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Protein phosphatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165873/andrographolide-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-endothelin-1-expression-through-the-heme-oxygenase-1-co-cgmp-mkp-5-pathways-in-ea-hy926-cells
#1
Hung-Chih Lin, Shih-Li Su, Wan-Chun Lin, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Chong-Kuei Lii, Haw-Wen Chen
Andrographolide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Andrographis paniculata. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory properties secreted in response to hypoxia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP-5) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues of MAPKs. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and ET-1 secretion are dependent on p38 MAPK in EA.hy926 cells. Here, we investigate what role MKP-5 plays in andrographolide's inhibition of hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and ET-1...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164709/identification-of-pyridoxal-phosphate-modified-proteins-using-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yue Wu, Jin Chen, Zheyi Liu, Fangjun Wang
RATIONALE: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cooperates with a variety of enzymes in all organisms for many important biological processes. The development of mass-spectrometry-based methodology for high throughput modification analyses could provide an alternative way for PLP identification. The present study aims to identify PLP modification. METHODS: More PLP site-determining information was obtained by introducing multistage activation (MSA) assisted collision induced dissociation (CID)...
November 22, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163854/interactions-between-tgf-%C3%AE-1-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Radiation therapy induces DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis. Fibrosis can occur 4 to 12 months after radiation therapy. This process worsens with time and years. Radiation-induced fibrosis is characterized by fibroblasts proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans and extracellular matrix. Myofibroblasts are non-muscle cells that can contract and relax. Myofibroblasts evolve towards irreversible retraction during fibrosis process. In this review, we discussed the interplays between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced fibrosis, and the potential role of PPAR γ agonists...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163618/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-type-iii-effector-ripay-is-phosphorylated-in-plant-cells-to-modulate-its-enzymatic-activity
#4
Yali Wei, Yuying Sang, Alberto P Macho
Most bacterial pathogens subvert plant cellular functions using effector proteins delivered inside plant cells. In the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, several of these effectors contain domains with predicted enzymatic activities, including acetyltransferases, phosphatases, and proteases, among others. How these enzymatic activities get activated inside plant cells, but not in the bacterial cell, remains unknown in most cases. In this work, we found that the R. solanacearum effector RipAY is phosphorylated in plant cells...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163450/autophosphorylation-and-cross-phosphorylation-of-protein-kinases-from-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-islandicus
#5
Qihong Huang, Qing Zhong, Joseph B A Mayaka, Jinfeng Ni, Yulong Shen
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most important post-translational modifications, regulates almost every cellular process. Although signal transduction by protein phosphorylation is extensively studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge of this process in archaea is greatly lagging behind, especially for Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation by eukaryotic-like protein kinases (ePKs). So far, only a few studies on archaeal ePKs have been reported, most of which focused on the phosphorylation activities in vitro, but their physiological functions and interacting network are still largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163169/icariin-enhances-bone-repair-in-rabbits-with-bone-infection-during-post-infection-treatment-and-prevents-inhibition-of-osteoblasts-by-vancomycin
#6
Yang Zhang, Lifeng Shen, Zhujun Mao, Nani Wang, Xuping Wang, Xiaowen Huang, Ying Hu, Dan Shou, Chengping Wen
Vancomycin is an effective antibiotic for treatment of bone infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, however, a high local concentration of vancomycin might induce a delay in bone union. Icariin has been reported to suppress osteoclastogenes and promote osteogenesis. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of icariin on bone repair after anti-infection treatment in vivo and to explore the resisting effect of icariin on rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) inhibited with high doses of vancomycin. Rabbits with bone infection of S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162725/src-homology-2-domains-enhance-tyrosine-phosphorylation-in-vivo-by-protecting-binding-sites-in-their-target-proteins-from-dephosphorylation
