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Yi-Fan Lian, Yan-Lin Huang, Jia-Liang Wang, Mei-Hai Deng, Tian-Liang Xia, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Min-Shan Chen, Hong-Bo Wang, Yue-Hua Huang
Anillin (ANLN) is an actin-binding protein essential for assembly of cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Although reportedly overexpressed in various human cancers, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. To address this issue, we confirmed that in 436 liver samples obtained from surgically removed HCC tissues, higher ANLN expression was detected in tumor tissues than in adjacent non-tumor tissues of HCC as measured by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Correlation and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher ANLN expression were associated with worse clinical outcomes and a shorter survival time, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Aging
Mrinal Kumar Sarma, Mohd Golam Abdul Quadir, Rupam Bhaduri, Sharbani Kaushik, Pranab Goswami
Combined power generation and waste degradation through microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is emerging as an attractive solution for controlling pollution in water bodies. Cyanobacteria as fuel cell catalysts for such shared energy activities are not well studied even though these possess robust metabolic systems supporting exo-electrogenicity, biodegradation of toxic compounds, and their survival under wide environmental conditions. Herein, a dual chambered (50 ml each) MFC assembled with Synechococcus sp...
July 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mehraj Ahmad, Christos Ritzoulis, Jianshe Chen
The objective of this work is to obtain a concise image of mucin's assembly, structure and mechanics in saliva imitating buffer, in comparison to low ionic strength solutions. The systems show shear and extensional thinning, coupled with very high Trouton ratios, that is an extensional viscosity dominated mucin flow. Low-shear oscillation shows weak gels forming at low ionic strengths, while viscous systems form at high ionic strength saliva imitating buffer. Nanoparticle tracking results suggest that ionic environment affects the self-assembly of mucin...
July 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hai-Tao Wang, Ya-Nan Liu, Xiao-Hui Kang, Yi-Fan Wang, Shi-Yi Yang, Shao-Wei Bian, Quan Zhu
A high-performance yarn-shaped supercapacitor electrode material with light weight, small volume, flexibility and low cost, is highly desirable for the development of flexible energy storage devices. Herein, a cotton/Au/nickel cobalt sulfide hybrid yarn electrode was designed and synthesized by electrodepositing nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheet arrays on the Au metalized cotton yarn. The metalized cotton yarn as a conductive substrate ensures rapid electron transportation. The porous layer which constructed by CoNi2 S4 nanosheet arrays significantly enlarges the interface between the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, providing large electroactive surface area for the faradic redox reactions...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Long Sun, Juan Xu, Fang He
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. Carbapenemase producing clinical isolates leave few therapeutic options. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a NDM-5, CTX-M-15, and OXA-1 co-producing E. coli ST167: a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from urine sample of a male hospitalized patient diagnosed with intracranial injury from a traffic accident. METHODS: The genome of E. coli ECWJ1 was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ann M Dixon, Syamal Roy
Class II Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) is a polymorphic heterodimer that binds antigen-derived peptides and presents them on the surface of antigen presenting cells. This mechanism of antigen presentation leads to recognition by CD4 T-cells and T-cell activation, making it a critical element of adaptive immune response. For this reason, the structural determinants of MHC-II function have been of great interest for the past 30 years, resulting in a robust structural understanding of the extracellular regions of the complex...
