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Donna M Zulman, Colin W O'Brien, Cindie Slightam, Jessica Y Breland, David Krauth, Andrea L Nevedal
BACKGROUND: Intensive outpatient programs address the complex medical, social, and behavioral needs of individuals who account for disproportionate healthcare costs. Despite their promise, the impact of these programs is often diminished due to patient engagement challenges (i.e., low rates of patient participation and partnership in care). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify intensive outpatient program features and strategies that increase high-need patient engagement in these programs...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Gustaf Magaard, Per Wester, Richard Levi, Peter Lindvall, Emma Gustafsson, Arzhang Nazemroaya Sedeh, Malin Lönnqvist, Stina Berggren, Kristin Nyman, Xiaolei Hu
BACKGROUND: Unmet rehabilitation needs are common among stroke survivors. We aimed to evaluate whether a comprehensive graphic "Rehab-Compass," a novel combination of structured patient-reported outcome measures, was feasible and useful in facilitating a capture of patients' rehabilitation needs in clinical practice. METHODS: A new graphic overview of broad unmet rehabilitation needs covers deficits in functioning, daily activity, participation, and quality of life...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
James N Kirkpatrick, Hoai T T Nguyen, Loi Do Doan, Thanh T Le, Son Pham Thai, David Adams, Liza Y Sanchez, Nova Sprague, Jill Inafuku, Rachel Quang, Rebecca Hahn, Andrea M Van Hoever, Tu Nguyen, Thanh G Kirkpatrick, Jose Banchs
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies investigating the use of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) in lower and middle-income countries and in medically underserved areas of the United States have demonstrated utility in echocardiographic screening algorithms performed by a variety of operators at different levels of training. No study to date has employed previously untrained nurses in a medically underserved setting to identify older adults with cardiac disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of nurse-performed FCU to screen adult subjects at a village health center in Vietnam...
August 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
JoAnne M Youngblut, Dorothy Brooten
BACKGROUND: Losing a child is devastating for parents and grandparents. Family and friends generally focus on comforting and supporting the bereaved parents, unintentionally ignoring the bereaved grandparents. Grandmothers and grandfathers often struggle with wanting to help their adult children (deceased child's parents) without usurping the parents' responsibilities and decisions regarding the deceased child. Research on mothers' and grandmothers' health at about the same time after the same child's death in the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit is lacking...
August 10, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
John Brodersen, Volkert Siersma, Hanne Thorsen
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening will inevitably lead to unintentional harmful effects e.g. detection of indolent pathological conditions defined as overdetection or overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis often leads to overutilisation, overtreatment, labelling and thereby negative psychosocial consequences. There is a lack of adequate psychosocial measures when it comes to measurement of the harms of medical screening. However, the Consequences of Screening questionnaire (COS) has been found relevant and comprehensive with adequate psychometric properties in breast and lung cancer screening...
August 10, 2018: BMC Psychology
Lucy M Butcher, Maria M Ryan, Therese A O'Sullivan, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine
Food insecurity is considered a "wicked" problem due to the highly complex and at times undefined casual factors. Although many stakeholders are working to address the problem, a possible divergence exists between their views on food insecurity and those of the people who are actually experiencing the problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference between the opinions of those "at risk" and stakeholders. A total of seven focus groups (two stakeholder groups n = 10, five "at-risk" groups n = 34) and three interviews (stakeholders n = 3) were conducted to ascertain perceptions...
August 9, 2018: Nutrients
Basant Joshi, Trisasi Lestari, Stephen Michael Graham, Sushil Chandra Baral, Sharat Chandra Verma, Gokarna Ghimire, Bandana Bhatta, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Adi Utarini
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in low and middle-income countries. Early detection and enrolment of TB cases is a challenge for National TB Programs. OBJECTIVE: To understand the performance and feasibility for scale-up of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the TB diagnosis in Nepal. DESIGN: Implementation research employed mixed-method sequential explanatory design. The results of Xpert MTB/RIF assay were analysed in 26 TB diagnostic centres where Xpert machines had been installed before 2015...
