of the epithelial cells...
December 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marika Truu, Kristjan Oopkaup, Ivo Krustok, Margit Kõiv-Vainik, Hiie Nõlvak, Jaak Truu
The objectives of this study were to determine the biofilm microbial activity and bacterial community structure and successions in greywater treatment filters and to relate the treatment efficiency to the bacterial community parameters. This 10-month study was performed in a newly established experimental system for domestic greywater treatment that consisted of three parallel vertical flow filters (VFs) followed by a horizontal flow filter (HF). A rapid increase in the bacterial community abundance occurred during the first 85 days of filter operations, followed by a short-term decrease and the stabilization of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at average levels of 1...
December 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Makoto Noiri, Keiichiro Kushiro, Shodai Togo, Ken Sato, Hiroshi Y Yoshikawa, Madoka Takai, Yuji Teramura
The involvement of intercellular interactions in various biological events indicates the importance of studying cell-cell interactions using fluid model surfaces. Here, we propose a fluid surface composed of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives, which can be an alternative to supported lipid membranes. The modification of SAM surfaces with PEG-lipids carrying functional peptides resulted in the formation of the fluid surfaces with different mobility, which was quantitatively determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)...
December 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ruslan R Kashapov, Yuliya S Razuvayeva, Albina Y Ziganshina, Rezeda K Mukhitova, Anastasiya S Sapunova, Alexandra D Voloshina, Lucia Y Zakharova
In this work, the dicationic surfactants containing viologen and vinylbipyridinium moieties and hexadecyl chains were synthesized, and their aggregation behavior in water solutions was investigated by surface tension, conductivity measurements, hydrophobic probe solubilization, dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic measurements. Effect of UV-light on cis-trans isomerism of vinylbipyridinium derivative was determined. Antimicrobial activity and the influence of these surfactants on cell viability depended on the concentration and type of surfactant used...
December 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Taek Lee, Yeonju Lee, Sun Yong Park, Keonyoung Hong, Younghun Kim, Chulhwan Park, Yong-Ho Chung, Min-Ho Lee, Junhong Min
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most serious diseases affecting human beings. In this study, in order to rapidly detect AMI disease, the authors fabricated a label-free electrochemical biosensor composed of a multi-functional DNA structure on Au nanospike (AuNS) with a fabricated Au micro-gap electrode which was incorporated with a PCB chip in order to detect cardiac troponin I (cTnI). As a bioprobe, the DNA 3 way-junction (3WJ) was introduced, because the DNA 3WJ has three arms for embodying the multi-functionality...
December 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Edi Sudianto, Chung-Shien Wu, Lars Leonhard, William F Martin, Shu-Miaw Chaw
Podocarpaceae is the largest family in cupressophytes (conifers II), but their plastid genomes (plastomes) are poorly studied, with plastome data currently existing for only four of the 19 Podocarpaceous genera. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the complete plastomes from representatives of eight additional genera, including Afrocarpus, Dacrydium, Lagarostrobos, Lepidothamnus, Pherosphaera, Phyllocladus, Prumnopitys, and Saxegothaea. We found that Lagarostrobos, a monotypic genus native to Tasmania, has the largest plastome among any cupressophytes studied to date (151,496 bp)...
December 13, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Takuya Hirose, Naoki Takahashi, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Jun Minaguchi, Shuji Mizumoto, Shuhei Yamada, Noriko Miyake, Shujiro Hayashi, Atsushi Hatamochi, Jun Nakayama, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Ayana Hashimoto, Yoshihiro Nomura, Kazushige Takehana, Tomoki Kosho, Takafumi Watanabe
Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (mcEDS) due to CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency (mcEDS-CHST14) is a recently delineated type of EDS caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CHST14, which results in the depletion of dermatan sulfate (DS). Clinical characteristics of mcEDS-CHST14 consist of multiple malformations and progressive fragility-related manifestations, including skin hyperextensibility and fragility. Skin fragility is suspected to result from the impaired assembly of collagen fibrils caused by alteration of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of decorin-proteoglycan (PG) from DS to chondroitin sulfate (CS)...
