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Eva Absmeier, Christian Becke, Jan Wollenhaupt, Karine F Santos, Markus C Wahl
RNA helicase Brr2 is implicated in multiple phases of pre-mRNA splicing and thus requires tight regulation. Brr2 can be auto-inhibited via a large N-terminal region folding back onto its helicase core and auto-activated by a catalytically inactive C-terminal helicase cassette. Furthermore, it can be regulated in trans by the Jab1 domain of the Prp8 protein, which can inhibit Brr2 by intermittently inserting a C-terminal tail in the enzyme's RNA-binding tunnel or activate the helicase after removal of this tail...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
Eva Absmeier, Karine F Santos, Markus C Wahl
Pre-mRNA splicing entails the stepwise assembly of an inactive spliceosome, its catalytic activation, splicing catalysis and spliceosome disassembly. Transitions in this reaction cycle are accompanied by compositional and conformational rearrangements of the underlying RNA-protein interaction networks, which are driven and controlled by eight conserved superfamily 2 RNA helicases. The Ski2-like helicase, Brr2, provides the key remodeling activity during spliceosome activation and is additionally implicated in the catalytic and disassembly phases of splicing, indicating that Brr2 needs to be tightly regulated during splicing...
October 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
Laure D Sultan, Daria Mileshina, Felix Grewe, Katarzyna Rolle, Sivan Abudraham, Paweł Głodowicz, Adnan Khan Niazi, Ido Keren, Sofia Shevtsov, Liron Klipcan, Jan Barciszewski, Jeffrey P Mower, Andre Dietrich, Oren Ostersetzer
Group II introns are large catalytic RNAs that are ancestrally related to nuclear spliceosomal introns. Sequences corresponding to group II RNAs are found in many prokaryotes and are particularly prevalent within plants organellar genomes. Proteins encoded within the introns themselves (maturases) facilitate the splicing of their own host pre-RNAs. Mitochondrial introns in plants have diverged considerably in sequence and have lost their maturases. In angiosperms, only a single maturase has been retained in the mitochondrial DNA: the matR gene found within NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) intron 4...
October 19, 2016: Plant Cell
Reinhard Rauhut, Patrizia Fabrizio, Olexandr Dybkov, Klaus Hartmuth, Vladimir Pena, Ashwin Chari, Vinay Kumar, Chung-Tien Lee, Henning Urlaub, Berthold Kastner, Holger Stark, Reinhard Lührmann
The activated spliceosome (B(act)) is in a catalytically inactive state and is remodeled into a catalytically active machine by the RNA helicase Prp2, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we describe a 3D electron cryomicroscopy structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae B(act) complex at 5.8-angstrom resolution. Our model reveals that in B(act), the catalytic U2/U6 RNA-Prp8 ribonucleoprotein core is already established, and the 5' splice site (ss) is oriented for step 1 catalysis but occluded by protein. The first-step nucleophile-the branchsite adenosine-is sequestered within the Hsh155 HEAT domain and is held 50 angstroms away from the 5'ss...
September 23, 2016: Science
Wojciech P Galej, Max E Wilkinson, Sebastian M Fica, Chris Oubridge, Andrew J Newman, Kiyoshi Nagai
Pre-mRNA splicing proceeds by two consecutive trans-esterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. We present the 3.8 Å cryo-EM structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5'-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg(2+) site in the U2/U6 snRNA triplex, and the 5'-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2'OH. The 5'-exon is held between the Prp8 amino-terminal and Linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1...
July 26, 2016: Nature
Ruixue Wan, Chuangye Yan, Rui Bai, Gaoxingyu Huang, Yigong Shi
Each cycle of pre-messenger RNA splicing, carried out by the spliceosome, comprises two sequential transesterification reactions, which result in the removal of an intron and the joining of two exons. Here we report an atomic structure of a catalytic step I spliceosome (known as the C complex) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy at an average resolution of 3.4 angstroms. In the structure, the 2'-OH of the invariant adenine nucleotide in the branch point sequence (BPS) is covalently joined to the phosphate at the 5' end of the 5' splice site (5'SS), forming an intron lariat...
August 26, 2016: Science
Chuangye Yan, Ruixue Wan, Rui Bai, Gaoxingyu Huang, Yigong Shi
Pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is carried out by the spliceosome, which undergoes an intricate assembly and activation process. Here, we report an atomic structure of an activated spliceosome (known as the B(act) complex) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, determined by cryo-electron microscopy at an average resolution of 3.52 angstroms. The final refined model contains U2 and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), nineteen complex (NTC), NTC-related (NTR) protein, and a 71-nucleotide pre-mRNA molecule, which amount to 13,505 amino acids from 38 proteins and a combined molecular mass of about 1...