August 10, 2018: Human Immunology
Tamryn Marsberg, Michael D Jukes, Martyna Krejmer-Rabalska, Lukasz Rabalski, Caroline M Knox, Sean D Moore, Martin P Hill, Boguslaw Szewczyk
Cryptophlebia peltastica is an agricultural pest of litchis and macadamias in South Africa with phytosanitary status for certain markets. Current control methods rely on chemical, cultural and classical biological control. However, a microbial control option has not been developed. An Alphabaculovirus from C. peltastica was recovered from a laboratory reared colony and morphologically characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of occlusion bodies indicated a single NPV (SNPV) varying in size from 421 to 1263 nm...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Christopher T Pappas, Gerrie P Farman, Rachel M Mayfield, John P Konhilas, Carol C Gregorio
Leiomodin-2 (Lmod2) is a striated muscle-specific actin binding protein that is implicated in assembly of thin filaments. The necessity of Lmod2 in the adult mouse and role it plays in the mechanics of contraction are unknown. To answer these questions, we generated cardiac-specific conditional Lmod2 knockout mice (cKO). These mice die within a week of induction of the knockout with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and little change in cardiac morphology. Cardiac trabeculae isolated from cKO mice have a significant decrease in maximum force production and a blunting of myofilament length-dependent activation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Lorenzo Calisti, Matilde Cardoso Trabuco, Alberto Boffi, Claudia Testi, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Amédée des Georges, Irene Benni, Andrea Ilari, Bartłomiej Taciak, Maciej Białasek, Tomasz Rygiel, Magdalena Król, Paola Baiocco, Alessandra Bonamore
Ferritin H-homopolymers have been extensively used as nanocarriers for diverse applications in the targeted delivery of drugs and imaging agents, due to their unique ability to bind the transferrin receptor (CD71), highly overexpressed in most tumor cells. In order to incorporate novel fluorescence imaging properties, we have fused a lanthanide binding tag (LBT) to the C-terminal end of mouse H-chain ferritin, HFt. The HFt-LBT possesses one high affinity Terbium binding site per each of the 24 subunits provided by six coordinating aminoacid side chains and a tryptophan residue in its close proximity and is thus endowed with strong FRET sensitization properties...
2018: PloS One
Ahmed Elgendy, Sherif Shehata, Ahmed Medhat Zaki, Sameh Shehata
This study aims to investigate the management of Wilms tumor by the Egyptian pediatric surgical association (EPSA) consultants. After approval of the EPSA executive board, a questionnaire was distributed individually to all consultants attending the general assembly of EPSA 2017 annual congress. Of 88 consultants, responses were received from 61. Palpable abdominal mass was indicated by 72.13% of respondents as the commonest presenting symptom. Concerning the imaging requested, computed tomography was reported by 80...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Buddhini C N Vithanage, Joanna Xiuzhu Xu, Dongmao Zhang
With their unique photochemical properties, porphyrins have remained for decades the most interesting chemicals as photonic materials for applications ranging from chemistry, biology, medicine, to photovoltaic. Porphyrins can self-assemble into higher-order structures. However, information has been scant on the kinetics and structural evolution during porphyrin assembly and disassembly. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the porphyrin optical activities is complicated by the complex interplay of photon absorption, scattering, and fluorescence emission that can concurrently occur in porphyrin samples...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Roy Nassar, Eric Wong, Jennifer M Bui, Calvin Yip, Hongbin Li, Joerg A Gsponer, Guillaume Lamour
Mapping the nanomechanical properties of amyloids can provide valuable insights into structure and assembly mechanisms of protein aggregates that underlie the development of various human diseases. Although it is well known that amyloids exhibit an intrinsic stiffness comparable to that of silk (1-10 GPa), a detailed understanding of the directional dependence (anisotropy) of the stiffness of amyloids and how it relates to structural features in these protein aggregates is missing. Here we used steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) atomic force microscopy to measure the directional variation in stiffness of GNNQQNY amyloid crystals...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Stefan Dannenmaier, Sebastian B Stiller, Marcel Morgenstern, Philipp Lübbert, Silke Oeljeklaus, Nils Wiedemann, Bettina Warscheid
Knowledge about the functions of individual proteins on a systems-wide level is crucial to fully understand molecular mechanisms underlying cellular processes. A considerable part of the proteome across all organisms is still poorly characterized. Mass spectrometry is an efficient technology for the global study of proteins. One of the most prominent methods for accurate proteome-wide comparative quantification is stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). However, application of SILAC to prototrophic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as baker's yeast, is compromised since they are able to synthesize all amino acids on their own...
