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Protein phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231702/effect-of-a-microbial-phytase-on-growth-performance-plasma-parameters-and-apparent-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-in-youxian-sheldrake-fed-a-low-phosphorus-corn-soybean-diet
#1
Shaoping He, Rodolfo Frilles Medrano, Qifang Yu, Yixin Cai, Qiuzhong Dai, Jianhua He
Objective: This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acid (AA) and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-Phosphorus (P) corn-soybean diets. Methods: A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old) were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC) group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231468/parkinson-sac-domain-mutation-in-synaptojanin-1-impairs-clathrin-uncoating-at-synapses-and-triggers-dystrophic-changes-in-dopaminergic-axons
#3
Mian Cao, Yumei Wu, Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Amber J McCartney, Heather Wheeler, Eric A Bushong, Daniela Boassa, Mark H Ellisman, Timothy A Ryan, Pietro De Camilli
Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231233/association-of-topoisomerase-ii-top2a-and-dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-dusp6-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-radiation-treatment-response-and-prognosis-of-lung-cancer-in-han-chinese
#4
Tian-Lu Wang, Yang-Wu Ren, He-Tong Wang, Hong Yu, Yu-Xia Zhao
BACKGROUND Mutations of DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2A) are associated with chemotherapy resistance, whereas dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) negatively regulates members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily to control cell proliferation. This study assessed TOP2A and DUSP6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for association with chemoradiotherapy responses and prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 140 Chinese patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled and subjected to genotyping of TOP2A rs471692 and DUSP6 rs2279574 using Taqman PCR...
February 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#5
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230360/capsaicin-reduces-blood-glucose-by-increasing-insulin-levels-and-glycogen-content-better-than-capsiate-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Shiqi Zhang, Xiaohan Ma, Zhang Lei, Hui Sun, Xiong Liu
Chili peppers exhibit anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and pain- and itchiness-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue and is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#7
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 23, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230160/global-view-of-cognate-kinase-activation-by-the-human-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex
#8
Elena L Guevara, Luying Yang, Barbara Birkaya, Jieyu Zhou, Natalia S Nemeria, Mulchand S Patel, Frank Jordan
The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises four multidomain components, E1, E3, E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP), the latter two forming the core as E2·E3BP sub-complex. Pyruvate flux through PDC is regulated via phosphorylation (inactivation) at E1 by four PDC kinases (PDKs), and reactivation by two PDC phosphatases. Up-regulation of PDK isoform gene expression is reported in several forms of cancer, while PDKs may be further activated by PDC by binding to the E2·E3BP core. Hence, the PDK: E2·E3BP interaction provides new therapeutic targets...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229972/early-life-stress-experience-may-blunt-hypothalamic-leptin-signalling
#9
J H Lee, S B Yoo, J Y Kim, J Y Lee, B T Kim, K Park, J W Jahng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229915/regulated-methionine-oxidation-by-monooxygenases
#10
REVIEW
Bruno Manta, Vadim N Gladyshev
Protein function can be regulated via post-translational modifications by numerous enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms, including oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues. Redox-dependent regulatory mechanisms have been identified for nearly every cellular process, but the major paradigm has been that cellular components are oxidized (damaged) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a relatively unspecific way, and then reduced (repaired) by designated reductases. While this scheme may work with cysteine, it cannot be ascribed to other residues, such as methionine, whose reaction with ROS is too slow to be biologically relevant...
February 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228214/inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-non-receptor-type-2-by-ptp-inhibitor-xix-its-role-as-a-multiphosphatase-inhibitor
#11
Hien Thi Thu Le, Young-Chang Cho, Sayeon Cho
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play crucial roles in signal transduction and their functional alteration has been detected in many diseases. PTP inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic drugs for diseases that are related to the activity of PTPs. In this study, PTP inhibitor XIX, an inhibitor of CD45 and PTEN, was investigated whether it inhibits other PTPs. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) was selectively inhibited by the inhibitor in a competitive manner. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis showed that the inhibitor induces conformational changes in PTPN2...