August 26, 2016: Science
Chengfu Sun, Norbert Rigo, Patrizia Fabrizio, Berthold Kastner, Reinhard Lührmann
We have elucidated the spatial arrangement of proteins and snRNP subunits within the purified spliceosomal B(act) complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using negative-stain immunoelectron microscopy. The B(act) spliceosome exhibits a mushroom-like shape with a main body connected to a foot and a steep and a shallow slope. The U5 core components, including proteins Snu114 and Prp8, are located in the main body and foot, while Brr2 is on the shallow slope. U2 snRNP components and the RNA helicase Prp2 were predominantly located in the upper regions of both slopes...
September 2016: RNA
Matthias Theuser, Claudia Höbartner, Markus C Wahl, Karine F Santos
The Brr2 RNA helicase disrupts the U4/U6 di-small nuclear RNA-protein complex (di-snRNP) during spliceosome activation via ATP-driven translocation on the U4 snRNA strand. However, it is unclear how bound proteins influence U4/U6 unwinding, which regions of the U4/U6 duplex the helicase actively unwinds, and whether U4/U6 components are released as individual molecules or as subcomplexes. Here, we set up a recombinant Brr2-mediated U4/U6 di-snRNP disruption system, showing that sequential addition of the U4/U6 proteins small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein 1 (Snu13), pre-mRNA processing factor 31 (Prp31), and Prp3 to U4/U6 di-snRNA leads to a stepwise decrease of Brr2-mediated U4/U6 unwinding, but that unwinding is largely restored by a Brr2 cofactor, the C-terminal Jab1/MPN domain of the Prp8 protein...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chen Zhao, Anna Marie Pyle
Group II introns are self-splicing ribozymes that are essential in many organisms, and they have been hypothesized to share a common evolutionary ancestor with the spliceosome. Although structural similarity of RNA components supports this connection, it is of interest to determine whether associated protein factors also share an evolutionary heritage. Here we present the crystal structures of reverse transcriptase (RT) domains from two group II intron-encoded proteins (maturases) from Roseburia intestinalis and Eubacterium rectale, obtained at 1...
June 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Guosheng Qu, Prem Singh Kaushal, Jia Wang, Hideki Shigematsu, Carol Lyn Piazza, Rajendra Kumar Agrawal, Marlene Belfort, Hong-Wei Wang
Bacterial group II introns are large catalytic RNAs related to nuclear spliceosomal introns and eukaryotic retrotransposons. They self-splice, yielding mature RNA, and integrate into DNA as retroelements. A fully active group II intron forms a ribonucleoprotein complex comprising the intron ribozyme and an intron-encoded protein that performs multiple activities including reverse transcription, in which intron RNA is copied into the DNA target. Here we report cryo-EM structures of an endogenously spliced Lactococcus lactis group IIA intron in its ribonucleoprotein complex form at 3...
June 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Xian Deng, Tiancong Lu, Lulu Wang, Lianfeng Gu, Jing Sun, Xiangfeng Kong, Chunyan Liu, Xiaofeng Cao
Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is involved in a multitude of biological processes in eukaryotes. Symmetric arginine dimethylation mediated by PRMT5 modulates constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing of diverse genes to regulate normal growth and development in multiple species; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. A genetic screen for suppressors of an Arabidopsis symmetric arginine dimethyltransferase mutant, atprmt5, identified two gain-of-function alleles of pre-mRNA processing factor 8 gene (prp8-8 and prp8-9), the highly conserved core component of the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) and the spliceosome...
May 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sarah Ledoux, Christine Guthrie
Brr2 is an RNA-dependent ATPase required to unwind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex during spliceosome assembly. Mutations within the ratchet helix of the Brr2 RNA binding channel result in a form of degenerative human blindness known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The biochemical consequences of these mutations on Brr2's RNA binding, helicase, and ATPase activity have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we identified the largest construct of Brr2 that is soluble in vitro, which truncates the first 247 amino acids of the N terminus (Δ247-Brr2), to characterize the effects of the RP mutations on Brr2 activity...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xuli Gao, Qiaojun Jin, Cong Jiang, Yang Li, Chaohui Li, Huiquan Liu, Zhensheng Kang, Jin-Rong Xu
PRP4 encodes the only kinase among the spliceosome components. Although it is an essential gene in the fission yeast and other eukaryotic organisms, the Fgprp4 mutant was viable in the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. Deletion of FgPRP4 did not block intron splicing but affected intron splicing efficiency in over 60% of the F. graminearum genes. The Fgprp4 mutant had severe growth defects and produced spontaneous suppressors that were recovered in growth rate. Suppressor mutations were identified in the PRP6, PRP31, BRR2, and PRP8 orthologs in nine suppressor strains by sequencing analysis with candidate tri-snRNP component genes...
