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nature reviews cancer

B Smolkova, V Horvathova Kajabova, I Zmetakova, L Kalinkova, G Czanner, A Markova, A Furdova
It has been becoming increasingly clear, that epigenetic deregulation plays fundamental role in cancer. Although the understanding of molecular, genetic and transcriptional alterations involved in the initiation and progression of uveal melanoma (UM) has grown significantly in recent years, little attention has been paid to the role of epigenetic changes. In cancer, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables trans-differentiation of epithelial tumor cells, endowing them with migratory and invasive properties...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
Emily J Koubek, Jillian S Weissenrieder, Jeffrey D Neighbors, Raymond J Hohl
The schweinfurthin family of compounds displays exciting potent and differential cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. Currently, the effect of schweinfurthins on tumor development and progression is being explored in animal models of cancer with promising results. The first schweinfurthin family member, vedelianin, was isolated in 1992, followed by other schweinfurthins in 1998. This opened up the door for the synthesis of additional analogs. At present, the focus of research lies on delineating the mechanism of schweinfurthin action and identifying the nature of sensitivity...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
Junjie Zou, Juanfang Lin, Chao Li, Ruirui Zhao, Lulu Fan, Jesse Yu, Jingwei Shao
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis has emerged as a major public health threat that cause majority of cancer fatalities. Traditional chemotherapeutics have been effective in the past but suffer from low therapeutic efficiency and harmful side-effects. Recently, it has been reported ursolic acid (UA), one of the naturally abundant pentacyclic triterpenes, possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-cancer properties. More importantly, UA has the features of low toxicity, liver protection and the potential of anti-cancer metastasis...
October 16, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Andrea Carcaterra, Jacques Serratrice, Marc Righini, Helia Robert-Ebadi
Idiopathic venous thromboembolic disease may be the first manifestation of a cancer yet undiagnosed. Early detection of neoplasia may allow a timely management and a reduction of mortality. However, the nature and extent of screening for hidden cancer is still debated. The purpose of this article is to review the usefulness of occult cancer screening in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism.
October 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Rafaella Almeida Lima Nunes, Mirian Galliote Morale, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes Silva, Luisa Lina Villa, Lara Termini
Most human papillomavirus infections are readily cleared by the host immune response. However, in some individuals, human papillomavirus can establish a persistent infection. The persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer development. These viruses have developed mechanisms to evade the host immune system, which is an important step in persistence and, ultimately, in tumor development. Several cell types, receptors, transcription factors and inflammatory mediators involved in the antiviral immune response are viral targets and contribute to tumorigenesis...
October 11, 2018: Clinics
Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Younes Ghasemi, Amir Atapour, Ali Mohammad Amani, Amir Savar Dashtaki, Aziz Babapoor, Omid Arjmand
Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable worldwide attention in matter of medical science and disease treatment. Herein, the green synthesis of silver nanomaterials using organic green sources has been evaluated and discussed. These kinds of materials are widely used for treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, cancer and etc due to their elegant properties compared with other chemical ways and drugs. Moreover, the outcome of green-based approaches were compared with chemical procedures and obtained data were examined via various analyses including UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
October 17, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Myxuan Huynh, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eileen Giles, Michala Short, Donna Matthews, Eva Bezak
INTRODUCTION: The most common solid tumours that develop in children are cancers of the central nervous system. Due to the increased rate of survival over the past decades, greater focus has been placed on the minimisation of long term side effects. In childhood cancer survivors, over 60% report one or more radiation-related late toxicities while half of these adverse events are graded as life-threatening or severe. Proton therapy enables high conformity with the planning target volume and a reduction in dose to areas beyond the target...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Cinzia Fionda, Helena Stabile, Rosa Molfetta, Alessandra Soriani, Giovanni Bernardini, Alessandra Zingoni, Angela Gismondi, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni
Natural Killer cells (NK) are innate effector cells with a critical role in immunosurveillance against different kinds of cancer cells, including Multiple Myeloma (MM). However, the number and/or function of these lymphocytes are strongly reduced during MM progression and in advanced clinical stages. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling both MM and NK cell biology have greatly contributed to develop novel and combined therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this incurable hematologic malignancy...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Wade Chun-Wai Suen, Wayne Yuk-Wai Lee, Kam-Tong Leung, Xiao-Hua Pan, Gang Li
NK cell cancer immunotherapy is an emerging anti-tumour therapeutic strategy that explores NK cell stimulation. In this review, we address strategies developed to circumvent limitations to clinical application of NK cell-based therapies, and comprehensively review the design and results of clinical trials conducted in the past 10 years (2008-2018) to test their therapeutic potential. NK cell-based immunotherapy of solid cancers remains controversial, but merit further detailed investigation.
October 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Sadegh Fattahi, Monireh Golpour, Fatemeh Amjadi-Moheb, Marzieh Sharifi-Pasandi, Parastesh Khodadadi, Maryam Pilehchian-Langroudi, Gholam Hossein Ashrafi, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki
Gastric cancer is a major health problem worldwide occupying most frequent causes of cancer-related mortality. In addition to genetic modifications, epigenetic alterations catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are a well-characterized epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The reversible nature of epigenetic alterations and central role of DNA methylation in diverse biological processes provides an opportunity for using DNMT inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In this review, we discussed key factors or mechanisms such as SNPs, infections and genetic modifications that trigger DNMTs level modification in gastric cancer, and their potential roles in cancer progression...
