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nature reviews cancer

Jens H W Pahl, Adelheid Cerwenka, Jing Ni
Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells serving at the front line against infection and cancer. In inflammatory microenvironments, multiple soluble and contact-dependent signals modulate NK cell responsiveness. Besides their innate cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity, it has been uncovered in recent years that NK cells constitute a heterogeneous and versatile cell subset. Persistent memory-like NK populations that mount a robust recall response were reported during viral infection, contact hypersensitivity reactions, and after stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines or activating receptor pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiba Mohammed, Elena Maria Varoni, Andrea Cochis, Massimo Cordaro, Patrizia Gallenzi, Romeo Patini, Edoardo Staderini, Carlo Lajolo, Lia Rimondini, Vincenzo Rocchetti
The human body is naturally colonized by a huge number of different commensal microbial species, in a relatively stable equilibrium. When this microbial community undergoes dysbiosis at any part of the body, it interacts with the innate immune system and results in a poor health status, locally or systemically. Research studies show that bacteria are capable of significantly influencing specific cells of the immune system, resulting in many diseases, including a neoplastic response. Amongst the multiple different types of diseases, pancreatic cancer and liver cirrhosis were significantly considered in this paper, as they are major fatal diseases...
December 11, 2018: Biomedicines
David López-Romero, Jeannett A Izquierdo-Vega, José Antonio Morales-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Germán Chamorro-Cevallos, Manuel Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel Betanzos-Cabrera, Isela Alvarez-Gonzalez, Ángel Morales-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens, or teratogens. Genotoxins are also involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases, including hepatic, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular disorders; diabetes; arthritis; cancer; chronic inflammation; and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens...
December 10, 2018: Nutrients
Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Mariantonia Logozzi, Rossella Di Raimo, Davide Mizzoni, Stefano Fais
Metastatic diffusion is thought to be a multi-step phenomenon involving the release of cells from the primary tumor and their diffusion through the body. Currently, several hypotheses have been put forward in order to explain the origin of cancer metastasis, including epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition, mutagenesis of stem cells, and a facilitating role of macrophages, involving, for example, transformation or fusion hybridization with neoplastic cells. In this paradigm, tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, play a pivotal role in cell communications, delivering a plethora of biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elizabeth M Black, Simona Giunta
Maintenance of an intact genome is essential for cellular and organismal homeostasis. The centromere is a specialized chromosomal locus required for faithful genome inheritance at each round of cell division. Human centromeres are composed of large tandem arrays of repetitive alpha-satellite DNA, which are often sites of aberrant rearrangements that may lead to chromosome fusions and genetic abnormalities. While the centromere has an essential role in chromosome segregation during mitosis, the long and repetitive nature of the highly identical repeats has greatly hindered in-depth genetic studies, and complete annotation of all human centromeres is still lacking...
December 7, 2018: Genes
Xiaofeng Dai, Yi Mei, Dongyan Cai, Weidong Han
CAR-T therapy, grafting the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell to target certain cancer cells, has been recognized as a promising therapeutic approach for cancer control as evidenced by the two CAR-T products proved by FDA in 2017. However, the unique heterogeneity of CAR-T therapy has restricted its production in a limited number of institutions and made it a boutique oncotherapy. By reviewing outstanding issues surrounding the commercial scale production of CAR-T therapy, we conclude that achieving mass production of CAR-T therapy without sacrificing its personalized nature is a worldwild challenge for making CAR-T a key element in the next generation of precision medicine, which can be achieved by standardizing 7 prominent factors that collectively determine the scale of CAR-T manufacturing...
December 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Allen S Ho, Timothy J Daskivich, Wendy L Sacks, Zachary S Zumsteg
Importance: Across many countries, a rapid escalation of the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed, a surge that nonetheless underestimates the true extent of the disease. Most thyroid cancers now diagnosed comprise small, low-risk cancers that are incidentally found and are unlikely to cause harm. In many ways, prostate cancer similarly harbors a well-behaved subclinical reservoir, a long natural history, and superlative outcomes that have made active surveillance the de facto guideline recommendation for low-risk disease...
December 13, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Evelyn Walter
This article sets out to describe different value frameworks in the field of new developments in oncology. Since the costs of new oncological therapies follow a steep path, their implementation and financing demand a thorough assessment. This is an ambitious task due to the complex nature of oncological treatments within overall health policy. Five value frameworks were reviewed: European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework (version 2...
2019: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Eva Eliassen, Emily Lum, Joshua Pritchett, Joseph Ongradi, Gerhard Krueger, John R Crawford, Tuan L Phan, Dharam Ablashi, Stanley David Hudnall
In order to determine the role of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in human disease, several confounding factors, including methods of detection, types of controls, and the ubiquitous nature of the virus, must be considered. This is particularly problematic in the case of cancer, in which rates of detection vary greatly among studies. To determine what part, if any, HHV-6 plays in oncogenesis, a review of the literature was performed. There is evidence that HHV-6 is present in certain types of cancer; however, detection of the virus within tumor cells is insufficient for assigning a direct role of HHV-6 in tumorigenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Charlotte Manogue, Patrick Cotogno, Elisa Ledet, Brian Lewis, Alexander W Wyatt, Oliver Sartor
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Despite the common nature of this disease, there is a poor understanding of biomarkers that predict responsiveness to immunotherapeutic agents such as the programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. Herein we describe a case of complete remission with pembrolizumab therapy in a metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patient with a complex germline MSH2 alteration (Boland inversion) in association with a tumor demonstrating high microsatellite instability...
