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Offspring And (Parents Or Mother)

Joshua A Bell, David Carslake, Linda M O'Keeffe, Monika Frysz, Laura D Howe, Mark Hamer, Kaitlin H Wade, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is criticized for not distinguishing fat from lean mass and ignoring fat distribution, leaving its ability to detect health effects unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare BMI with total and regional fat indexes from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in their associations with cardiometabolic traits. Duration of exposure to and change in each index across adolescence were examined in relation to detailed traits in young adulthood...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Alemayehu Argaw, Lieven Huybregts, Mekitie Wondafrash, Patrick Kolsteren, Tefera Belachew, Berhanu N Worku, Teklu G Abessa, Kimberley P Bouckaert
Background: The n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for optimal brain development. There is a lack of evidence on the effect of postnatal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on child development in low-income countries. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish-oil supplementation through lactation or complementary food supplementation on the development of children aged 6-24 mo in rural Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for 12 mo using fish-oil capsules [maternal intervention: 215 mg DHA + 285 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] or a fish-oil-enriched complementary food supplement (child intervention: 169 mg DHA + 331 mg EPA)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Erline E Martinez-Miller, Aric A Prather, Whitney R Robinson, Christy L Avery, Yang C Yang, Mary N Haan, Allison E Aiello
Acculturation may shape the disproportionate burden of poor sleep among Latinos in the US. Existing studies are limited by unidimensional acculturation proxies that are incapable of capturing cultural complexities across generations. Understanding how acculturation relates to sleep may lead to the identification of modifiable intervention targets. We used multivariable regression and latent class methods to examine cross-sectional associations between a validated multidimensional scale of US acculturation and self-reported poor sleep measures...
December 13, 2018: Sleep
Jacinta H Martin, R John Aitken, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Brett Nixon
BACKGROUND: DNA integrity and stability are critical determinants of cell viability. This is especially true in the female germline, wherein DNA integrity underpins successful conception, embryonic development, pregnancy and the production of healthy offspring. However, DNA is not inert; rather, it is subject to assault from various environment factors resulting in chemical modification and/or strand breakage. If structural alterations result and are left unrepaired, they have the potential to cause mutations and propagate disease...
December 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Martin Aguirrebengoa, Maite García-Planas, Caroline Müller, Adela González-Megías
Herbivorous mammals and insect pre-dispersal seed predators are two types of herbivores that, despite their functional and morphological differences, tend to severely impact many plant species, highly decreasing their seed production and even imperiling the performance of their offspring through transgenerational effects. However, how they influence offspring resistance to herbivory remains largely unknown. In this study we experimentally examined the effects of ungulates and pre-dispersal seed predators on seed quality as well as on the emergence, survival and resistance to herbivory of the seedlings of a semiarid herb...
2018: PloS One
Christiano Spindler, Ethiane Segabinazi, André Luís Ferreira de Meireles, Francele Valente Piazza, Filipe Mega, Gabriela Dos Santos Salvalaggio, Matilde Achaval, Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Simone Marcuzzo
It is widely known that maternal physical exercise is able to induce beneficial improvements in offspring cognition; however, the effects of paternal exercise have not been explored in detail. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity and DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus of male offspring. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sedentary or exercised fathers. The paternal preconception exercise protocol consisted of treadmill running, 20 minutes daily, 5 consecutive days per week for 22 days, while the mothers were not trained...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
A Seck, A Hichami, S Doucouré, F Diallo Agne, H Bassène, A Ba, C Sokhna, N A Khan, A Samb
The aim of the study was to assess T cell differentiation and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in obese and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women and their macrosomic newborns. Hence, immediately after delivery, blood samples were collected through the mother's arm vein and the umbilical cordon vein. Biochemical parameters measured were HbA1C, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL cholesterol (HDLchol), and LDL cholesterol (LDLchol). T lymphocytes were purified from the total blood with Ficoll-Paque...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Marina Vafeiadi, Antonis Myridakis, Theano Roumeliotaki, Katerina Margetaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Katerina Sarri, Maria Vassilaki, Vasiliki Leventakou, Euripides G Stephanou, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
Few studies have investigated longitudinal associations between early life phthalate exposure and subsequent obesity and cardiovascular risks in children with inconsistent results. We aimed to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposure during gestation and childhood with offspring obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 500 mother-child pairs from the Rhea pregnancy cohort in Crete, Greece. Seven phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)] were quantified in spot urine samples collected from mothers (1st trimester) and their children at 4 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Jannike Kaasbøll, Stian Lydersen, Ingunn Ranøyen, Wendy Nilsen, Marit S Indredavik
Background: A growing body of research suggests that the children of parents with chronic pain are at risk for internalizing symptoms. The mechanisms of such associations have not been as thoroughly examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents' social competence mediates the association between parental chronic pain and offspring internalizing symptoms as well as whether these associations are moderated by adolescent gender. Methods: The current study was based on cross-sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3), a Norwegian population-based health survey conducted in 2006-2008...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Halis Ozkan, Senay Topsakal, Ozlem Ozmen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus become an epidemic problem throughout the world. Relation of the diabetes with diet is known. Some evidence is reported about mother died and risk of diabetes in babies during the life related with gestational diabetes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the exposure of high-dose sucrose to rats and pups during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: The mother rats were categorized into four groups, during pregnancy and until the offspring were 1-month-old, as follows: Group 1, provided with normal drinking water; Group 2, provided with water containing 10%; Group 3, 20%; and Group 4, 30% table sugar...