October 16, 2018: Epigenomics
Dorota Kwapisz
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is considered as incurable. The group of patients with oligometastatic disease (a few metastatic lesions and organs involved) apparently have better prognosis. It is claimed that, these patients could be treated with curative intent, and multidisciplinary aggressive approach should be considered. Despite the lack of strong data it is increasingly accepted in clinical practice. Currently, the appropriate candidate would be young woman with good performance status, low tumour burden with long disease-free interval...
October 15, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
David A Woodrum, Akira Kawashima, Krzysztof R Gorny, Lance A Mynderse
In 2018, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that 164,690 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed and 29,430 will die due to the prostate cancer in the United States (Siegel et al., CA Cancer J Clin 67:7-30, 2018). Many men with prostate cancer are often managed with aggressive therapy including radiotherapy or surgery. No matter how expertly done, these therapies carry significant risk and morbidity to the patient's health related quality of life with impact on sexual, urinary and bowel function (Potosky et al...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M R S Siddiqui, C Simillis, J Bhoday, N J Battersby, J Mok, S Rasheed, P Tekkis, A M Abulafi, G Brown
AIM: Although T3 tumour subclassifications have been linked to prognosis, its mandatory adoption in histopathological reports has not been incorporated. This article focusses on the survival outcomes in patients with T3 rectal cancer according to extramural spread beyond the muscularis propria. METHODS: A systematic review of all studies up to January 2016, without language restriction, was identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2016) and Embase (1991-2016)...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jiang-Jiang Qin, Xin Li, Courtney Hunt, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
The p53 tumor suppressor plays a major role in controlling the initiation and development of cancer by regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair. The MDM2 oncogene is a major negative regulator of p53 that inhibits the activity of p53 and reduces its protein stability. MDM2, p53, and the p53-MDM2 pathway represent well-documented targets for preventing and/or treating cancer. Natural products, especially those from medicinal and food plants, are a rich source for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic and preventive agents against human cancers...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Gianluca D'Agostino, Valentina Cecchinato, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
Infiltrating immune cells are a key component of the tumor microenvironment and play central roles in dictating tumor fate, either promoting anti-tumor immune responses, or sustaining tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. A distinctive microenvironment is often associated to different tumor types, with substantial differences in prognosis. The production of a variety of chemotactic factors by cancer and stromal cells orchestrates cell recruitment, local immune responses or cancer progression. In the last decades, different studies have highlighted how chemotactic cues, and in particular chemokines, can act as natural antagonists or induce synergistic effects on selective receptors by forming heterocomplexes, thus shaping migratory responses of immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Subash Chandra Gupta, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Sadhna Aggarwal, Bharat B Aggarwal
Increasing evidence from diverse sources during the past several years has indicated that long-term, low level, chronic inflammation mediates several chronic diseases including cancer, arthritis, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. The inflammatory molecules and transcription factors, adhesion molecules, AP-1, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukins (ILs), 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor (NF)-kB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are molecular links between inflammation and chronic diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zahra Ayati, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri, Mahin Ramezani, Elahe Delshad, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Ahmad Emami
BACKGROUND: The fruit of genus Rosa, known as "rose hip", is frequently used in different traditional medicines. Rose hips have long been used to treat kidney stones, gastroenteric ailments, hypertension and respiratory problems such as bronchitis, cough and cold. AIM: This review focused on the ethnopharmacological uses of rose hip as well as phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. RESULTS: Ethno-medical uses of rose hip have been recorded in many countries since a long time...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a low number of T-cell population under normal conditions, and they play key roles for maintaining immune system in homeostasis. The number of these cells is extensively increased in nearly all cancers, which is for dampening responses from immune system against cancer cells, metastasis, tumor recurrence, and treatment resistance. The interesting point is that apoptotic Tregs are stronger than their live counterparts for suppressing responses from immune system. Tregs within the tumor microenvironment have extensive positive cross-talks with other immunosuppressive cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer cells, macrophage type 2 cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and they have negative interactions with immunostimulatory cells including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
X Gocko, M Leclerq, C Plotton
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit ratio of breast cancer organized screening is the focus of much scientific controversy, especially about overdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to relate methodological discrepancies to variations in rates of overdiagnosis to help build future decision aids and to better communicate with patients. METHODS: A systematic review of methodology was conducted by two investigators who searched Medline and Cochrane databases from 01/01/2004 to 12/31/2016...
October 10, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Xufeng Tao, Lianhong Yin, Lina Xu, Jinyong Peng
Currently, the numbers of patients with cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, stroke and osteoporosis are increasing fast and fast. It's critical necessary to discovery lead compounds for new drug development. Dioscin, one active compound in some medicinal plants, has anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, dioscin has reached more and more attention with its potent effects to treat liver, kidney, brain, stomach and intestine damages, and metabolic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, hyperuricemia as well as its anti-cancer activities through adjusting multiple targets and multiple signals...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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