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Athletic Training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#1
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737609/the-effects-of-supplementary-low-load-blood-flow-restriction-training-on-morphological-and-performance-based-adaptations-in-team-sport-athletes
#2
Brendan R Scott, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Paul S R Goods
Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737589/validity-of-a-taekwondo-specific-test-to-measure-vo2peak-and-the-heart-rate-deflection-point
#3
Jader Sant'Ana, Emerson Franchini, Juan Murias, Fernando Diefenthaeler
This study investigated whether the progressive specific taekwondo test (PSTT) is a valid test to measure peak oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK) and the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in taekwondo athletes. Eighteen male black belt athletes (25.3 ± 4.8 years; 8.2 ± 4.7 years of practice; 171.8 ± 4.7 cm; 76.1 ± 8.2 kg, and 13.1 ± 2.9% body fat) involved in regional and national level competitions performed the PSTT and an incremental treadmill test (IT). The following variables were analyzed: VO2PEAK, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption at the HRDP (VO2HRDP), peak heart rate (HRPEAK), HRDP, and peak post-test blood lactate concentration...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#4
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, J Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay-persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733834/long-term-intensive-gymnastic-training-induced-changes-in-intra-and-inter-network-functional-connectivity-an-independent-component-analysis
#5
Huiyuan Huang, Junjing Wang, Carol Seger, Min Lu, Feng Deng, Xiaoyan Wu, Yuan He, Chen Niu, Jun Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI)...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731979/global-positioning-system-analysis-of-a-high-school-football-scrimmage
#6
Benjamin H Gleason, Matthew L Sams, John T Salley, A Andrew Pustina, Michael H Stone
Gleason, BH, Sams, M, Salley, JT, Pustina, A, and Stone, MH. Global positioning system analysis of a high school football scrimmage. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2183-2188, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands of a high school American football scrimmage. Male high school football players (N = 25) participated in a spring scrimmage. Global positioning system data and game film were recorded throughout the entirety of the scrimmage to determine the total distance covered, the distance covered in different velocity bands, the number of accelerations and decelerations performed, and the work-to-rest ratio of the scrimmage...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730946/contribution-of-upper-limb-muscles-to-two-different-gripping-styles-in-elite-indoor-tug-of-war-athletes
#7
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730881/comparison-of-jump-landing-protocols-with-biodex-balance-system-as-measures-of-dynamic-postural-stability-in-athletes
#8
Zarko Krkeljas
The objective of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the two common methods for assessing postural stability in athletes: the time-to-stabilisation (TTS) via force-plate and the Biodex Balance System (BBS). The conditions under which these measurements assess dynamic postural control may not provide sufficient feedback to practitioners. Fourty-four amateur soccer players with no history of musculoskeletal disorders volunteered for the study. Pearson correlation was used to compare the anterior-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML), and the overall stability indexes measured by BBS, with the corresponding parameters of TTS assessed via force plate...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730749/impact-of-the-dynamic-and-static-component-of-the-sport-practiced-for-electrocardiogram-analysis-in-screening-athletes
#9
Nicolas Maillot, Charles Guenancia, Nobila V Yameogo, Aurélie Gudjoncik, Fabien Garnier, Luc Lorgis, Frédéric Chagué, Yves Cottin
BACKGROUND: To interpret the electrocardiogram (ECG) of athletes, the recommendations of the ESC and the Seattle criteria define type-1 peculiarities, those induced by training, and type-2, those not induced by training, to rule out cardiomyopathy. The specificity of the screening was improved by Sheikh who definied "Refined Criteria", which includes a group of intermediate peculiarities. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of static and dynamic components on the prevalence of different types of abnormalities...
July 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728471/implementing-technical-refinement-in-high-level-athletics-exploring-the-knowledge-schemas-of-coaches
#10
Philip E Kearney, Howie J Carson, Dave Collins
This paper explores the approaches adopted by high-level field athletics coaches when attempting to refine an athlete's already well-established technique (long and triple jump and javelin throwing). Six coaches, who had all coached multiple athletes to multiple major championships, took part in semi-structured interviews focused upon a recent example of technique refinement. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis. The coaching tools reported were generally consistent with those advised by the existing literature, focusing on attaining "buy-in", utilising part-practice, restoring movement automaticity and securing performance under pressure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724452/exercise-energy-expenditure-and-energy-balance-as-measured-with-doubly-labelled-water
#11
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE...
