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Offspring And (Parents Or Mother)

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Elena Ruiz de la Torre, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Scott K Sakaluk, Sandra Steiger
In animal families, parents are expected to adapt to their offspring's traits, and offspring, in turn, are expected to adapt to the environment circumscribed by their parents. However, whether such coevolutionary trajectories differ between closely related species is poorly understood. Here, we employ interspecific cross-fostering in three species of burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis , Nicrophorus pustulatus and Nicrophorus vespilloides , to test for divergent co-adaptation among species with different degrees of offspring dependency on parental care, and to test whether they are able to discriminate against interspecific parasites...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shelbi L Russell, Nassim Lemseffer, William T Sullivan
Widespread success of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia across insects and nematodes is due to efficient vertical transmission and reproductive manipulations. Many strains, including wMel from Drosophila melanogaster, exhibit a specific concentration to the germplasm at the posterior pole of the mature oocyte, thereby ensuring high fidelity of parent-offspring transmission. Transport of Wolbachia to the pole relies on microtubules and the plus-end directed motor kinesin heavy chain (KHC). However, the mechanisms mediating Wolbachia's association with KHC remain unknown...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yeela Ben Naftali, Irit Chermesh, Ido Solt, Yolanda Friedrich, Lior Lowenstein
BACKGROUND: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. OBJECTIVES: To compare the achievement of recommended GWG and lifestyle factors in women with high-risk versus normal-risk pregnancies. METHODS: Pregnant women hospitalized in a gynecological and obstetrics department and pregnant women who arrived at a community clinic for a routine checkup were interviewed and completed questionnaires relating to weight gain and lifestyle factors (e...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
María Limones, Julio Sevillano, María G Sánchez-Alonso, Emilio Herrera, María Del Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have investigated the effect of maternal nutrition on metabolic programming of the offspring, the question whether a nutritional insult during early gestation favours an altered metabolic state of the mother that persists during the remainder period of pregnancy, when foetal growth is maximal, remains to be answered. METHODS: To address this issue, we analysed the effect of 40% food restriction during the first 12 days of gestation on glucose tolerance, as well as on liver and adipose tissue metabolism, in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Kylie Zirbel, Bradley Eastmond, Barry W Alto
The environmental conditions experienced by parents can influence offspring phenotype along with the conditions experienced by offspring. These parental effects are clear in organisms that display parental care and are less clear in other organisms. Here, we consider effects of parental and offspring larval nutrition on offspring development time, survivorship and infection with dengue virus in Aedes aegypti , the mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika. Parents were raised on either high or low larval detritus inputs with subsequent offspring being divided into two groups, one receiving high nutrients and the other low...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sofia Nahavandi, Jas-Mine Seah, Alexis Shub, Christine Houlihan, Elif I Ekinci
Large birthweight, or macrosomia, is one of the commonest complications for pregnancies affected by diabetes. As macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of a number of adverse outcomes for both the mother and offspring, accurate antenatal prediction of fetal macrosomia could be beneficial in guiding appropriate models of care and interventions that may avoid or reduce these associated risks. However, current prediction strategies which include physical examination and ultrasound assessment, are imprecise...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Elisa Karen Silva Ramos, Paola Visnardi Fassina, Michelle Andrade Lemos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gideon Koren, Asher Ornoy
Depression occurs during pregnancy in 3.9-12.8% of the women. The different serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are metabolized in the liver by CYP450 enzymes. CYP2D6 metabolizes paroxetine, fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine, while CYP2C19 deactivates citalopram and escitalopram. Polymorphisms in these enzymes change the metabolic clearance and levels of these drugs. Higher metabolism of most SRIs in late pregnancy results in lower maternal levels, which could result in decreased efficacy. Very few studies have addressed the potential interaction between pregnancy-induced increase in 2D6 metabolism and specific genotypes of the women, suggesting that ultra-rapid and extensive metabolizers exhibit lower serum concentrations than the other slower genotypes...
August 14, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Michel Hermans, Sylvie Ahn, Michel Rousseau
BACKGROUND: To establish the isolated and crossed impacts of familial histories (FH) of early-onset coronary heart disease (EOCHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on their diabetic offsprings. METHODS: The cardiometabolic phenotype of 1098 T2DM patients was analysed according to FHs of DM and/or EOCHD, including body composition, fasting insulinemia, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function (BCF), lipids, lipoprotein(a), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) number/functionality, and micro-/macrovascular complications...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Joyce Man, Maria Kangas
BACKGROUND: Carer mental health literacy and help seeking are areas that are not well researched in the intellectual disability field. This study aimed to explore the above including service utilization experiences of Australian parents with an offspring with an intellectual disability and a comorbid psychiatric disorder. METHOD: Forty-one parents took part in an online survey assessing satisfaction and helpfulness ratings of received services. Twenty-six parents also completed items to assess mental health literacy and attitudinal barriers to help seeking...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Gregory Costain, Michal Inbar-Feigenberg, Maha Saleh, Shimrit Yaniv-Salem, Greg Ryan, Eric Morgen, Elaine S Goh, Gen Nishimura, David Chitayat
Traditional approaches to prenatal genetic diagnosis for common presentations such as short femurs or intrauterine growth restriction are imperfect, and whole-exome sequencing is an emerging option. Mucolipidosis type II (I-cell disease) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with the potential for prenatal-onset skeletal and placental manifestations. We describe the prenatal signs in two recent unrelated patients with confirmed diagnoses soon after birth. In both cases, parents were consanguineous but there was no known family history of mucolipidosis type II...