2018: PloS One
Christopher Imokhuede Esezobor, Patricia Akintan, Uche Nwaogazie, Edna Akinwunmi, Edamisan Temiye, Adebola Akinsulie, Rasheed Gbadegesin
BACKGROUND: No large studies have examined the prevalence of enuresis, its various forms and risk factors in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Sub-Saharan Africa using standardised definitions. We determined age and gender-specific prevalence of enuresis and compared the nature of enuresis in children with and without SCA. We also identified predictors of enuresis in children with SCA. METHODS: Caregivers of children with SCA attending a tertiary centre haematology clinic in Nigeria were interviewed using a questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
Ann Gottert, Julie Pulerwitz, Godfrey Siu, Anne Katahoire, Jerry Okal, Florence Ayebare, Nrupa Jani, Pamela Keilig, Sanyukta Mathur
BACKGROUND: Substantial concern exists about the high risk of sexually transmitted HIV to adolescent girls and young women (AGYW, ages 15-24) in Eastern and Southern Africa. Yet limited research has been conducted with AGYW's male sexual partners regarding their perspectives on relationships and strategies for mitigating HIV risk. We sought to fill this gap in order to inform the DREAMS Partnership and similar HIV prevention programs in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 94 in-depth interviews, from April-June 2017, with male partners of AGYW in three districts: Gulu, Mukono, and Sembabule...
2018: PloS One
Eugène Kroon, Phuc T Pham, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Rapee Trichavaroj, Donn J Colby, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Nittaya Phanuphak, Eric Sanders-Buell, Frits Van Griensven, Gustavo H Kijak, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich, Mark S De Souza, Sodsai Tovanabutra
OBJECTIVE: To assess transmission characteristics in a predominantly men who have sex with men (MSM) cohort initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART) immediately following diagnosis of acute HIV-1infection (AHI). METHODS: A longitudinal study (2009-2017) was performed in participants with AHI (n = 439) attending a single clinic in Bangkok. Plasma samples obtained prior to ART were used to obtain HIV-1 pol sequences and combined with clinical and epidemiologic data to assess transmission dynamics (cluster formation and size) using phylogenetic analysis...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Mary-Margaret Andrews, Deborah S Storm, Carolyn K Burr, Erika Aaron, Mary Jo Hoyt, Anne Statton, Shannon Weber
Eliminating perinatal transmission of HIV and improving the care of childbearing women living with HIV in the United States require public health and clinical leadership. The Comprehensive Care Workgroup of the Elimination of Perinatal HIV Transmission Stakeholders Group, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, developed a concept of perinatal HIV service coordination (PHSC) and identified 6 core functions through (1) semistructured exploratory interviews with contacts in 11 state or city health departments from April 2011 through February 2012, (2) literature review and summary of data on gaps in services and outcomes, and (3) group meetings from August 2010 through June 2017...
August 10, 2018: Public Health Reports
James R Jastifer, Andrew S McNitt, Christina D Mack, Richard W Kent, Kirk A McCullough, Michael J Coughlin, Robert B Anderson
CONTEXT: Synthetic turf has become an increasingly common playing surface for athletics and has changed dramatically since its introduction more than 50 years ago. Along with changes to surface design, maintenance needs and recommendations have become more standardized and attentive both to upkeep and player-level factors. In particular, synthetic turf maintenance as it relates to athlete health and safety is an important consideration at all levels of play. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed for publications between the years 1990 and 2018 was conducted...