December 13, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Massimiliano Cadamuro, Simone Brivio, Joachim Mertens, Marta Vismara, Anja Moncsek, Chiara Milani, Christian Fingas, Maria Cristina Malerba, Giorgia Nardo, Luigi Dall'Olmo, Eleonora Milani, Valeria Mariotti, Tommaso Stecca, Marco Massani, Carlo Spirli, Romina Fiorotto, Stefano Indraccolo, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
BACKGROUND: /Aims. In cholangiocarcinoma, early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels often precludes curative therapies. Cholangiocarcinoma invasiveness is fostered by an extensive stromal reaction, enriched in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). Cholangiocarcinoma cells recruit and activate CAF by secreting PDGF-D. Here we investigated the role of PDGF-D and liver myofibroblasts in promoting lymphangiogenesis in cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Human cholangiocarcinoma specimens were immunostained for podoplanin (LEC marker), α-SMA (CAF), VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and their cognate receptors (VEGFR2, VEGFR3)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Solène Denolly, Christelle Granier, Nelly Fontaine, Bruno Pozzetto, Thomas Bourlet, Maryse Guérin, François-Loïc Cosset
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles detected in sera from infected patients display heterogeneous forms of low-buoyant densities (<1.08), underscoring their lipidation via association with apoB-containing lipoproteins, which was proposed to occur during assembly or secretion from infected hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms inducing this association remain poorly-defined and, intriguingly, most HCVcc particles secreted from cultured cells exhibit higher density (>1...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Joshua Weinberg, Jasper Toscani Field, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Tatjana Iezhova, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Ravinder N M Sehgal
Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect a wide array of hosts, causing malaria in all major groups of terrestrial vertebrates including primates, reptiles, and birds. Molecular mechanisms explaining why some Plasmodium species are virulent, while other closely related malaria pathogens are relatively benign in the same hosts, remain unclear. Here, we present the RNA sequencing and subsequent transcriptome assembly of two avian Plasmodium parasites which can eventually be used to better understand the genetic mechanisms underlying Plasmodium species pathogenicity in an avian host...
December 13, 2018: Genomics
Lauren Anllo, Lindsey W Plasschaert, Justin Sui, Stephen DiNardo
Adult stem cells are often found in specialized niches, where the constituent cells direct self-renewal of their stem cell pool. The niche is therefore crucial for both normal homeostasis and tissue regeneration. In many mammalian tissues, niche cells have classically been difficult to identify, which has hampered any understanding of how tissues first construct niches during development. Fortunately, the Drosophila germline stem cell (GSC) niche is well defined, allowing for unambiguous identification of both niche cells and resident stem cells...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ranita Ramesh, Xin Xiang Lim, Palur Venkata Raghuvamsi, Wu Chao, Wong Sek Man, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand
Viruses are metastable macromolecular assemblies that toggle between multiple conformational states through molecular rearrangements that are critical for mediating viral host entry. Viruses respond to different host specific environmental cues to form disassembly intermediates for the eventual release of genomic material required for replication. Although static snapshots of these intermediates have been captured through structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM, the mechanistic details of these conformational rearrangements underpinning viral metastability have been poorly understood...
December 13, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Susanne F Schlick, Florian Spreckelsen, Malte Tiburcy, Lavanya M Iyer, Tim Meyer, Laura C Zelarayan, Stefan Luther, Ulrich Parlitz, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Florian Rehfeldt
Cardiomyocyte and stroma cell cross-talk is essential for the formation of collagen-based engineered heart muscle, including engineered human myocardium (EHM). Fibroblasts are a main component of the myocardial stroma. We hypothesize that fibroblasts, by compacting the surrounding collagen network, support the self-organization of cardiomyocytes into a functional syncytium. With a focus on early self-organization processes in EHM, we studied the molecular and biophysical adaptations mediated by defined populations of fibroblasts and embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a collagen type I hydrogel...