#7
Joshua A Jadwin, Timothy G Curran, Adam T Lafontaine, Forest M White, Bruce J Mayer
Phosphotyrosine (pY)-dependent signaling is critical for many cellular processes. It is highly dynamic, as signal output depends not only on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation rates, but also on the rates of binding and dissociation of effectors containing phosphotyrosine-dependent binding modules such as Src Homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains. Previous in vitro studies suggested that binding of SH2 and PTB domains can enhance protein phosphorylation by protecting the sites bound by these domains from phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161958/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-is-essential-for-the-self-renewal-of-embryonic-stem-cells-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-through-stat3-signaling
#8
Jing Wei, Zhenhua Fan, Zhuo Yang, Yujie Zhou, Fan Da, Linyan Zhou, Wenjing Tao, Deshou Wang
To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells from fish species. Here we report that the leukemia inhibitory factor (named as OnLif) from a teleost fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is essential for the proliferation, survival and pluripotency maintenance of Nile tilapia ES cells (TES1) via activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). This protein has 221 amino acid residues with similar sequence features to mammalian LIF...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160709/2d-ir-spectroscopy-of-an-aha-labelled-photoswitchable-pdz2-domain
#9
Brigitte Stucki-Buchli, Philip J M Johnson, Olga Bozovic, Claudio Zanobini, Klemens L Koziol, Peter Hamm, Adnan Gulzar, Steffen Wolf, Sebastian Buchenberg, Gerhard Stock
We explore the capability of the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA) as an IR label to sense relatively small structural changes in proteins with the help of 2D IR difference spectroscopy. To that end, we AHA-labelled an allosteric protein (the PDZ2 domain from human tyrosine-phosphatase 1E) and furthermore covalently linked it to an azobenzene-derived photoswitch as to mimic its conformational transition upon ligand binding. To determine the strengths and limitations of the AHA label, in total six mutants have been investigated with the label at sites with varying properties...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160307/a-non-canonical-notch-complex-regulates-adherens-junctions-and-vascular-barrier-function
#10
William J Polacheck, Matthew L Kutys, Jinling Yang, Jeroen Eyckmans, Yinyu Wu, Hema Vasavada, Karen K Hirschi, Christopher S Chen
The vascular barrier that separates blood from tissues is actively regulated by the endothelium and is essential for transport, inflammation, and haemostasis1. Haemodynamic shear stress plays a critical role in maintaining endothelial barrier function2, but how this occurs remains unknown. Here, using an engineered organotypic model of perfused microvessels and confirming in mouse models, we identify that activation of the Notch1 transmembrane receptor directly regulates vascular barrier function through a non-canonical, transcription independent signalling mechanism that drives adherens junction assembly...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159895/proliferation-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-scaffolds-containing-chitosan-calcium-polyphosphate-and-pigeonite-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#11
S Dhivya, A Keshav Narayan, R Logith Kumar, S Viji Chandran, M Vairamani, N Selvamurugan
OBJECTIVES: Treatment of critical-sized bone defects with cells and biomaterials offers an efficient alternative to traditional bone grafts. Chitosan (CS) is a natural biopolymer that acts as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Polyphosphate (PolyP), recently identified as an inorganic polymer, acts as a potential bone morphogenetic material, whereas pigeonite (Pg) is a novel iron-containing ceramic. In this study, we prepared and characterized scaffolds containing CS, calcium polyphosphate (CaPP) and Pg particles for bone formation in vitro and in vivo...
November 21, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159326/overexpression-of-id1-reverses-the-repression-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-differentiation-induced-by-twist1-silencing
#12
Izabela Maciejewska, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Marta Krzeminska, Tadeusz Pawelczyk
Multiple studies showed that the cessation of TWIST1 expression is the prerequisite for osteoblasts' maturation. However, recent reports revealed that the function of TWIST1 is different in the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), where a high level of TWIST1 expression promoted DPSCs' differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of TWIST1 and ID1 on the differentiation process in the human DPSCs. METHODS: TWIST1 and ID1 expression in the DSPCs was modulated by lentivirus transduction...
