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Two Hour Assessment

Anning Li, Shuangmin Ji, Weihua Yue, Hao Yan, Fang Dong, Canjun Ruan, Wenbiao Li, Wei Lu, Dai Zhang, Chuanyue Wang
OBJECTIVE: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug commonly used for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are still many complications associated with the use of olanzapine, and researchers continually strive to improve the handling of data from regular therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The objective of this study is to optimise the individualised treatment of olanzapine by establishing a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model in Chinese patients with schizophrenia...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Alaa AlSayyari, Fadia AlBuhairan
BACKGROUND: With limited social options, young Saudis are increasingly relying on media for entertainment. The media impact has been greatest among the younger generation, which constitutes half of the population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between exposure to varied types of media and substance use among adolescents in the KSA and explores whether these associations differ by gender. METHODS: Data were obtained from a national cross-sectional survey of school students aged ten to 19 years (N = 12121)...
March 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sam Orde, Michel Slama, Nicola Stanley, Stephen Huang, Anthony Mclean
BACKGROUND: Transthoracic 3D cardiac analysis is enticing in its potential simplicity and wealth of data available. It has been suggested to be accurate vs magnetic resonance imaging in relatively stable patients, but feasibility and agreement with conventional echocardiographic assessment of stroke volume (SV) have not been thoroughly assessed in critically ill patients, who are traditionally harder to image. The objectives of this study were to compare 3D transthoracic volumetric analysis vs Doppler assessment of SV (which is suggested to be accurate in the critically ill) and Simpson's biplane assessment in a cohort typical of the intensive care unit (ICU), where accurate assessment is important: mechanically ventilated patients with a significant ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch...
August 19, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Melissa A Mueller, Navid Pourtaheri, Gregory R D Evans
BACKGROUND:  Given emerging focus on competency-based surgical training and work-hour limitations, surgical skills laboratories play an increasingly important role in resident education. This study was designed to investigate educational opportunities in microsurgery across integrated residency programs. METHODS:  Senior residents (PGY 4-6) at integrated plastic surgery programs were surveyed during the 2016 to 2017 academic year to determine each program's access to: training microscopes and anastomosis models, video-based skills assessment, pre-requisite skills exams, flap courses, or a formal microsurgical training curriculum...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Ursula Föger-Samwald, Christian Knecht, Thomas Stimpfl, Thomas Szekeres, Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Peter Mikosch, Peter Pietschmann, Wolfgang Sipos
BACKGROUND: Although chronic alcohol consumption in adults is an established risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, there is a huge gap in our knowledge about bone effects of binge drinking in adolescents. The aim of this pilot study was therefore to assess skeletal effects of binge alcohol drinking using prepubescent pigs as a large animal model. METHODS: Piglets aged two months were offered alcohol orally as a mixture of hard liquor and apple juice. Those with the highest propensity to drink alcohol were included in the experiment and received 1...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chase Holton, Yuanming Guo, Hong Luo, Paul Dahlen, Kyle Gorder, Erik M Dettenmaier, Paul C Johnson
It is accepted that indoor sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can confound vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment. When discovered during pre-sampling inspection, indoor sources are removed, and air sampling is delayed, with the assumption that a few hours to a few days are sufficient for indoor source impacts to dissipate. This assumption was tested through the controlled release of SF6 and its monitoring in indoor air and soil gas at a study house over two years. Results show that indoor sources generate subsurface soil gas clouds due to fluctuating direction in the exchange between soil gas and indoor air, and that it may take days to weeks under natural conditions for a soil gas cloud beneath a building to dissipate following indoor source removal...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Marieke E van Vessem, Meindert Palmen, Lotte E Couperus, Theo Stijnen, Remco R Berendsen, Leon P H J Aarts, Evert de Jonge, Robert J M Klautz, Martin J Schalij, Saskia L M A Beeres
BACKGROUND: Vasoplegia is a severe complication which can develop after heart failure surgery. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of vasoplegia on survival, cardiac function and renal function 2 years after surgical left ventricular restoration (SVR). METHODS: Heart failure patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35% who underwent SVR in 2006-2014 were included. Vasoplegia was defined as the continuous need of vasopressors (norepinephrine ≥0...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Benjamin W Weston, Jamie Jasti, Melissa Mena, Jackson Unteriner, Kelly Tillotson, Ziyan Yin, M Riccardo Colella, Tom P Aufderheide