December 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Longfei Zhang, Shaoyi Lyu, Qijun Zhang, Yuntao Wu, Chuck Melcher, Stephen C Chmely, Zhilin Chen, Siqun Wang
In this study, we synthesized a novel dual-emitting fluorescent phosphor from cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-assisted carbon dots (CDs)-grafted SrAl2 O4 , Eu2+ , Dy3+ (SAO) through a facile core-shell process. The CNC-CDs-coated SAO presents excellent scattered dual-emission and improved water resistance without destruction of the SrAl2 O4 crystals. The phosphors were then reacted with coupling amino-silane and assembled with nanofibrillated cellulose skeletons to create flexible isotropic films. The obtained phosphors and hybrid films were characterized via electron microscopy, photoluminescence analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chen Xue, Lee D Wilson
Uncontrolled dissolution in solvent media is a key challenge related to the utility of chitosan composite materials. Thermal annealing offers a solution to address this problem. However, conventional characterization methods pose limitations regarding key structural features, especially for carbohydrate materials that possess similar biopolymer components. Herein, self-assembled chitosan-based sponges were prepared with and without annealing to compare their structural and physicochemical properties. The utility of Raman micro-imaging is reported with dye probe etching as an effective and facile method to reveal structural features for chitosan-based composite materials, before and after thermal annealing...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Javier Pérez Quiñones, Cezarina Cela Mardare, Achim Walter Hassel, Oliver Brüggemann
Camptothecin (CPT), a potent anticancer drug with known antiviral activity, is halted of clinical use. Few drug delivery systems of CPT are approved for therapy. Hereby, we propose the encapsulation of hydrophobic CPT in the inner core of cellulose nanoaggregates for sustained release with retaining of antiproliferative activity. Cellulose conjugates were synthesized by esterification of methyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose and (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose with testosterone, ergocalciferol and dl-α-tocopherol hemisuccinates...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ying Pan, Longxiang Liu, Yanping Zhang, Lei Song, Yuan Hu, Shudong Jiang, Hongting Zhao
A crosslinked and flame retardant coating was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly on cotton fabric. The coated fabric was treated using positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and negatively charged hypophosphorous acid-modified chitosan (HACH) with subsequent crosslinking with genipin. The thermal stability and flammability of the treated cotton fabric were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the horizontal flame test and microscale combustion calorimetry. TGA results showed that, in an air atmosphere, there was more char residue for the treated cotton fabrics than for the untreated cotton fabric...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Feifei Sun, Peng Zhang, Yinyin Liu, Chunbo Lu, Yuanhao Qiu, Haibo Mu, Jinyou Duan
In this paper, a novel photo-controlled drug-loaded nanomicelles were self-assembled by the amphiphile of hyaluronan-o-nitrobenzyl-stearyl chain (HA-NB-SC) with doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated within the hydrophobic core. DOX-loaded HA-NB-SC nanomicelles are ∼139 nm in diameter. CD44-overexpressed HeLa cells can easily take up HA-NB-SC micelles through recognition of HA moiety. DOX-loaded HA-NB-SC nanomicelles could be disassembled upon UV light (365 nm) and consequently, release DOX at desired pathological sites...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaoying Wang, Yangli Guo, Liangzhen Qiu, Xiaying Wang, Tonglei Li, Lifeng Han, Huizhi Ouyang, Wei Xu, Kedan Chu
An amphiphilic carboxymethyl chitosan-rhein (CR) conjugate was prepared, characterized, and evaluated as a potential carrier material for oral delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). CR conjugate self-assembled in aqueous environment into CR polymeric micelles (CR PMs). The drug loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of PTX-loaded CR PMs were 35.24 ± 1.58% and 86.99 ± 12.26%, respectively. Pharmacokinetic results indicate that PTX-loaded CR PMs could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of PTX...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jeffery B Klauda
Modeling lipid bilayers using molecular simulations has progressed from short simulations of single-component lipids to currently having the ability to model complex cellular membranes with nearly 100 different lipid types on a μ s time scale. This perspective article presents a review of how the chemical physics field has provided insight into the structure and dynamics of accurate cellular membrane models. A short review of lipid force fields is presented, and how lower-resolution models can allow for assemblies and time scales not attainable with all-atom models...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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