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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149063/estimating-stair-running-performance-using-inertial-sensors
#1
Lauro V Ojeda, Antonia M Zaferiou, Stephen M Cain, Rachel V Vitali, Steven P Davidson, Leia A Stirling, Noel C Perkins
Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146288/unusual-iliac-crest-stress-fracture-in-a-marathoner-a-case-report
#2
Amy M West, Kelly C McInnis
This case presentation describes a 50-year-old healthy woman who developed left sided hip pain while training for the Boston Marathon. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrates a stress fracture of the left iliac body. This injury is unique in that it did not occur in the setting of low bone mineral density and it does not fall into the current published radiographic categorization based on location of injury. This case illustrates an uncommon and atypical bone stress injury in an endurance athlete. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of runners presenting with hip or lumbopelvic pain...
November 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145504/quantifying-performance-on-an-outdoor-agility-drill-using-foot-mounted-inertial-measurement-units
#3
Antonia M Zaferiou, Lauro Ojeda, Stephen M Cain, Rachel V Vitali, Steven P Davidson, Leia Stirling, Noel C Perkins
Running agility is required for many sports and other physical tasks that demand rapid changes in body direction. Quantifying agility skill remains a challenge because measuring rapid changes of direction and quantifying agility skill from those measurements are difficult to do in ways that replicate real task/game play situations. The objectives of this study were to define and to measure agility performance for a (five-cone) agility drill used within a military obstacle course using data harvested from two foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#4
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140909/the-effects-of-load-on-peak-power-output-fatigue-during-the-bench-throw
#5
David Boffey, Bulent Sokmen, Kurt Sollanek, Wanda Boda, Steven Winter
The ability to create power is an important variable for athletic success. No study to date has compared peak power output (PPO) fatigue across multiple sets and with different loads with the bench throw. This study aimed to begin the process of establishing empirical upper body power training guidelines for moderately strong athletes by determining how load (30%, 45%, 60% 1RM) affects PPO (Watts) dropoff during 3 sets of 10 repetitions of the bench throw. 10 resistance-trained male volunteers ((mean ± SD): age 20...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#6
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140183/full-title-examining-the-presence-of-back-pain-in-competitive-athletes-a-focus-on-stress-and-recovery
#7
Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig, Michael Kellmann
Context - Explanatory approaches for back pain (BP) in athletes focus on biomechanical factors while neglecting psychological perspectives. Psychological factors have gained importance in the prediction of injuries in athletes and BP in the general population, with stress and recovery emerging as central risk factors. However, scarce evidence exists regarding the role of these aspects for the prevalent burden of back pain (BP). Objective - To investigate the association between stress and recovery parameters and the presence of BP...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140178/infraspinatus-cross-sectional-area-and-shoulder-range-of-motion-change-following-live-game-baseball-pitching
#8
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Following a baseball pitching bout, changes can occur to glenohumeral range of motion that could be linked to injury. These effects are in part due to the posterior shoulder's eccentric muscle activity, which can disrupt muscle contractile elements and lead to changes in muscle cross sectional area (CSA), as measured by ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in muscle CSA, and range of motion immediately before and after pitching, and days 1-5 following pitching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140157/case-study-body-composition-periodization-in-an-olympic-level-female-middle-distance-runner-over-a-9-year-career
#9
Trent Stellingwerff
This case-study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data is emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n=44), hematological, other health measures and 1500m race performances (n=83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ~2 to 4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%) with optimal energy availability being prioritized...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140154/no-difference-in-young-adult-athletes-resting-energy-expenditure-when-measured-under-inpatient-or-outpatient-conditions
#10
Julia L Bone, Louise M Burke
Low energy availability can place athletes at increased risk of injury and illness and can be detected by a low metabolic rate. The lowest metabolic rate is captured at the bedside, after an overnight fast and termed inpatient REE. Measurements done in a laboratory with a shorter overnight fast are termed outpatient REE. Although important to know what the lowest energy expenditure, a bedside measure and/or 12 h fast is not always practical or logistically possible particularly when you take into account an athlete's training schedule...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#11