OBJECTIVE: Various continuous quality improvement (CQI) approaches have been used to improve quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivered at the scene of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We evaluated a post-event, self-assessment, CQI feedback form to determine its impact on delivery of CPR quality metrics. METHODS: This before/after retrospective review evaluated data from a CQI program in a midsized urban emergency medical services (EMS) system using CPR quality metrics captured by Zoll Medical Inc...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
E Wenande, W Phothong, C Bay, K E Karmisholt, M Haedersdal, K Togsverd-Bo
BACKGROUND: Physical pretreatments can potentiate efficacy of daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT), but clinical comparative studies remain limited. OBJECTIVES: Performed in large skin areas with actinic keratoses (AK) and photodamage, this blinded, randomized clinical trial compares efficacy and safety of dPDT after tailored skin pretreatment using ablative fractional laser (AFL) or microdermabrasion (MD). METHODS: Two ≥50 cm2 side-by-side areas were randomized to receive a single treatment with AFL-dPDT or MD-dPDT...
August 17, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Samane Hoseini-Shahrestanak, Nasrin Bazargan, Leila Rahimian, Maryam Nemati, Saeed Solaymani, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Background: The imbalance between Th2 and Treg cells plays fundamental role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. The current study aimed at assessing the expression of some Th2 and Treg cell-related parameters in patients with allergic asthma. Material and Methods: The serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from 30 patients with asthma and 36 healthy subjects. The serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interleukin (IL)-4, as well as the expression levels of GATA3 and FOXP3 genes in PBMCs were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively...
January 2018: Tanaffos
Chris Saward, John G Morris, Mary E Nevill, Caroline Sunderland
This mixed-longitudinal study examined the development of match skills in elite male youth footballers (aged 11-18 years), while considering the effect of playing status, maturity status, and playing position. Across two seasons, 126 elite male youth footballers were assessed in 1-10 competitive matches (401 player-matches). For each match, the on-the-ball actions of each player were recorded using a notation system. The match skills observed were frequencies of successful passes, on-target shots, dribbles, crosses, clearances, and tackles/blocks/interceptions...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Morgane Masse, Mickael Maton, Stéphanie Genay, Nicolas Blanchemain, Christine Barthélémy, Bertrand Décaudin, Pascal Odou
Insulin is a frequently prescribed drug in hospitals and is usually administered by syringe pumps with an extension line which can be made of various materials. Two insulin solutions were studied: an insulin analogue, Novorapid® which contains insulin aspart and two phenolic preservatives (e.g. phenol and metacresol) and Umuline rapide® with human insulin and metacresol as preservative. Some studies have indicated interactions between insulin, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE). The aim of this work was to study such interactions between Novorapid® or Umuline rapide® and infusion extension line materials (PVC, PE and coextruded (PE/PVC))...
2018: PloS One
Jordan W Squair, Ian A Ruiz, Aaron A Phillips, Mei Mz Zheng, Zoe Sarafis, Rahul Sachdeva, Rayshad Gopaul, Jie Liu, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Christopher R West, Andrei V Krassioukov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition for which there is no effective treatment to restore neurological function. The development of new treatments for SCI may be hampered by the insensitivity of clinical tools to assess motor function in humans. Treatments aimed at preserving neuronal function through anti-inflammatory pathways (i.e., neuroprotection) have been a mainstay of pre-clinical SCI research for decades. Minocycline, a clinically available antibiotic with anti-inflammatory properties, has demonstrated promising neuroprotective effects in a variety of animal models and improved motor recovery in a Phase-2 human trial...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yunyun Di, Ellen K Wasan, Jacqueline Cawthray, Kishor M Wasan
PURPOSE: CPX-351 is a liposomal formulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin encapsulated at a 5:1 molar ratio, for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. The Scavenger Receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role in mediating the uptake of high-density lipoproteins. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of the cell surface lipoprotein receptor SR-BI in the uptake of CPX-351 liposomes (Jazz Pharmaceuticals) into K562 leukemia cells. METHODS: K562 cells were pre-treated with 10 nM siRNA for 48 hours and then treated with varying amount of CPX-351 for 24, 48 and 72 hours...