August 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ren Geryak, Elizabeth Quigley, Sunghan Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Rossella Calabrese, David L Kaplan, Vladimir V Tsukruk
Microencapsulation techniques represent a critical step in realizing highly controlled transport of functional materials in multiphase systems. The first demonstration of microcapsules prepared from minimally grafted silk ionomers (silk fibroin modified with cationic/anionic charge groups) are presented here. These tailored biomacromolecules have shown significantly increased biocompatibility over traditional polyelectrolytes and heavily grafted silk ionomers, but the low grafting density had previously limited attempts to fabricate stable microcapsules...
August 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Antara Pal, Thomas Zinn, Mohammad Arif Kamal, Theyencheri Narayanan, Peter Schurtenberger
The influence of an applied magnetic field on the collective dynamics of novel anisotropic colloidal particles whose shape resembles peanuts is reported. Being made up of hematite cores and silica shells, these micrometer-sized particles align in a direction perpendicular to the applied external magnetic field, and assemble into chains along the field direction. The anisotropic dynamics of these particles is investigated using multispeckle ultrasmall-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (USA-XPCS). The results indicate that along the direction of the magnetic field, the particle dynamics strongly depends on the length scale probed...
August 13, 2018: Small
Arne Hillebrand, Joachim M Matz, Martin Almendinger, Katja Müller, Kai Matuschewski, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
Gene expression in mitochondria of Plasmodium falciparum is essential for parasite survival. The molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium organellar gene expression remain poorly understood. This includes the enigmatic assembly of the mitochondrial ribosome from highly fragmented rRNAs. Here, we present the identification of clustered organellar short RNA fragments (cosRNAs) that are possible footprints of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in Plasmodium organelles. In plants, RBPs of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) class produce footprints as a consequence of their function in processing organellar RNAs...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Z S Wallace, S B Rosenthal, K M Fisch, T Ideker, R Sasik
Motivation: Modern biological experiments often produce candidate lists of genes presumably related to the studied phenotype. One can ask if the gene list as a whole makes sense in the context of existing knowledge: Are the genes in the list reasonably related to each other or do they look like a random assembly? There are also situations when one wants to know if two or more gene sets are closely related. Gene enrichment tests based on counting the number of genes two sets have in common are adequate if we presume that two genes are related only when they are in fact identical...
August 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
Chaofeng Tu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Peng Qi, Xiayu Li, Can Guo, Fang Xiong, Bo Xiang, Ming Zhou, Qianjin Liao, Jianjun Yu, Yong Li, Xiaoling Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in Southern China with marked ethnic and geographic distributions and concomitant EBV infection. However, the molecular basis of NPC remains largely unknown and the role of EBV genomic variations in the pathogenesis of NPC is unclear. Whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 12 EBV-positive paired NPC tumor/peripheral blood samples from Hunan province was performed, and the FBXO11 gene was subjected to further functional analyses. We identified 69 missense mutations in signaling pathways typically altered in cancer, including NF-κB and Wnt/Hedgehog/Notch...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Jeanmarie Verchot, Aastha Thapa, Dulanjani Wijayasekara, Peter R Hoyt
This metagenome approach is used to identify plant viruses with circular DNA genomes and their transcripts. Often plant DNA viruses that occur in low titers in their host or cannot be mechanically inoculated to another host are difficult to propagate to achieve a greater titer of infectious material. Infected leaves are ground in a mild buffer with optimal pH and ionic composition recommended for purifying most bacilliform Para retroviruses. Urea is used to break up inclusion bodies that trap virions and to dissolve cellular components...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jie Chen, Devarajan Thirumalai
The allosteric enzyme, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), is activated by fructose 1,6-metaphosphate (FBP) to reduce pyruvate to lactate. The molecular details of the FBP-driven transition between the low affinity T-state to the high affinity R-state in LDH, a tetramer composed of identical subunits, are not known. The dynamics of theT$\rightarrow$R allosteric transition, investigated using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of the Self-Organized Polymer (SOP) model, revealed that coordinated rotations of the subunits drive the T$\rightarrow$R transition...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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