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Offspring And (Parents Or Mother)

Michelle Oberman
This article considers the impact of laws and policies that determine who experiences unplanned pregnancy, who has abortions, and how economic status shapes one's response to unplanned pregnancy. There is a well-documented correlation between abortion and poverty: poor women have more abortions than do their richer sisters. Equally well-documented is the correlation between unplanned pregnancy and poverty. Finally, the high cost of motherhood for poor women and their offspring manifests in disproportionately high lifelong rates of poverty, ill-health and mortality for offspring and mothers, alike...
September 2018: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Madhusmita Rout, Sajitha Lulu S
Discerning the relationship between molecules involved in diseases based on their underlying biological mechanisms is one of the greatest challenges in therapeutic development today. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, which adversely affects both mothers and offspring during and after pregnancy. We have constructed two datasets of (GDM associated genes from affected mother and placenta to systematically analyze and evaluate their interactions like gene-gene, gene-protein, gene-microRNA (miRNA), gene-transcription factors, and gene-associated diseases to enhance our current knowledge, which may lead to further advancements in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Daniela Álvarez, Karina Ceballo, Sofía Olguín, Jonathan Martinez-Pinto, Manuel Maliqueo, Daniela Fernandois, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Gonzalo Cruz
Maternal obesity causes a wide range of impairments in offspring, such as metabolic and reproductive dysfunctions. We previously demonstrated that female offspring of obese rats have increased serum estradiol levels during early postnatal life, probably because of decreased hepatic cytochrome P450 3A2 levels, which could lead to early onset of puberty and polycystic ovary condition in adulthood. Using metformin during pregnancy and nursing to improve the metabolic status of obese mothers could prevent the sequence of events that lead to an increase in postnatal serum estradiol levels in female offspring and, hence, reproductive dysfunction...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Edward Ivimey-Cook, Jacob Moorad
Maternal effect senescence has attracted much recent scientific interest. However, the age-related effects of pre- and postnatal maternal age are often conflated, as these naturally originate from the same individual. Additionally, many maternal effect senescence studies fail to account for potential biases associated with selective disappearance. Here we use a cross-fostered laboratory population of a burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, to examine both the effects of female pre- and postnatal maternal age on offspring life-history traits and the postcare outcomes of mothers while accounting for selective disappearance of postnatal caregivers...
November 2018: American Naturalist
Aurélie Cailleau, Daniel Grimanelli, Elodie Blanchet, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Thomas Lenormand
Resource allocation to offspring is the battleground for various intrafamilial conflicts. Understanding these conflicts requires knowledge of how the different actors (mother, siblings with different paternal genotypes) influence resource allocation. In angiosperms, allocation of resources to seeds happens postfertilization, and the paternally inherited genome in offspring can therefore influence resource allocation. However, the precise mode of resource allocation-and, in particular, the occurrence of sibling rivalry-has rarely been investigated in plants...
November 2018: American Naturalist
Soheila Maghami, Homeira Zardooz, Fariba Khodagholi, Fatemeh Binayi, Roya Ranjbar Saber, Mehdi Hedayati, Hedayat Sahraei, Mohammad Ali Ansari
This study explores the effects of maternal separation as a chronic early life stress (ELS) on pancreatic islets insulin content and secretion, and their potential relationship with the hippocampus insulin content and spatial memory in young adulthood. Male rat offspring were divided into two groups: stress (STR) and non-stress (non-STR) groups. The animals of the STR group were separated from their mothers during postnatal days (PND) 1 to 21. During the weaning time, that is, PND-0 to PND-21, the body weight and length of the pups were measured...
