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nature reviews cancer

Patricia Tai, Joseph Au
There are many different types of skin tumors in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The natural course and treatment varies according to the histological type. This review summarizes clinical experience for treatment decision. Contemporary radiotherapy and systemic therapy are improving. Landmark studies for basal cell and Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) trigger further research and impetus for improving treatment outcome. Avelumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab appear to be promising for treatment of advanced MCCs and adjuvant trials are underway...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Hua Wang, David J Mooney
The past decade has witnessed the accelerating development of immunotherapies for cancer treatment. Immune checkpoint blockade therapies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy against a variety of cancers. However, issues including life-threatening off-target side effects, long processing times, limited patient responses and high cost still limit the clinical utility of cancer immunotherapies. Biomaterial carriers of these therapies, though, enable one to troubleshoot the delivery issues, amplify immunomodulatory effects, integrate the synergistic effect of different molecules and, more importantly, home and manipulate immune cells in vivo...
August 13, 2018: Nature Materials
Michiel Remmerie, Veerle Janssens
Type II endometrial carcinomas (ECs) are responsible for most endometrial cancer-related deaths due to their aggressive nature, late stage detection and high tolerance for standard therapies. However, there are no targeted therapies for type II ECs, and they are still treated the same way as the clinically indolent and easily treatable type I ECs. Therefore, type II ECs are in need of new treatment options. More recently, molecular analysis of endometrial cancer revealed phosphorylation-dependent oncogenic signalling in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to be most frequently altered in type II ECs...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abhishek Manoj Ranaware, Kishore Banik, Vishwas Deshpande, Ganesan Padmavathi, Nand Kishor Roy, Gautam Sethi, Lu Fan, Alan Prem Kumar, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The past few decades have witnessed widespread research to challenge carcinogenesis; however, it remains one of the most important health concerns with the worst prognosis and diagnosis. Increasing lines of evidence clearly show that the rate of cancer incidence will increase in future and will create global havoc, designating it as an epidemic. Conventional chemotherapeutics and treatment with synthetic disciplines are often associated with adverse side effects and development of chemoresistance. Thus, discovering novel economic and patient friendly drugs that are safe and efficacious is warranted...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Danila Cianciosi, Alfonso Varela-Lopez, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, JiaoJiao Zhang, José L Quiles, Seyed F Nabav, Maurizio Battino, Francesca Giampieri
Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) or Tumor-Initiating Cells (TICs) are a small sub-population of cells within the tumor, able to give chemio- and radio-resistance and cause the onset of metastasis and the presence of relapses; for these reasons, they are recently becoming a potential target for anticancer therapy. One of the main characteristics of these cells is the self-renewal through the capability of modulating different molecular signalling pathways, including Wnt/β-Catenin, Sonic Hedgehog and Notch pathways...
August 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Erfaneh Ghassami, Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri
BACKGROUND: Among the numerous bio-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems developed recently, redox-triggered release of molecular payloads have gained great deal of attention, especially in the field of anticancer drug delivery. In most cases, these systems rely on disulfide bonds located either in the matrix cross-link, or in auxiliary chains to achieve stimuli-responsive drug release. These bonds keep their stability in extracellular environments, yet, rapidly break by thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in the cytosol, due to the presence of greater levels of glutathione...
August 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Waqar Ali, Atta Rasool, Muhammad Junaid, Hua Zhang
Arsenic(As)-mediated contamination of groundwater resources in different parts of the world is a consequence of natural or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on the environment and human health. Millions of people from different countries are unfortunately consuming groundwater contaminated with alarming levels of As. Exposure to the high concentration of As for an extended period of time can cause devastating effects on human health such as skin lesions, cardiac disorders, discolouration and cancer...
August 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Daniel Dantzic, Pawan Noel, Fabrice Merien, Dong-Xu Liu, Jun Lu, Haiyong Han, Mark J McKeage, Yan Li
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major hurdle which must be overcome to effectively treat cancer. ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) play pivotal roles in drug absorption and disposition, and overexpression of ABC transporters has been shown to attenuate cellular/tissue drug accumulation and thus increase MDR across a variety of cancers. Overcoming MDR is one desired approach to improving the survival rate of patients. To date, a number of modulators have been identified which block the function and/or decrease the expression of ABC transporters, thereby restoring the efficacy of a range of anticancer drugs...
August 9, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Altaf Mohammed, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Venkateshwar Madka, Chinthalapally V Rao
Substantial efforts are underway for prevention of early stages or recurrence of colorectal cancers (CRC) or new polyp formation by chemoprevention strategies. Several epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies to date have supported the chemopreventive potentials of several targeted drug classes including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (aspirin, naproxen, sulindac, celecoxib, and licofelone), statins and other natural agents-both individually, and in combinations. Most preclinical trials although were efficacious, only few agents entered clinical trials and have been proven to be potential chemopreventive agents for colon cancer...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Virginia Palomar Coloma, Pamela Bravo, Naima Lezghed, Lamia Mayache-Badis, Ruth Gabriela Herrera Gómez, Mariana Iacob, Laurence Nicouleau, Romain Desmaris, Yungan Tao, Cristian Leibu, Margarida Matias, Francois Lemare, Caroline Even, Maxime Annereau, Charles Ferté
Background: Cetuximab is crucial in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck of patients. Grade 3-4 cetuximab-induced infusion reactions (CI-IRs) occur in 2% of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the 2.7% CI-IR rate in the EXTREME trial, higher rates were reported in small series of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (6%-18%). There is an urgent need to better appraise the natural history and the predictive factors for CI-IRs in patients with HNSCC exposed to cetuximab...
