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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632062/skeleton-sled-velocity-profiles-a-novel-approach-to-understand-critical-aspects-of-the-elite-athletes-start-phases
#1
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Aki I T Salo
The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632046/targeting-associated-mechanisms-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-in-female-community-level-athletes
#2
Jonathan M D Staynor, Joanna C Nicholas, Gillian Weir, Jacqueline A Alderson, Cyril J Donnelly
This study aims to determine if biomechanically informed injury prevention training can reduce associated factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk among a general female athletic population. Female community-level team sport athletes, split into intervention (n = 8) and comparison groups (n = 10), completed a sidestepping movement assessment prior to and following a 9-week training period, in which kinetic, kinematic and neuromuscular data were collected. The intervention group completed a biomechanically informed training protocol, consisting of plyometric, resistance and balance exercises, adjunct to normal training, for 15-20 min twice a week...
February 24, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#3
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630583/acute-modification-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-collegiate-male-soccer-players-with-different-chronotype-a-cross-over-study
#4
Matteo Bonato, Luca Agnello, Letizia Galasso, Angela Montaruli, Eliana Roveda, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre, Jacopo A Vitale
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630581/5000-meter-run-performance-is-not-enhanced-24-hrs-after-an-intense-exercise-bout-and-cold-water-immersion
#5
Mary C Stenson, Matthew R Stenson, Tracey D Matthews, Vincent J Paolone
Cold water immersion (CWI) is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference (TC), and perceived exertion (RPE). Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO2peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630575/acute-and-post-exercise-physiological-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-endurance-and-sprint-athletes
#6
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE)...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630569/leadership-preferences-of-adolescent-players-in-sport-influence-of-coach-gender
#7
Angelita B Cruz, Hyun-Duck Kim
The authors investigated the coaching behavior preferences and the relationships of these preferences with variables such as gender, type of sport, playing experience, competitive level, and coach gender among young athletes in the national badminton league. Participants were 167 elementary and high school badminton players (91 girls and 76 boys; age range = 9-18 years; M = 13.5 (SD = 2.22) years) competing in the badminton event of a national league. Players' preferences for coaching behavior were measured using athlete preference version of the LSS to evaluate the five dimensions of leadership behavior in a sporting context...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#8
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in event such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the ITU (International Triathlon Union) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628411/sports-and-the-growing-musculoskeletal-system-sports-imaging-series
#9
Jie C Nguyen, Scott E Sheehan, Kirkland W Davis, Kara G Gill
Increased youth participation in sports has resulted in increased injury tolls due to shifts toward participation in competitive sports at earlier ages, increased training intensity and competition schedules, as well as specialization into one sport. The physiology of the growing musculoskeletal system makes the growing athlete particularly vulnerable to specific types of injuries. Radiologists must understand the differences between pediatric and adult athletes to recognize the particular injuries to which these young athletes are prone...
July 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628396/differential-in-maximal-aerobic-capacity-by-sex-in-collegiate-endurance-athletes-consuming-a-marginally-low-carbohydrate-diet
#10
Marissa N Baranauskas, Brian Miller, Jordan T Olson, Michelle Boltz, Laura Richardson, Matthew Juravich, Ronald Otterstetter
PURPOSE: Although current sports nutrition recommendations advocate for a high carbohydrate (CHO) intake among endurance athletes, recent research has suggested that training with low CHO availability may augment adaptations to aerobic training. The purpose of this study was to observe the dietary habits of collegiate distance runners and to investigate the effects of habitual CHO intake on aerobic performance [VO2max(post)] during a competitive season. METHODS: During an 8-week trial period, 12 (N = 12) collegiate track athletes recorded their self-selected dietary intake via 24-hour recall...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628394/nutritional-routine-of-tae-kwon-do-athletes-prior-to-competition-what-is-the-impact-of-weight-control-practices
#11