December 12, 2018: Oncologist
Carlos Roberto Koscky Paier, Sarah Sant'Anna Maranhão, Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro, Lídia Moreira Lima, Danilo Damasceno Rocha, Renan da Silva Santos, Kaio Moraes de Farias, Manoel Odorico de Moraes-Filho, Claudia Pessoa
Cell cycle control genes are frequently mutated in cancer cells, which usually display higher rates of proliferation than normal cells. Dysregulated mitosis leads to genomic instability, which contributes to tumor progression and aggressiveness. Many drugs that disrupt mitosis have been studied because they induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell death. These antitumor compounds are referred to as antimitotics. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are natural products that target microtubules and inhibit mitosis, and their derivatives are among the most commonly used drugs in cancer therapy worldwide...
December 10, 2018: Clinics
Gabriela Ávila Fernandes Silva, Rafaella Almeida Lima Nunes, Mirian Galliote Morale, Enrique Boccardo, Francisco Aguayo, Lara Termini
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of oxidant species. This condition may result in DNA, RNA and protein damage, leading to the accumulation of genetic alterations that can favor malignant transformation. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types is associated with inflammatory responses and reactive oxygen species production. In this context, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and high-risk human papillomavirus can act in a synergistic manner...
December 10, 2018: Clinics
Mahboobeh Fereidan-Esfahani, Tarek Nayfeh, Arthur Warrington, Charles L Howe, Moses Rodriguez
Antibodies are vital components of the adaptive immune system for the recognition and response to foreign antigens. However, some antibodies recognize self-antigens in healthy individuals. These autoreactive antibodies may modulate innate immune functions. IgM natural autoantibodies (IgM-NAAs) are a class of primarily polyreactive immunoglobulins encoded by germline V-gene segments which exhibit low affinity but broad specificity to both foreign and self-antigens. Historically, these autoantibodies were closely associated with autoimmune disease...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura J A Hardwick, Anna Philpott
The use of the Xenopus model system has provided diverse contributions to cancer research, not least because of the striking parallels between tumour pathogenesis and early embryo development. Cell cycle regulation, signalling pathways, and cell behaviours such as migration are frequently perturbed in cancers; all have been investigated using Xenopus , and these developmental events can additionally act as an assay for drug development studies. In this mini-review, we focus our discussion primarily on whole embryo Xenopus models informing cancer biology; the contributions to date and future potential...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhijun Liu, Pengyun Huang, Siukan Law, Haiyan Tian, Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu
Cancer is still a severe threat to the health of people worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of main therapeutic approaches to combat cancer. However, chemotherapy only has a limited success with severe side effects, especially causing damage to normal tissues such as bone marrow, gastrointestine, heart, liver, renal, neuron, and auditory tissues, etc. The side-effects limit clinical outcome of chemotherapy and lower patients' quality of life, and even make many patients discontinue the chemotherapy. Thus, there is a need to explore effective adjuvant strategies to prevent and reduce the chemotherapy-induced side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fiamma Mantovani, Licio Collavin, Giannino Del Sal
Forty years of research have established that the p53 tumor suppressor provides a major barrier to neoplastic transformation and tumor progression by its unique ability to act as an extremely sensitive collector of stress inputs, and to coordinate a complex framework of diverse effector pathways and processes that protect cellular homeostasis and genome stability. Missense mutations in the TP53 gene are extremely widespread in human cancers and give rise to mutant p53 proteins that lose tumor suppressive activities, and some of which exert trans-dominant repression over the wild-type counterpart...
December 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Santiago Lascano, Marie Lopez, Paola B Arimondo
DNA methylation and histone acetylation are widely studied epigenetic modifications. They are involved in numerous pathologies such as cancer, neurological disease, inflammation, obesity, etc. Since the discovery of the epigenome, numerous compounds have been developed to reverse DNA methylation and histone acetylation aberrant profile in diseases. Among them several were inspired by Nature and have a great interest as therapeutic molecules. In the quest of finding new ways to target epigenetic mechanisms, the use of chemical tools is a powerful strategy to better understand epigenetic mechanisms in biological systems...
December 10, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Lisa A Loughney, Malcolm A West, Graham J Kemp, Michael Pw Grocott, Sandy Jack
BACKGROUND: People undergoing multimodal cancer treatment are at an increased risk of adverse events. Physical fitness significantly reduces following cancer treatment, which is related to poor postoperative outcome. Exercise training can stimulate skeletal muscle adaptations, such as increased mitochondrial content and improved oxygen uptake capacity may contribute to improved physical fitness. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal treatment for cancer, including surgery, on physical fitness, safety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue, and postoperative outcomes...
December 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kristin E Rojas, Thais A Fortes, Patrick I Borgen
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. The authors sought to discuss the evidence suggesting that not all DCIS will progress to invasive disease if left untreated. RESULTS: Four lines of evidence align to suggest that not all of this in-situ disease progresses to invasive cancer: its prevalence on screening mammography, studies of missed diagnoses, incidental findings in autopsy specimens, and large retrospective reviews of those treated with excision alone...
December 8, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Lee Kee Chua, Chooi Ling Lim, Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Soi Moi Chye, Rhun Yian Koh
Cancer is a preventable and treatable disease, however, the incidence rates are on the rise. Classical treatment modalities for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these are associated with detrimental side effects such as nausea and emesis. Therefore, researchers currently vest interest in complementary and alternative medicines for cancer treatment and prevention. Plants such as Syzygium sp. are a common basis of complementary medicines due to its abundance of bioactive phytochemicals...
December 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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