August 16, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Louis-Pierre Comeau, Derrick Y F Lai, Jane Jinglan Cui, Jodie Hartill
Ex-situ measurement of soil respiration is usually done with highly disturbed samples that may confound the interpretation and extrapolation of results. We have developed a lab respiration assessment method that better simulates field conditions and allows efflux estimations based on soil surface area. First, intact soil cores are extracted in the field and transferred to the lab. Next, soil moisture content and bulk density are assessed in each soil core. Immediately following this the soil cores are gently broken, pooled per treatment (or plot) and the root systems removed...
2018: MethodsX
Qun Wang, Xu-Dong Wang, Xin Liu, Yun Xiang, Han-Chu Liu, Ling-Kong Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on insulin sensitivity in neonates and the relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma adiponectin level. METHODS: Eighty-two term neonates with IUGR and 90 term neonates born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) were enrolled. Weight, height, head circumference and abdomen circumference of the neonates were measured within 24 hours after birth. Fasting serum glucose (FG), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and adiponectin were detected in two groups on the 7th day after birth...
August 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Aukje L Kreuger, Rutger A Middelburg, Erik A M Beckers, Karen M K de Vooght, Jaap Jan Zwaginga, Jean-Louis H Kerkhoffs, Johanna G van der Bom
INTRODUCTION: Electronic health care data offers the opportunity to study rare events, although detecting these events in large datasets remains difficult. We aimed to develop a model to identify leukemia patients with major hemorrhages within routinely recorded health records. METHODS: The model was developed using routinely recorded health records of a cohort of leukemia patients admitted to an academic hospital in the Netherlands between June 2011 and December 2015...
2018: PloS One
Lenycia de Cassya Lopes Neri, Denise Pimentel Bergamaschi, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional profile of the population assisted at a reference center for cystic fibrosis treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including patients with cystic fibrosis assisted at a pediatric reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2014. All patients attending regular visits who agreed to participate in the study were included. A questionnaire on dietary habits (24-hour diet recall) and socioeconomic characteristics was applied. Anthropometric data (compared with the reference from the World Health Organization, 2006 and 2007) and pulmonary function data were collected from medical records...
August 9, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Jaqueline C Castardo-de-Paula, Blenda H de Campos, Lorena de Jager, Eric D T Amorim, Nágela G Zanluqui, Carine C de Farias, Luciana Higachi, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Décio S Barbosa, Marli C Martins-Pinge
Aim: Autonomic modulation responds to ovarian hormones and estrogen increases nitric oxide bioavailability. Also, females have minor susceptibility to sepsis and a higher survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the role of estrogen in cardiovascular, autonomic, and oxidative parameters during initial endotoxemia and under inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition in female rats. Methods: Female wistar rats were subjected to ovariectomy and divided into three groups: OVX (ovariectomized), OVX+E (OVX plus daily estradiol) and SHAM (false surgery)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qazi Mumtaz Ahmad, Akmal Laeeq Chishti, Nayyab Waseem
OBJECTIVE: To find out the effect of melatonin as adjunct therapy on outcome of admitted newborns presenting with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan, from October 2016 to March 2017, and comprised newborns with gestational age of 34 weeks or higher who fulfilled the definition of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and presented within 12 hours of birth. The severity of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy was assessed by Thompson score...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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