April 2016: PLoS Genetics
Megan Mayerle, Christine Guthrie
Pre-mRNA splicing must occur with high fidelity and efficiency for proper gene expression. The spliceosome uses DExD/H box helicases to promote on-pathway interactions while simultaneously minimizing errors. Prp8 and Snu114, an EF2-like GTPase, regulate the activity of the Brr2 helicase, promoting RNA unwinding by Brr2 at appropriate points in the splicing cycle and repressing it at others. Mutations linked to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease that causes blindness in humans, map to the Brr2 regulatory region of Prp8...
May 2016: RNA
Dmitry E Agafonov, Berthold Kastner, Olexandr Dybkov, Romina V Hofele, Wen-Ti Liu, Henning Urlaub, Reinhard Lührmann, Holger Stark
The U4/U6.U5 triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP) is a major spliceosome building block. We obtained a three-dimensional structure of the 1.8-megadalton human tri-snRNP at a resolution of 7 angstroms using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We fit all known high-resolution structures of tri-snRNP components into the EM density map and validated them by protein cross-linking. Our model reveals how the spatial organization of Brr2 RNA helicase prevents premature U4/U6 RNA unwinding in isolated human tri-snRNPs and how the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-like protein Sad1 likely tethers the helicase Brr2 to its preactivation position...
March 25, 2016: Science
Thi Hoang Duong Nguyen, Wojciech P Galej, Xiao-chen Bai, Chris Oubridge, Andrew J Newman, Sjors H W Scheres, Kiyoshi Nagai
U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP represents a substantial part of the spliceosome before activation. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP at 3.7 Å resolution led to an essentially complete atomic model comprising 30 proteins plus U4/U6 and U5 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The structure reveals striking interweaving interactions of the protein and RNA components, including extended polypeptides penetrating into subunit interfaces. The invariant ACAGAGA sequence of U6 snRNA, which base-pairs with the 5'-splice site during catalytic activation, forms a hairpin stabilized by Dib1 and Prp8 while the adjacent nucleotides interact with the exon binding loop 1 of U5 snRNA...
February 18, 2016: Nature
Ruixue Wan, Chuangye Yan, Rui Bai, Lin Wang, Min Huang, Catherine C L Wong, Yigong Shi
Splicing of precursor messenger RNA is accomplished by a dynamic megacomplex known as the spliceosome. Assembly of a functional spliceosome requires a preassembled U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex, which comprises the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), the U4 and U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) duplex, and a number of protein factors. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP at an overall resolution of 3.8 angstroms by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy...
January 29, 2016: Science
Rupali Malik, Malini R Capoor, Ilavarasi Vanidassane, Arun Gogna, Avninder Singh, Biswajit Sen, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Prasanna Honnavar, Sunita Gupta, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
We report here the first case of disseminated Emmonsia pasteuriana infection in a patient with AIDS in India. The patient presented with weight loss, dyspnoea, left-sided chest pain and multiple non-tender skin lesions over face and body for 3 months. Disseminated emmonsiosis was diagnosed on microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin biopsy and needle aspirate of lung consolidation. It was confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, beta tubulin, actin, and intein PRP8. The patient responded to amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy...
February 2016: Mycoses
Eva Absmeier, Jan Wollenhaupt, Sina Mozaffari-Jovin, Christian Becke, Chung-Tien Lee, Marco Preussner, Florian Heyd, Henning Urlaub, Reinhard Lührmann, Karine F Santos, Markus C Wahl
The Brr2 helicase provides the key remodeling activity for spliceosome catalytic activation, during which it disrupts the U4/U6 di-snRNP (small nuclear RNA protein), and its activity has to be tightly regulated. Brr2 exhibits an unusual architecture, including an ∼ 500-residue N-terminal region, whose functions and molecular mechanisms are presently unknown, followed by a tandem array of structurally similar helicase units (cassettes), only the first of which is catalytically active. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis of full-length Brr2 in complex with a regulatory Jab1/MPN domain of the Prp8 protein and by cross-linking/mass spectrometry of isolated Brr2 that the Brr2 N-terminal region encompasses two folded domains and adjacent linear elements that clamp and interconnect the helicase cassettes...
December 15, 2015: Genes & Development
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