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140142/coffee-ingestion-enhances-one-mile-running-race-performance
#12
Neil D Clarke, Darren L Richardson, James Thie, Richard Taylor
PURPOSE: Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg(-1) coffee (COF), 0...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140127/proprioceptive-training-for-the-prevention-of-ankle-sprains-an-evidence-based-review
#13
Matthew J Rivera, Zachary K Winkelmann, Cameron J Powden, Kenneth E Games
Reference:  Schiftan GS, Ross LA, Hahne AJ. The effectiveness of proprioceptive training in preventing ankle sprains in sporting populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(3):238-244. CLINICAL QUESTION:   Does the use of proprioceptive training as a sole intervention decrease the incidence of initial or recurrent ankle sprains in the athletic population? DATA SOURCES:   The authors completed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) from inception to October 2013...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138241/decorin-a-growth-hormone-regulated-protein-in-humans
#14
Neha Bahl, Glenn Stone, Mark McLean, Ken K Y Ho, Vita Birzniece
CONTEXT: Growth hormone (GH) stimulates connective tissue and muscle growth, an effect that is potentiated by testosterone. Decorin, a myokine and a connective tissue protein, stimulates connective tissue accretion and muscle hypertrophy. Whether GH and testosterone regulate decorin in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether decorin is stimulated by GH and testosterone. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135645/phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-sport-and-doping
#15
Luigi Di Luigi, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Borrione, Clara Crescioli, Paolo Sgrò, Stefania Sabatini
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil) are drugs commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. PDE5i are not prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) but are alleged to be frequently misused by healthy athletes to improve sporting performance. In vitro and in vivo studies have reported various effects of PDE5i on cardiovascular, muscular, metabolic, and neuroendocrine systems and the potential, therefore, to enhance performance of healthy athletes during training and competition...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135641/the-pediatric-endurance-athlete
#16
Mary L Solomon, Susannah M Briskin, Nicole Sabatina, Jennifer E Steinhoff
Youth sports participation numbers continue to grow in the United States. A shift toward sport specialization has caused an increase in sport training frequency and intensity that places the growing athlete at risk for overtraining, nutritional deficits, and injuries. Individuals who participate in endurance sports are at especially high risk. Youth runners and swimmers are high-risk populations that require special attention to their training schedules, nutritional intake, and injuries. Appropriate scheduling of training, dedicating time to rest, and nutrition education can help prevent problems in the endurance athlete...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135639/sleep-and-athletic-performance
#17
Andrew M Watson
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134052/effects-of-an-interpersonal-style-intervention-for-coaches-on-young-soccer-players-motivational-processes
#18
Juan J Pulido, David Sánchez-Oliva, Francisco M Leo, Sergio Matos, Tomás García-Calvo
The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of an intervention programme developed with soccer coaches, based on promoting strategies to optimise the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of athletes. Eight soccer coaches, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 32.5; SD = 14.34), participated in the study. They were selected intentionally (without academic or federative training) and divided equally into a control and an experimental group by random peer selection. Also, 109 soccer players, aged between 11 and 15 years (M = 13...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134051/does-context-practice-or-competition-affect-female-athletes-achievement-goal-dominance-goal-pursuit-burnout-and-motivation
#19
Javier Fernández-Rio, Jose A Cecchini, Antonio Méndez-Giménez
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7), mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134050/mental-strategies-predict-performance-and-satisfaction-with-performance-among-soccer-players
#20
Magdalena Kruk, Jan Blecharz, Monika Boberska, Karolina Zarychta, Aleksandra Luszczynska
This study investigated the changes in mental strategies across the season and their effects on performance and satisfaction with individual performance. Data were collected three times: at the pre-season at Time 1 (T1; baseline), in the mid-season at Time 2 (T2; two-month follow-up), and at the end-of-season at Time 3 (T3; nine-month follow-up) among male soccer players (N = 97) aged 16-27. Athletes completed the questionnaires assessing the use of nine psychological strategies in competition and the level of satisfaction with individual performance...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
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