2018: ESMO Open
Hidayat Hussain, Rene Csuk, Ivan R Green, Ghulam Abbas, Wahid Hussain
Withanolides are C-28 ergostane steroids known to demonstrate some very interesting therapeutic properties. Numerous withanolides have been isolated from a variety of different plant species and can be employed to treat various types of cancers. Withanolides are indeed capable of demonstrating excellent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. Additionally, libraries of prepared withaferin A analogs incorporating an acyl, sulphate, amide and aldehyde functionality have demonstrated the most potential response potentials...
August 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Andrew G Smith, John R Foster
The haem biosynthetic pathway is of fundamental importance for cellular metabolism both for the erythroid and nonerythroid tissues. There are several genetic variants of the pathway in the human population that cause dysfunction of one or other of the enzymes resulting in porphyrias of varying severity. Serious chronic hepatic and systemic diseases may result. Some of these can be precipitated by exposure to drugs including hormones, barbiturates and antibiotics, as well as alcohol and particular chlorinated aromatic chemicals...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
David Gfeller, Michal Bassani-Sternberg
Antigen presentation lies at the heart of immune recognition of infected or malignant cells. For this reason, important efforts have been made to predict which peptides are more likely to bind and be presented by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex at the surface of cells. These predictions have become even more important with the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies that enable researchers and clinicians to rapidly determine the sequences of pathogens (and their multiple variants) or identify non-synonymous genetic alterations in cancer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jamshid Tabeshpour, Soghra Mehri, Fatemeh Shaebani Behbahani, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Vitis vinifera (grape) is one of the "most-produced fruit" in the world. Grape seeds are a valuable source of phenolic compounds including resveratrol (RSV). Grape and one of its biologically active constituents, RSV, exert their protective effects against different natural or chemical toxins which could alter physiological homeostasis through a variety of mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms of actions include increase in superoxide dismutase, hemeoxygenase-1, and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduced glutathione content and decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activation of the nuclear erythroid2-related factor2/ARE pathway...
August 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hamid Mollazadeh, Amir R Afshari, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Nigella sativa ( N. sativa , family Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component (up to 50%) in the essential oil of N. sativa . Also, pinene (up to 15%), p-cymene (40%), thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymol (THY), and dithymoquinone (DTQ) are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
William T Lowrance, Mohammad Hassan Murad, William K Oh, David F Jarrard, Matthew J Resnick, Michael S Cookson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this amendment is to incorporate newly-published literature to provide a rational basis for the management of patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The original systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature yielded 303 studies published from 1996 through 2013. This review informed the majority of the guideline statements from the 2013 guideline. Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions were used for guideline statements lacking sufficient evidence...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Urology
Dario Baratti, Shigeki Kusamura, Domenico Iusco, Christian Cotsoglou, Marcello Guaglio, Luigi Battaglia, Salvatore Virzì, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Marcello Deraco
BACKGROUND: Survival improvements have been reported in selected patients affected by colorectal peritoneal metastases who were undergoing cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy. Treatment of peritoneal metastases associated with extraperitoneal disease is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prognostic impact of a history of extraperitoneal disease that was curatively treated either at the same time as or before the onset of peritoneal metastases...
September 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Xiukun Lin, Ulku Ozbey, Uteuliyev Yerzhan Sabitaliyevich, Rukset Attar, Beraat Ozcelik, Yuanyan Zhang, Mingyue Guo, Minghua Liu, Saleh S Alhewairini, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Maslinic acid (2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenic compound. Maslinic acid is gradually gaining attention as an excellent pharmacologically active product because of its premium biological properties. In this review we will focus on chemopreventive properties of Maslinic acid against different cancers. Seemingly, available data is limited and we have yet to unravel how Maslinic acid therapeutically targeted oncogenic cell signal transduction cascades in different cancers...
July 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Yiji Liao, Kexin Xu
Epigenetics is the main mechanism that controls transcription of specific genes with no changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Epigenetic alterations lead to abnormal gene expression patterns that contribute to carcinogenesis and persist throughout disease progression. Because of the reversible nature, epigenetic modifications emerge as promising anticancer drug targets. Several compounds have been developed to reverse the aberrant activities of enzymes involved in epigenetic regulation, and some of them show encouraging results in both preclinical and clinical studies...
August 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Changmin Kim, Bonglee Kim
Cancer is the second biggest cause of death worldwide. Despite a number of studies being conducted, the effective mechanism for treating cancer has not yet been fully understood. The tumor-microenvironment such as hypoxia, low nutrients could disturb function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to maintain cellular homeostasis, ultimately leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in ER, so-called ER stress. The ER stress has a close relation with cancer. ER stress initiates unfolded protein response (UPR) to re-establish ER homeostasis as an adaptive pathway in cancer...
August 4, 2018: Nutrients
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