September 2018: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Tracy A Becerra-Culqui, Darios Getahun, Vicki Chiu, Lina S Sy, Hung Fu Tseng
: media-1vid110.1542/5803567555001PEDS-VA_2018-0120 Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing vaccination of pregnant women makes it important to assess safety events potentially linked to prenatal vaccination. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of mother-child pairs with deliveries January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals...
August 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Arun Sethuraman
Estimating genetic relatedness, and inbreeding coefficients is important to the fields of quantitative genetics, conservation, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and population genetics. Traditional estimators of genetic relatedness assume an underlying model of population structure. Each individual is assigned to a population, depending on a priori assumptions about geographical location of sampling, proximity, or genetic similarity. But often, this population assignment is unknown and assumptions about assignment can lead to erroneous estimates of genetic relatedness...
August 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Breetha R, Ramaprasad Tr
This study addresses the effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in maternal dyslipidemia induced inflammation over three generation in rats. The detailed protocol for animal feeding and mating is described in the methodology. Placenta and fetal liver were isolated on the eighteenth day of gestation and delivered pups after lactation were kept on their maternal diets. Compared to control and experimental groups, high-fat fed rats (HFL) had a higher level of cytokines and eicosanoids in serum (p < 0.05). Liver and uterine expression of cPLA-2, Cox-2, 5-Lox, EP-1, BLT-1, and ICAM-1 were higher (p < 0...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
A A Adane, G D Mishra, L R Tooth
There is limited evidence on the association between maternal preconception body mass index (BMI) trajectories and pregnancy complications and child development. This study examined the relationships of maternal BMI trajectories, diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and offspring's childhood physical and cognitive development. Data were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and the Mothers and their Children's Health study (n=771). Women's preconception BMI trajectories were identified using group-based trajectory modelling...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Maki Kawasaki, Naoko Arata, Yoshihiro Ogawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes and obesity during childhood, puberty, and adulthood have become more common. This trend presents a global problem in terms of public health and health economics. Associations between intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia, obesity, and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in offspring have been reported in populations at high risk of diabetes such as Pima Indians, but these associations have not been established in other groups. In this review, we summarize the evidence on obesity and AGT in the offspring of mothers with diabetes...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Elizabeth Craun, Kathryn Lachance, Catherine Williams, Maria M Wong
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has found mixed results when assessing the association between a parent's history of depressive symptoms and a child's abilities on measures of executive functioning. The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon these findings by evaluating the influence of a parent's depressive symptoms on a young person's executive functioning. METHOD: As part of a larger study, 135 children (54.8% female, aged 8-12) and one biological parent completed diagnostic screening interviews...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Chung Eun Lee, Meghan M Burke, Catherine K Arnold, Aleksa Owen
BACKGROUND: Parents often face many barriers when taking care of their offspring with disabilities. In childhood, support needs vary with families of children with Down syndrome often reporting less caregiving challenges. However, it is unclear whether support needs vary in adulthood. This study compared parents of adults with Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) regarding support needs of their offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and their families...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
G Kalayci, R C Ozturk, E Capkin, I Altinok
We tested for reproductive isolation between Salmo trutta abanticus, S.t. labrax, S.t. caspius and S.t. fario by conducting crosses to produce F1 and F2 offspring. We also estimated the extent of genetic divergence between all three entities by examining sequence variation across the coI, d-loop and cytb mitochondrial genes. All of the F1 cross-types were successfully produced. After 2 years of culturing, F2 generation were produced as well. Fertilization, hatching and survival rates and hatching performance of F1 and F2 generations were evaluated...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
You Lv, Zi Yan, Xue Zhao, Xiaokun Gang, Guangyu He, Lin Sun, Zhuo Li, Guixia Wang
Metabolic diseases such as gestational diabetes mellitus and obesity during pregnancy have become severe health issues due to adverse pregnant outcomes in recent years. Maternal metabolic disorders can influence the long-term health of mothers and their offspring. Current evidence demonstrated that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction during gestation. Maternal status is associated with alterations in the compositions and diversity of the intestinal microbiota community during gestation...
August 13, 2018: Food & Function
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