July 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#12
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#13
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723822/biomechanical-differences-in-female-basketball-and-soccer-players-during-multi-directional-jump-landings
#14
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multi-directional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of eighty-nine female athletes who played competitive basketball (n=40) or soccer (n=49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with three-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723818/somatotype-and-body-composition-in-young-soccer-players-according-to-the-playing-position-and-sport-success
#15
Víctor Cárdenas-Fernández, José Luis Chinchilla-Minguet, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
Soccer players undergo an evolution in their body composition throughout the growth and passage through the different base stages, that is, childhood, puberty and adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and body composition of U14, U16, and U19 soccer players, taking into account in addition, their sport success endorsed through the regularity participation and their relation with the different playing positions occupied during competition (goalkeeper, external defender, central defender, midfielder and forward/extreme)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722468/evaluating-the-recovery-curve-for-clinically-assessed-reaction-time-after-concussion
#16
Gianluca Del Rossi
CONTEXT:   A change in reaction time is one of various clinical measures of neurocognitive function that can be monitored after concussion and has been reported to be among the most sensitive indicators of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the timeline for clinically assessed simple reaction time to return to baseline after a concussion in high school athletes. DESIGN:   Observational study. SETTING:   Athletic training room...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721124/association-between-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-and-inflammatory-airway-disease-in-polo-ponies
#17
Katia Moreira da Silva, Juliana Nabuco Pereira Otaka, Carlos Alexandre Paula Gonçalves, Estevão Grossi Aguiar Silva, Nayro Xavier de Alencar, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa
The respiratory system is essential for health and high athletic performance in horses. Respiratory diseases have been recognized as having a major impact on training equine animals and are commonly cited as the second most common cause of wasted training time. Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is an important cause of poor performance in young racehorses. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a major issue for the equine industry because of its high prevalence and association with reduced athletic performance...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721122/hypoxic-training-increases-maximal-oxygen-consumption-in-thoroughbred-horses-well-trained-in-normoxia
#18
Hajime Ohmura, Kazutaka Mukai, Yuji Takahashi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, James H Jones
Hypoxic training is effective for improving athletic performance in humans. It increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) more than normoxic training in untrained horses. However, the effects of hypoxic training on well-trained horses are unclear. We measured the effects of hypoxic training on V̇O2max of 5 well-trained horses in which V̇O2max had not increased over 3 consecutive weeks of supramaximal treadmill training in normoxia which was performed twice a week. The horses trained with hypoxia (15% inspired O2) twice a week...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721108/effect-of-self-paced-active-recovery-and-passive-recovery-on-blood-lactate-removal-following-a-200-m-freestyle-swimming-trial
#19
Márcio Rabelo Mota, Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas, Iransé Oliveira-Silva, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Rafael da Costa Sotero, Patrícia Espíndola Mota Venâncio, Jairo Teixeira Júnior, Sandro Nobre Chaves, Filipe Dinato de Lima
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-paced active recovery (AR) and passive recovery (PR) on blood lactate removal following a 200 m freestyle swimming trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen young swimmers (with a training frequency of 6-8 sessions per week) performed two maximal 200 m freestyle trials followed by 15 minutes of different recovery methods, on separate days. Recovery was performed with 15 minutes of passive rest or 5 minutes of passive rest and 10 minutes of self-paced AR...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720693/catastrophic-cervical-spinal-injury-in-an-amateur-college-wrestler
#20
Jayakrishnan Kelamangalathu Narayana Kurup, Ravitheja Jampani, Simanchal P Mohanty
A young amateur wrestler presented with a burst fracture of the seventh cervical vertebra with complete paraplegia. He was treated with surgery for spine stabilisation and was actively rehabilitated. Adolescents and teenagers are indulging in high-contact sports like wrestling, without proper training and technical know-how, which can lead to severe injuries and possibly, permanent handicap or death. Trainers, assistants and institutions should be well equipped to diagnose and provide initial care of people with a spinal injury to prevent a partial injury from progressing to complete injury...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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