December 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Adeline Jacquet, Damien Barbeau, Josiane Arnaud, Samer Hijazi, Florence Hazane-Puch, Frédéric Lamarche, Charline Quiclet, Karine Couturier, Eric Fontaine, Jean-Marc Moulis, Christine Demeilliers
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal which may participate in the development of type II diabetes even if Cd exposure levels are mild. However, experimental studies focusing on daily environmentally relevant doses are scarce, particularly for glucose metabolism of the offspring of chronically exposed mothers. The aim is to measure the impact of maternal low level Cd exposure on glucose and lipid metabolism of offspring. Female rats were exposed to 0, 50 or 500 μ .d-1 of CdCl2 , 21 days before mating and during 21 days of gestation and 21 days of lactation...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Line C Gjerde, Espen M Eilertsen, Thalia C Eley, Tom A McAdams, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Espen Røysamb, Eivind Ystrom
Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Child internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 1.5, 3, and 5, and modeled using multilevel analyses with repeated measures nested within siblings, nested within mothers...
December 11, 2018: Child Development
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
While a standard part of twin modeling, the magnitude of shared environment (c2 ) is rarely examined by comparing estimates obtained using other methods. To clarify these effects on familial resemblance, we estimated c2 for 20 diverse phenotypes in: (i) monozygotic and dizygotic twins, (ii) all step-siblings, and (iii) reared together and apart half-siblings, ascertained from the Swedish general population. The mean c2 estimates (± 95% CIs) differed across methods and were higher from twins (0.18; 0.13-0...
December 8, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Dayana A Delgado, Chenan Zhang, Kevin Gleason, Kathryn Demanelis, Lin S Chen, Jianjun Gao, Shantanu Roy, Justin Shinkle, Mekala Sabarinathan, Maria Argos, Lin Tong, Alauddin Ahmed, Tariqul Islam, Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman, Golam Sarwar, Hasan Shahriar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Muhammad Yunus, Jennifer A Doherty, Farzana Jasmine, Muhammad G Kibriya, Habibul Ahsan, Brandon L Pierce
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable trait with two potential sources of heritability (h2 ): inherited variation in non-telomeric regions (e.g., SNPs that influence telomere maintenance) and variability in the lengths of telomeres in gametes that produce offspring zygotes (i.e., "direct" inheritance). Prior studies of LTL h2 have not attempted to disentangle these two sources. Here, we use a novel approach for detecting the direct inheritance of telomeres by studying the association between identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing at chromosome ends and phenotypic similarity in LTL...
December 10, 2018: Human Genetics
Sarah Appel, Jon Grothe, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Maria Wohlfarth, Marion Handwerk, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Alexandra Gellhaus, Jörg Dötsch
Obesity and an unhealthy nutrition are on the rise and affect also women in childbearing age and hence, during pregnancy. Despite normal or even high birth weight the offspring suffers from long term metabolic risks. We hypothesized that fetal growth is disturbed during different intrauterine phases. Underlying molecular events remain elusive. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational time points G15...
December 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Bao-Jun Sun, Yang Wang, Yong Wang, Hong-Liang Lu, Wei-Guo Du
Parental effects may produce adaptive or maladaptive plasticity that either facilitates persistence or increases the extinction risk of species and populations in a changing climate. However, empirical evidence of transgenerational adaptive plastic responses to climate change is still scarce. Here we conducted thermal manipulation experiments with a factorial design in a Chinese lacertid lizard ( Takydromus septentrionalis ) to identify the fitness consequences of parental effects in response to climate warming...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Vania Aldrete-Cortez, Silvia A Tafoya, Francisco Meillon, Adrián Poblano, Rodrigo Ayala-Yáñez, Armando Mansilla-Olivares
Introduction: Teenage pregnancy has a negative impact both on mother's health and on her offspring quality life and development. In spite of its important social relevance, behavioral factors that can favor its occurrence have not been extensively explored. Objective: To compare symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity between adolescents with and without a history of pregnancy. Method: A sociodemographic record and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder questionnaire (ADD) of the Neuropsi instrument were applied to 60 adolescents: 30 cases and 30 controls...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Pavel Svitok, Zuzana Husková, Lenka Červenková, Soňa Kikerlová, Zdenka Vaňourková, Lenka Sedláková, Šárka Vacková, Hana Šutovska, Michal Zeman, Libor Kopkan
Suboptimal conditions during prenatal and early postnatal development can increase risk of hypertension later in life. We studied consequences of a changed perinatal environment by initiating the cross-fostering of homozygous Ren-2 transgenic rat (TGR) offspring to normotensive, transgene-negative control mothers, and vice versa. We hypothesized that cross-fostering to a normotensive female can attenuate the development of malignant hypertension in TGR offspring (TGRx) and change their salt-sensitive response...
December 10, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Nastacia L Goodwin, Sarah A Lopez, Nicole S Lee, Annaliese K Beery
This is a contribution to SI: SBN/ICN meeting. In social species, relationships may form between mates, parents and their offspring, and/or social peers. Prairie voles and meadow voles both form selective relationships for familiar same-sex peers, but differ in mating system, allowing comparison of the properties of peer and mate relationships. Prairie vole mate bonds are dopamine-dependent, unlike meadow vole peer relationships, indicating potential differences in the mechanisms and motivation supporting these relationships within and/or across species...
December 7, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Dinggang Zhou, Xiaolan Liu, Shiwu Gao, Jinlong Guo, Yachun Su, Hui Ling, Chunfeng Wang, Zhu Li, Liping Xu, Youxiong Que
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is considered the most globally important sugar-producing crop and raw material for biofuel. Insect attack is a major issue in sugarcane cultivation, resulting in yield losses and sucrose content reductions. Stem borer (Diatraea saccharalis F.) causes serious yield losses in sugarcane worldwide. However, insect-resistant germplasms for sugarcane are not available in any collections all over the world, and the molecular mechanism of insect resistance has not been elucidated...
December 10, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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