November 20, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158400/drosophila-protein-phosphatases-2a-b-wdb-and-wrd-regulate-meiotic-centromere-localization-and-function-of-the-mei-s332-shugoshin
#13
Belinda S Pinto, Terry L Orr-Weaver
Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158294/the-actin-binding-protein-ppp1r18-regulates-maturation-actin-organization-and-bone-resorption-activity-of-osteoclasts
#14
Takuma Matsubara, Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Masayuki Kinbara, Toshihiro Maeda, Mitsuhiro Yoshizawa, Hisataka Yasuda, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Roland Baron, Eijiro Jimi
Osteoclasts resorb bone by attaching on the bone matrix and forming a sealing zone. In Src-deficient mice, osteoclasts cannot form the actin ring, a characteristic actin structure that seals the resorbed area, and hardly resorb any bone as a result. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of Src in the regulation and organization of the actin ring is still unclear. We identified an actin regulatory protein, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 18 (PPP1r18), as an Src-binding protein in an Src-, Yes-, and Fyn-deficient fibroblast (SYF) cell line overexpressing a constitutively active form of Src...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158006/vdr-independent-induction-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-by-1-23-oh-2-d3-in-gastric-cancer-cells-impact-on-apoptosis-and-cell-morphology
#15
Elisabetta Albi, Samuela Cataldi, Ivana Ferri, Angelo Sidoni, Giovanna Traina, Katia Fettucciari, Francesco Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Andrea Lazzarini, Francesco Curcio, Maria Rachele Ceccarini, Tommaso Beccari, Michela Codini
1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,23(OH)2 D3) is known to play a dual role in cancer, by promoting or inhibiting carcinogenesis via 1,23(OH)2 D3 receptor (VDR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Fok I polymorphism of VDR may indirectly influence the receptor levels through autoregulation. The involvement of neutral sphingomyelinase in the non-classic VDR-mediated genomic pathway response to 1,23(OH)2 D3 treatment has been reported. Until now no information were reported about Fok I polymorphism of VDR in NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cells and the relation between acid sphingomyelinase and 1,23(OH)2 D3...
November 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157978/stem-cell-based-gene-delivery-mediated-by-cationic-niosomes-for-bone-regeneration
#16
Noha Attia, Mohamed Mashal, Santiago Grijalvo, Ramon Eritja, Jon Zárate, Gustavo Puras, José Luis Pedraz
Bone morphogenetic protein-7(BMP-7) plays a pivotal role in the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into bone. However, its impact is hampered due to its short half-life. Therefore, gene therapy may be an interesting approach to deliver BMP-7 gene to D1-MSCs. In this manuscript we prepared and characterized niosomes based on cationic lipid 2,3-di(tetradecyloxy)propan-1-amine, combined with polysorbate 80 for gene delivery purposes. Niosomes were characterized and combined initially with pCMS-EGFP reporter plasmid, and later with pUNO1-hBMP-7 plasmid to evaluate osteogenesis differentiation...
November 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#17
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156292/dietary-luteolin-protects-against-hgcl2-induced-renal-injury-via-activation-of-nrf2-mediated-signaling-in-rat
#18
Xiao Tan, Biying Liu, Jingjing Lu, Siyu Li, Ruiqi Baiyun, Yueying Lv, Qian Lu, Zhigang Zhang
Luteolin (Lut) belongs to the flavonoid family with various beneficial bioactivities. Here, we investigated whether Lut attenuate mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced renal injury in rat. We found that oral gavage administration of Lut (80mg/kg) alleviated anemia and renal histology upon HgCl2 treatment (80mg/L). Lut also significantly reduced HgCl2-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory, presenting as the reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, increased glutathione (GSH) level, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156132/the-pp1-tautomycetin-complex-reveals-a-path-towards-the-development-of-pp1-specific-inhibitors
#19
Meng S Choy, Mark Swingle, Brandon D'Arcy, Kevin Abney, Scott F Rusin, Arminja N Kettenbach, Rebecca Page, Richard E Honkanen, Wolfgang Peti
Selective inhibitors for each serine/threonine phosphatase (PPP) are essential to investigate the biological actions of PPPs and to guide drug development. Although multiple organisms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, beetles, etc.) produce natural toxins that bind and inhibit the active sites of PPPs, they are largely non-selective, typically inhibiting one or more family members with equal potencies. Thus, the use of these toxins as chemical tools to study the relationship between individual PPPs and their biological substrates, and how disruptions in these relationships contributes to human disease, is severely limited...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155635/case-248-cystic-duodenal-dystrophy-with-groove-pancreatitis
#20
Aruna R Patil, Shrivalli Nandikoor, Govindarajan Mallarajapatna, Swarna Shivakumar
History A 59-year-old man presented to the gastroenterology outpatient department with acute abdominal pain centered in the epigastrium. He had experienced similar episodes of abdominal pain in the past that had been treated with surgery. He reported multiple failed attempts at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laboratory tests were performed at the time of admission and revealed a serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase level of 9 U/L [0.15 μkat/L] (normal range, 5-40 U/L [0.08-0.67 μkat/L]), a serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase level of 34 U/L [0...
December 2017: Radiology
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