Sousana K Papadopoulou, Vasiliki A Dalatsi, Spyridon K Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria Hassapidou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the common dietary and weight management strategies of Tae Kwon Do (TKD) athletes prior to national competitions, as well as to examine the relationships between these strategies and body weight reduction and sensation of physical condition. METHODS: Sixty (n = 60) TKD athletes, 23 women (19.4 ± 2.9 years) and 37 men (20.4 ± 3.6 years), with at least 12.1 ± 3.1 years of experience, participated in the present study...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627289/snap-n-send-a-valid-and-reliable-method-for-assessing-the-energy-intake-of-elite-adolescent-athletes
#12
Nessan Costello, Kevin Deighton, Joshua Dyson, Jim Mckenna, Ben Jones
To ensure that elite adolescent athletes meet their unique training, growth and maturation demands, it is imperative to have access to valid measures of energy intake. Contemporary methods demand close attention-to-detail, meaning that athletes often do not fully adhere to real-time protocols. This study represents the first investigation of a real-time dietary assessment designed using a comprehensive behaviour change framework (COM-B). In a crossover design, 12 elite adolescent male rugby players recorded their energy intake via an estimated food diary (est-FD) and photography-based mobile assessment ('Snap-n-Send'), combined with a 24-h dietary recall interview...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626339/effects-of-2-week-intermittent-training-in-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-the-aerobic-energy-metabolism-and-performance-of-cycling-athletes-with-disabilities
#13
Sang-Hoon Kim, Ho-Jung An, Jung-Hyun Choi, Yong-Youn Kim
[Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
June 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622665/non-invasive-in-situ-measurement-of-blood-lactate-using-microwave-sensors
#15
Alex Mason, Olga Korostynska, Julien Louis, Luis Eduardo Cordova-Lopez, Badr Abdullah, Jacob Greene, Rob Connell, John Hopkins
GOAL: This paper reports the use of a novel electromagnetic sensor technique for real-time non-invasive monitoring of blood lactate in human subjects. METHODS: The technique was demonstrated on 34 participants who undertook a cycling regime, with rest period before and after, to produce a rising and falling lactate response curve. Sensors attached to the arm and legs of participants gathered spectral data, blood samples were measured using a Lactate Pro V2, as well as temperature and heart rate data were collected...
June 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622081/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-professional-women-football-players-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#16
Bruno Archiza, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, José Carlos Bonjorno, Cláudio Ricardo de Oliveira, Paula Angélica Ricci, André Capaldo do Amaral, Stela Márcia Mattiello, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Shane A Phillips, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
This study was conducted to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM (n = 8) or IMT (n = 10). After a maximal incremental exercise test, all participants performed (on a different day) a time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) test. Peripheral and respiratory muscles oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy, breath-by-breath ventilatory and metabolic variables, and blood lactate concentration were measured...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621884/young-athletes-with-ventricular-premature-beats-continuing-or-not-intense-training-and-competition
#17
Attilio Parisi, Eliana Tranchita, Carlo Minganti, Fabio Sperandii, Emanuele Guerra, Leonardo Calò, Paolo Borrione, Fabio Pigozzi
INTRODUCTION: Isolated ventricular premature beats (VPBs) are commonly found during pre-participation screening in athletes. Currently the debate about the role of detraining in reducing the number of VPBs is still open. This study evaluated the arrhythmic risk in a population of young competitive athletes who showed VPBs during eligibility evaluation and that did not undergo detraining but continued practicing competitive sports. METHODS: 3746 consecutive subjects underwent pre-participation screening...
June 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615997/serum-concentration-of-several-trace-metals-and-physical-training
#18
Marcos Maynar, Francisco Llerena, Francisco J Grijota, Javier Alves, María C Robles, Ignacio Bartolomé, Diego Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to observe the concentrations of trace metals boron, lithium, rubidium, antimony, tin and strontium in the serum of athletes from different modalities and sedentary subjects and the possible influence that different energy sports training modalities can have on their concentration. METHODS: Eighty professional athletes and 31 sedentary males participated in the present survey. All of them were living in Cáceres (Spain). Serum boron, lithium, rubidium, antimony, tin and strontium analysis was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615216/emergency-response-facilities-including-primary-and-secondary-prevention-strategies-across-79-professional-football-clubs-in-england
#20
Aneil Malhotra, Harshil Dhutia, Sabiha Gati, Tee-Joo Yeo, Gherardo Finnochiaro, Tracey Keteepe-Arachi, Thomas Richards, Mike Walker, Robin Birt, David Stuckey, Laurence Robinson, Maite Tome, Ian Beasley, Michael Papadakis, Sanjay Sharma
AIM: To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. METHODS: A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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