2018: PloS One
Jaana I Halonen, Marko Merikukka, Mika Gissler, Martta Kerkelä, Marianna Virtanen, Tiina Ristikari, Heikki Hiilamo, Tea Lallukka
BACKGROUND: Parental mental disorders have been shown to predict offspring's mental health problems. We examined whether pathways from parental mental disorders to offspring's psychiatric work disability in early adulthood are mediated through offspring's mental disorders and social disadvantage in adolescence. METHODS: Study population consisted of the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort. Data on parents' psychiatric care or work disability due to mental diagnosis between 1987 and 2000 and the cohort participants' health and social factors between 2001 and 2005 were derived from administrative national registers...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Mahvash Shere, Tye E Arbuckle, Patricia Monnier, William Fraser, Maria P Velez
OBJECTIVES: Time-to-Pregnancy (TTP) is an epidemiological tool to assess couple fecundity. The finger digit ratio (2D:4D) has been suggested as a marker of androgen exposure in utero. Maternal, paternal, or couple-mediated factors related to fecundity may also have an effect on androgen exposure during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the association between TTP, infertility, or use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and offspring 2D:4D. METHODS: Data from 673 mother-child pairs were collected from questionnaires in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study across 10 cities in Canada...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Joanne A McVeigh, Erin K Howie, Kun Zhu, John P Walsh, Leon Straker
There is a critical need for longitudinal cohort studies to consider the association of the cumulative exposure of physical activity during childhood and adolescence and bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organized sports trajectories (that capture distinct and potentially meaningful patterns over critical developmental periods) and bone mass at age 20 years. Participation in organized sport was recorded by parental report at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years in 984 offspring (48% female) of a pregnancy cohort (Raine Study)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Yan Zhang, Beibei Wang, Shuaizheng Qi, Mingliang Dong, Zewei Wang, Yixuan Li, Siyuan Chen, Bailian Li, Jinfeng Zhang
Cell-size enlargement plays a pivotal role in increasing the leaf size of triploid poplar, and polyploidization could change leaf shape. ABP1 was highly expressed in triploid plants and positively related to cell size. In the plant kingdom, the leaf is the most important energy production organ, and polyploidy often exhibits a "Gigas" effect on leaf size, which benefits agriculture and forestry. However, little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the leaf size superiority of polyploid woody plants...
October 16, 2018: Planta
Liubov S Arbeeva, Heidi A Hanson, Konstantin G Arbeev, Alexander M Kulminski, Eric Stallard, Svetlana V Ukraintseva, Deqing Wu, Robert M Boudreau, Michael A Province, Ken R Smith, Anatoliy I Yashin
The Family Longevity Selection Score (FLoSS) was used to select families for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) but has never been validated in other populations. The goal of this paper is to validate how well the FLoSS-based selection procedure works in an independent dataset. In this paper, we computed FLoSS using the lifespan data of 234,155 individuals from a large comprehensive genealogically-based resource, the Utah Population Database (UPDB), born between 1779 and 1910 with mortality follow-up through 2012-2013...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
M S Vieira-Rocha, P Rodriguez-Rodriguez, J B Sousa, M C Gonzalez, S M Arribas, A L Lopez de Pablo, C Diniz
Fetal stress increases the susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in adult age, including hypertension, a process known as fetal programming of hypertension (FPH). This study intends to investigate the interplay between vascular sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and RAS, namely the neuromodulatory role exerted by Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor AT1 in FPH, and respective contribution for hypertension. METHODS: 6-month old Sprague-Dawley offspring from mothers fed ad-libitum (CONTROL) or with 50% intake during the second half of gestation (maternal undernutrition, MUN) were used...
