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Madeleine U Shalowitz, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Marianne M Hillemeier, Vernon M Chinchilli, Emma K Adam, Calvin J Hobel, Sharon Landesman Ramey, Maxine Reed Vance, Patricia O'Campo, John M Thorp, Teresa E Seeman, Tonse N K Raju
OBJECTIVE:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities. METHODS:  The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Jennifer L Glick, Tricia Christensen, Ju Nyeong Park, Michelle McKenzie, Traci C Green, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is one of the greatest public health crises of our times, driven increasingly by synthetic opioids such as fentanyl in the heroin supply. The implementation of drug checking in community settings has the potential to reduce the burden of fatal overdose, provide harm reduction education around safer drug consumption, and increase health access among people who use drugs (PWUD). To inform program development, we explored stakeholder opinions on drug checking technologies and implementation considerations...
November 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Siu-Man Ng, Chi-Hung Yeung, Siyu Gao
PURPOSE: Although high expressed emotions (EE) is one of the most significant predictors for schizophrenic relapse, the assessment of EE is often impeded by the demanding Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) that is required to be conducted by specifically trained staff. To enable a more efficient assessment of EE, we developed the 12-item Concise Chinese Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (CCLEES) and reported its predictive and concurrent validity in this study. METHODS: A one-year prospective study design was adopted...
December 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Julia Damiani Victora, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Cristian Tedesco Tonial, Cesar Gomes Victora, Fernando Celso Barros, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Iná Silva Dos Santos, Diego Garcia Bassani, Pedro Celiny R Garcia, Marola Scheeren, Humberto H Fiori
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, mortality and risk factors associated with the birth of very low birth weight preterm infants over a period of 33 years. METHODS: Four cross-sectional studies were analyzed, using data from perinatal interviews of birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas collected in 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2015. Based on perinatal questionnaires, anthropometric measurements of newborns and death certificates were analyzed to obtain the prevalence rate, neonatal mortality, and risk factors (maternal age, income and type of delivery) for very low birth weight...
December 11, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Mariél de Aquino Goulart, Renato José De Marchi, Dalva Maria P Padilha, Mario A Brondani, Michael I MacEntee
OBJECTIVES: To explore the sociocultural context in which patients and dentists in urban and rural communities in Southern Brazil interpret dental problems. METHOD: Beliefs and experiences related to dental problems were explored in eight focus groups involving a total of 41 older patients, and in direct interviews with two dentists and two dental assistants. The interactions were audio recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. RESULTS: The beliefs and experiences of the participants focused on four main themes: cultural beliefs; dental services; decisions to extract teeth; and expectations for change...
December 13, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Susanne Singer, Hans-Joachim Vogel, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Bianca Erdmann-Reusch, Michael Fuchs, Katherine Taylor, Alexandra Meyer, Judith Keszte
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the use and outcome of rehabilitation after total laryngectomy in Germany. METHODS: We enrolled patients who were scheduled for total laryngectomy, approached them again after surgery, after 3 months and 1 year. Patients completed questionnaires and were interviewed. RESULTS: Of 309 participants, 14% had not received any rehabilitation. Reasons for nonuse were primarily ongoing treatment and poor health...
December 12, 2018: Head & Neck
David T Levy, Zhe Yuan, Yameng Li, Anthony J Alberg, K Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The long term population health impact of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) use among smokers is unknown and subject to a range of plausible assumptions about the use and health consequences of NVPs. While NVPs use may substitute for cigarette smoking and thereby aid in quitting cigarette use, it is also possible that smokers who would have otherwise quit would instead delay quitting cigarettes. We aimed to develop a cohort-specific simulation model of the impact of NVPs on smoking cessation by adult smokers and resulting premature deaths (PD) and life-years lost (LYL)...
December 12, 2018: Addiction
Christopher A Kings, Tess Knight, Richard Moulding
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the importance of possessions as extensions of self-concept and connections to significant others for people that hoard. DESIGN: A total of 10 participants were recruited through hoarding group treatment programmes. Participants photographed significant possessions in their home and discussed these in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Analysis of transcripts using interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three interrelated superordinate themes: (1) time travels with you; (2) possessions are me, they're a reflection of my life; and (3) they're linked: I look at them and I think of people...
December 12, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Emma Coyne, Heather Langham, Matthew Tomlin, Wendy Hope, Catherine Johnson, Catherine Byrne, Charlotte Bebb, Heather Buchanan
BACKGROUND: Young people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a number of key issues and life changes to manage while also possibly transitioning into adult care. During this time, the nature of their support networks including, social, romantic, family and health care relationships, is changing. OBJECTIVE: To explore these young people's experience and perceptions of their past, current and future relationships and support networks. DESIGN: Qualitative study...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Care
Rana Abu Farha, Khawla Abu Hammour, Sayida Al-Jamei, Raja AlQudah, Mohammed Zawiah
BACKGROUND: Medication discrepancies are seen frequently in hospital setting upon admission or discharge. Medication Reconciliation service is a practice designed to ensure that patients' medications are ordered in a correct manner upon hospital admission, thus reducing the risk of having medication discrepancies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of medication discrepancies and their clinical seriousness in pediatric patients at the time of hospital admission. METHODS: A prevalence cross-sectional study was conducted at the pediatric departement at the Jordan University hospital between March-May 2018...