February 23, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228082/recent-advances-in-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-targeted-drug-discovery-for-type-ii-diabetes-and-obesity
#12
Neelesh Maheswari, Chandrabose Karthikeyan, Piyush Trivedi, N S Hari Narayana Moorthy
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an important therapeutic target for type II diabetes and obesity because of its pivotal role as a negative modulator in both insulin and leptin signalling pathways. Consequently, the discovery of PTP1B inhibitors has been the focus of researchers in both academia and pharmaceutical industry over the last two decades. Though, intense pharmaceutical research in this area has resulted in many potent PTP1B inhibitors, a vast majority of them possessed pTyr mimetic group such as phosphonates, carboxylic acids and sulphamic acids, which led to poor PTP1B selectivity and insufficient in vivo efficacy due to low cell permeability and bioavailability...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224917/regulation-of-the-wheat-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-by-14-3-3-proteins
#13
Mouna Ghorbel, Valérie Cotelle, Chantal Ebel, Ikram Zaidi, Mélanie Ormancey, Jean-Philippe Galaud, Moez Hanin
Plant MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are major regulators of MAPK signaling pathways and play crucial roles in controlling growth, development and stress responses. The presence of several functional domains in plant MKPs such as a dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, gelsolin, calmodulin-binding and serine-rich domains, suggests that MKPs can interact with distinct cellular partners, others than MAPKs. In this report, we identified a canonical mode I 14-3-3-binding motif (574KLPSLP579) located at the carboxy-terminal region of the wheat MKP, TMKP1...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224476/protein-phosphatase-2a-a-double-faced-phosphatase-of-cellular-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Md Nematullah, M N Hoda, Farah Khan
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase, is a vitally important phosphatase for the cellular system. Structurally, it is constituted of three different subunits, namely catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), structural scaffold subunit (PP2A-A), and regulatory subunit (PP2A-B). All subunits have various isoforms, and catalytic and scaffold subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas regulatory subunits are more specific to tissue and cell type. It is the numerous possibilities of PP2A holoenzyme assembly with varying isoform components that make it possess a dual nature of activator or the inhibitory character in different signaling pathways, namely neural developmental pathways, Akt/protein kinase B pathway, NF-kB pathway, MAPK pathway, apoptosis pathway, and cell cycle progression to name a few...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223547/cabozantinib-targets-bone-microenvironment-modulating-human-osteoclast-and-osteoblast-functions
#15
Marco Fioramonti, Daniele Santini, Michele Iuliani, Giulia Ribelli, Paolo Manca, Nicola Papapietro, Filippo Spiezia, Bruno Vincenzi, Vincenzo Denaro, Antonio Russo, Giuseppe Tonini, Francesco Pantano
Cabozantinib, a c-MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor, demonstrated to prolong progression free survival and improve skeletal disease-related endpoints in castration-resistant prostate cancer and in metastatic renal carcinoma. Our purpose is to investigate the direct effect of cabozantinib on bone microenvironment using a total human model of primary osteoclasts and osteoblasts.Osteoclasts were differentiated from monocytes isolated from healthy donors; osteoblasts were derived from human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from bone fragments of orthopedic surgery patients...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223368/phosphatases-generate-signal-specificity-downstream-of-ssp1-kinase-in-fission-yeast
#16
Lin Deng, Mid Eum Lee, Katherine Schutt, James B Moseley
AMPK-related protein kinases (ARKs) coordinate cell growth, proliferation, and migration with environmental status. It is unclear how specific ARKs are activated at specific times. In fission yeast S. pombe, the CaMKK-like protein kinase Ssp1 promotes cell cycle progression by activating the ARK Cdr2 according to cell growth signals. Here, we demonstrate that Ssp1 activates a second ARK, Ssp2/AMPK-α, for cell proliferation in low environmental glucose. Ssp1 activates these two related targets by the same biochemical mechanism: direct phosphorylation of a conserved residue in the activation loop (Cdr2-T166 and Ssp2-T189)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223354/il-1%C3%AE-induced-and-p38-mapk-dependent-activation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-activated-protein-kinase-mk-2-in-hepatocytes-signal-transduction-with-robust-and-concentration-independent-signal-amplification
#17
Andreas Kulawik, Raphael Engesser, Christian Ehlting, Andreas Raue, Ute Albrecht, Bettina Hahn, Wolf-Dieter Lehmann, Matthias Gaestel, Ursula Klingmüller, Dieter Häussinger, Jens Timmer, Johannes G Bode
The Interleukin (IL)-1β induced activation of the p38(MAPK)/MK2 pathway in hepatocytes is important for the control of acute phase response and regulation of liver regeneration. Many aspects of regulatory relevance of this pathway have been investigated in immune cells in the context of inflammation. However, very little is known about concentration-dependent activation kinetics and signal propagation in hepatocytes and the role of MK2. We established a mathematical model for IL-1β induced activation of the p38(MAPK)/MK2 pathway in hepatocytes that was calibrated to quantitative data on time- and IL-1β concentration-dependent phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and MK2 in primary mouse hepatocytes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222767/knockdown-of-slc41a1-magnesium-transporter-promotes-mineralization-and-attenuates-magnesium-inhibition-during-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#18
Yu-Tzu Tsao, Ya-Yi Shih, Yu-An Liu, Yi-Shiuan Liu, Oscar K Lee
BACKGROUND: Magnesium is essential for numerous physiological functions. Magnesium exists mostly in bone and the amount is dynamically regulated by skeletal remodeling. Accelerating bone mass loss occurs when magnesium intake is insufficient; whereas high magnesium could lead to mineralization defects. However, the underlying magnesium regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high extracellular magnesium concentration on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and the role of magnesium transporter SLC41A1 in the mineralization process...
February 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222387/baicalein-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#19
Li-Jiao Chen, Bi-Bo Hu, Xin-Lian Shi, Man-Man Ren, Wen-Bin Yu, Sheng-Dan Cen, Rong-Dang Hu, Hui Deng
OBJECTIVE: Periodontium regeneration is one of the most important processes for periodontitis therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) play a vital role in the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues. Our study aimed to investigated the mechanisms underlying the promotion of hPLDCs osteogenic differentiation by baicalein. DESIGN: hPDLCs were obtained from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues by primary culture. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth curves of hPDLCs treated with different concentrations of baicalein (1...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222358/tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-is-an-important-factor-for-gene-expression-of-crth2-in-human-eosinophils-and-lymphocytes-a-novel-mechanism-for-explaining-eosinophils-recruitment-by-the-neuro-immune-axis-in-allergic-rhinitis
#20
A E El-Shazly, P Roncarati, M Lejeune, P P Lefebvre, P Delvenne
We recently shown a novel neuro-immune competition between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and PGD2 for CRTH2 receptor, and that genistein augmented VIP and PGD2-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. However, there are neither studies on the CRTH2 gene expression in allergic rhinitis (AR) nor in the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CRTH2 gene regulation. Our Objectives were to study the gene expression modulation of CRTH2 receptor in AR patients and the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on CRTH2 gene modulation...
February 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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