August 10, 2018: Sports Health
Robert Gailey, Anat Kristal, Jennifer Lucarevic, Shane Harris, Brooks Applegate, Ignacio Gaunaurd
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic socket fit is an important element associated with successful ambulation and use of a prosthesis. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians would benefit from an assessment tool that discriminates between and quantifies the multiple determinants that influence the lower limb amputee's performance and satisfaction of a prosthetic socket. OBJECTIVES: To determine the internal consistency of the comprehensive lower limb amputee socket survey, a new self-report measure of prosthetic socket satisfaction that quantifies suspension, stability, comfort, and appearance...
August 10, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Katrina Embrey, Catherine Gilbert, Helen M Taggart
BACKGROUND: Nurses who serve in the military have a unique perspective on nursing and health care delivery that nurtures wholeness and inspires peace and healing on a global scale. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore health promotion and healing from the military nurse perspective. DESIGN: Video-recorded interviews were conducted with 10 military nurses who represented various branches and times of service. Participants were asked to share their experiences as military nurses and discuss the challenges and rewards...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
Sabine Loos, Naina Walia, Thomas Becker, Bernd Puschner
Background: The transitioning of young patients from child and adolescent to adult mental health services when indicated often results in the interruption or termination of service. The personal views of young service users on current clinical practice are a valuable contribution that can help to identify service gaps. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of health care of young people with mental health problems in the transition age range (16-25 years), and to better understand health behaviour, care needs and the reasons for disengaging from care at this point in time...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Rajan Kharb, Lokesh S Shekhawat, Ram Pratap Beniwal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
Background: The role of craving in alcohol dependence and its relationship with relapse has been studied widely in the past decade. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of craving in short-term relapse of patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence and changes in craving score at the end of detoxification and at follow-up. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 male individuals with alcohol dependence (excluding comorbid drug dependence, organic or psychiatric disorder), after detoxification and discharge, consented...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Claire E Wakefield, Emma L Doolan, Joanna E Fardell, Christina Signorelli, Veronica F Quinn, Kathy F Tucker, Andrea F Patenaude, Glenn M Marshall, Richard B Lock, Gabrielle Georgiou, Richard J Cohn
INTRODUCTION: Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have the potential to transform personalised cancer care, however, little is known about the acceptability of using PDXs to guide treatment decision-making. Given that patient and community preferences can influence satisfaction with care as well as the success of new technologies, we will evaluate the acceptability of PDXs in individuals affected by cancer and community comparisons. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This comparative cross-sectional study will recruit 323 individuals affected by cancer (cancer survivors (of childhood or adult cancer) and parents of childhood cancer survivors) and 323 community comparisons (adults and parents)...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Pamela M Ling, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: In response to a changing regulatory and consumer landscape, tobacco companies developed new strategies to promote cigarettes and smoking. We examined one of these strategies: to fund and conduct scientific research related to potential benefits of nicotine, and to use their findings to promote nicotine. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from the Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Documents Library (industrydocuments...
August 9, 2018: Tobacco Control
Marion L Penn, Thomas Monks, Catherine Pope, Mike Clancy
BACKGROUND: There is a growing expectation that consultant-level doctors should be present within an ED overnight. However, there is a lack of robust evidence substantiating the impact on patient waiting times, safety or the workforce. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of consultant-level doctors overnight working in ED in a large university hospital. METHODS: We conducted a controlled interrupted time series analysis to study ED waiting times before and after the introduction of consultant night working...
August 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Kate E Dykhuis M A, Linda Slowik Ph D, Kelly Bryce Ph D, Maren E Hyde-Nolan Ph D, Anne Eshelman Ph D, Lisa Renee Miller-Matero Ph D
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of Americans have inadequate health literacy, which leads to poorer health outcomes. Health numeracy is an important component of literacy, which reflects one's ability to understand and manipulate numbers. This is especially important for transplant candidates, as adherence to medical recommendations is essential for posttransplant care. Although validated measures of numeracy exist, they can be inconvenient and time consuming to administer. METHODS: The brief medical numbers test (BMNT) was created in 2011 to quickly assess the health numeracy of a patient during presurgical psychiatric transplant evaluations...
July 19, 2018: Psychosomatics
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