December 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Anthony Jehn, Anna Zajacova
OBJECTIVES: Disability is a major concern for the health of midlife and older Canadians. Understanding disability trends is critical for detecting socio-economic and health precursors that could be amenable to policy interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess trends in rates of disability among Canadian adults age 40-64 and 65+. We also examine the impact of changing socio-demographic and health factors over time on the trends. METHODS: Data from the 2001-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a repeated cross-sectional nationally representative study, are used to estimate age- and gender-stratified logistic regression models of disability as a function of the year of interview to assess trends...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Woineshet Asrat, Teferi Mekonnen, Melkamu Bedimo
Background: Ethiopia is a Sub Saharan African country with an estimated contraceptive prevalence rate of 36% and 22% unmet need for family planning service among married women. Client satisfaction influences the use of Family Planning and other reproductive health services. There is limited information on satisfaction with family planning service among Family planning users particularly in the northern part of Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to provide information on client satisfaction and its determinant among women in Public Health facilities of Northwestern Ethiopia...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
Evelise Saia Rodolpho Duarte, Liciane Vaz de Arruda Silveira, Vanessa de Albuquerque Cítero, Alessandro Ferrari Jacinto
Objective: Population aging is a global phenomenon associated with a rising prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases such as dementia. Dementia poses a challenge not only for patients but also their family caregivers who, in exercising this role, are at higher risk of mental illness. The present study investigated the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in family caregivers of demented elderly seen at a geriatric outpatient clinic of a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the following assessment instruments were applied: the Self Reporting Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination (caregivers aged ≥65 years) plus a sociodemographic questionnaire...
October 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Rickard Arvidsson, Max Boholm, Mikael Johansson, Monica Lindh de Montoya
Graphene is a nanomaterial with many promising and innovative applications, yet early studies indicate that graphene may pose risks to humans and the environment. According to ideas of responsible research and innovation, all relevant actors should strive to reduce risks related to technological innovations. Through semi-structured interviews, we investigated the idea of graphene as a risk (or not) held by two types of key actors: graphene researchers and innovation advisors at universities, where the latter are facilitating the movement of graphene from the laboratory to the marketplace...
2018: Nanoethics
Ines Testoni, Chiara Mariani, Adriano Zamperini
The study focuses on a specific problem in the area of child sexual abuse (CSA), which is still under-researched: the relationship between incest and adult female re-victimization treatment within the ambit of domestic violence in Italian centers. About 112 anti-violence centers were contacted, but only 13 participated and only 16 psychologists were interviewed to reconstruct the biographies of 32 victims. The study aimed to examine if and how the service centers recognized and dealt with the problem of re-victimization among survivors based on psychologists' narrations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rena Eichler, Susan Gigli, Lisa LeRoy
Universal health coverage reforms are complex and impact numerous processes, institutions, and individuals. To know whether reforms are being implemented as planned and working as envisioned, policy makers and managers need information and insights on bottlenecks. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided support to build implementation research (IR) capacity and to conduct cycles of research to help Indonesia understand how its single-payer national insurance reform, Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), was affecting primary care...
December 13, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Mohammad M Mojahedian, Mahdi Toroski, Khosro Keshavarz, Mahdi Aghili, Shahryar Zeyghami, Shekoufeh Nikfar
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide. In the past 10 years in Iran, prostate cancer has increased and become more common among hormone-related cancers. As the percentage of seniors in the population increases, the economic burden of this cancer will likely increase significantly. This study aims to estimate direct and indirect costs of treatment at different stages of prostate cancer in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 263 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who were referred to prostate treatment centers in 2016...
December 10, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Melanie Handley, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of interventions to improve hospital care for patients with dementia. Evidence for their impact on staff actions and patient outcomes is, however, limited and context dependent. OBJECTIVE: To explain the factors that support hospital staff to provide dementia sensitive care and with what outcomes for patients with dementia. DESIGN: A realist evaluation using a two-site case study approach. SETTING: Two hospital trusts in the East of England...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Chao Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Yingli Jing, Mingliang Yang, Liangjie Du, Feng Gao, Huiming Gong, Liang Chen, Jun Li, Hongwei Liu, Chuan Qin, Yanmei Jia, Jiali Qiao, Bo Wei, Yan Yu, Hongjun Zhou, Zhizhong Liu, Degang Yang, Jianjun Li
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a major physical and psychological problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), and gut dysbiosis is commonly occurs in SCI. Here, we document neurogenic bowel management of male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI in our centre and perform comparative analysis of the gut microbiota between our patients and healthy males. METHODS: A total of 43 male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI (20 with quadriplegia and 23 with paraplegia) and 23 healthy male adults were enrolled...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jens Baumert, Christin Heidemann, Rebecca Paprott, Yong Du, Christa Scheidt-Nave
BACKGROUND: Random glucose is widely measured in epidemiological studies and in the clinical setting when standardized fasting protocols and oral glucose tolerance testing or HbA1c measuring are not feasible. The relationship between random glucose and all-cause mortality has hardly been studied so far and was examined in the present study. METHODS: We ascertained mortality status among 5955 persons aged 18-79 years and free of known diabetes when participating in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (mean observation time 11...
December 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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