October 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Irene Lacal, Rossella Ventura
Parents' stressful experiences can influence an offspring's vulnerability to many pathological conditions, including psychopathologies, and their effects may even endure for several generations. Nevertheless, the cause of this phenomenon has not been determined, and only recently have scientists turned to epigenetics to answer this question. There is extensive literature on epigenetics, but no consensus exists with regard to how and what can (and must) be considered to study and define epigenetics processes and their inheritance...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Stacy Rosenbaum, Linda Vigilant, Christopher W Kuzawa, Tara S Stoinski
Socioecological theory predicts that male parenting among mammals should be rare due to the large payoffs of prioritizing mating effort over parenting. Although these predictions are generally met, in some promiscuous primate species males overcome this by identifying their offspring, and providing benefits such as protection and resource access. Mountain gorillas, which often organize into multi-male groups, are an intriguing exception. Males frequently affiliate with infants despite not discriminating their own from other males' offspring, raising questions about the function of this behavior...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xuesong Liu, Qiuhui Pan, Mingfeng He
In this paper, we proposed a frequency dependent fitness-based process, which is an extension of both the standard Moran process and the Wright-Fisher process. Some individuals are selected into a parent's pool and reproduce. Then the offspring is selected to replace individuals in the entire parent generation. We explored the influence of the size of parent pool and the number of offspring on a single cooperator's fixation. The less offspring leads to higher fixation probability of s single cooperator. Meanwhile, the fixation probability decreases with the growth of the local level...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Elizabeth M Curtis, Nevena Krstic, Eloïse Cook, Stefania D'Angelo, Sarah R Crozier, Rebecca J Moon, Robert Murray, Emma Garratt, Paula Costello, Jane Cleal, Brogan Ashley, Nicholas J Bishop, Stephen Kennedy, Aris T Papageorghiou, Inez Schoenmakers, Robert Fraser, Saurabh V Gandhi, Ann Prentice, M Kassim Javaid, Hazel M Inskip, Keith M Godfrey, Christopher G Bell, Karen A Lillycrop, Cyrus Cooper, Nicholas C Harvey
We have previously demonstrated inverse associations between maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D status and perinatal DNA methylation at the retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA) locus and between RXRA methylation and offspring bone mass. We therefore used an existing randomised trial to test the hypothesis that maternal gestational vitamin D supplementation would lead to reduced perinatal RXRA locus DNA methylation. The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS) was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 1000IU/day cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks' gestation until delivery...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Tonje Holte Stea, Eline Tønnesson Tveter, Saskia J Te Velde, Frøydis Nordgård Vik, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic presents a major public health challenge, and a poor diet quality has been identified as one of the most important contributing factors. Whereas a sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several positive health outcomes, the long-term effect on overweight and obesity is unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate if one year with free school fruit had any effect on weight status 14 years later, and if it affected the birth weight of the participants' children...
2018: PloS One
Simon J Tunster, Raquel Boqué-Sastre, Gráinne I McNamara, Susan M Hunter, Hugo D J Creeth, Rosalind M John
Hormones from the fetally derived placenta signal to the mother throughout pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth and prepare the mother for her new role in nurturing her offspring. Through evolution, placental hormones have under gone remarkable diversification and species-specific expansions thought to be due to constant rebalancing of resource allocation between mother and offspring. Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic process in which parental germlines silence genes in the offspring, is thought to be the physical embodiment of a second conflicting interest, between the male and female mammal...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Georgios Doulaveris, Tomi T Kanninen
Hyperlipidemia is a known cause of atherosclerosis and directly contributes to the current epidemic in cardio-vascular disease. Pregnancy is typified by an increase in serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides pushed by the rise in estrogen, progesterone and lactogen. Mobilization of stored fat depots in late pregnancy may provide a reservoir of fatty acids for fetal growth and placental tissue steroid synthesis. This physiologic increase in lipids performs an essential role during pregnancy; however, elevated levels of lipids in predisposed women or with familiar forms of hyperlipidemia can carry increased risk for maternal-fetal complications...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Jorunn Kirkeleit, Trond Riise, Tone Bjørge, David C Christiani, Magne Bråtveit, Andrea Baccarelli, Stefano Mattioli, Bjørg Eli Hollund, Bjørn Tore Gjertsen
BACKGROUND: In the prospective population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), comprising 113 754 offspring, we investigated the association between parental exposure to "gasoline or exhaust", as a proxy for benzene exposure, and childhood leukaemia. METHODS: Around gestational week 17, mothers and fathers responded to a questionnaire on exposure to various agents during the last 6 months and 6 months  pre-conception, respectively. Benzene exposure was assessed through self-reported exposure to "gasoline or exhaust"...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
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