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Juan Valdés-Stauber, Sabine Krämer, Susanne Bachthaler
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the inpatient psychosomatic treatment has been documented in various settings. The question of the sustainability of the improvement achieved as well as the prognostic factors is of interest for public health. OBJECTIVE: Primary outcome variables reflect the stability or change in the clinical status of patients one year after the discharge from the inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Secondary outcome variables reflect differences in utilization of medical services between the year before and after admission...
December 12, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Korbinian Liebl, Martin Zacharias
The sequence dependent structure and flexibility of the DNA double helix is of key importance for gene expression and DNA packing and it can be modulated by DNA modifications. The presence of a C5'-methyl group in thymine or the frequent C5'-methylated-cytosine affects the DNA fine structure, however, the underlying mechanism and steric origins have remained largely unexplained. Employing Molecular Dynamics free energy simulations that allow switching on or off interactions with the methyl groups in several DNA sequences, we systematically identified the physical origin of the coupling between methyl groups and DNA backbone fine structure...
December 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Eva Zahradnik, Bente Janssen-Weets, Ingrid Sander, Benjamin Kendzia, Wolfgang Mitlehner, Caroline May, Monika Raulf
BACKGROUND: Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples...
2018: PloS One
Katarina Berling Holm, Anna Bornefalk-Hermansson, Johan Knutsson, Magnus von Unge
OBJECTIVES: Patients with otosclerosis more often complain about postoperative taste disturbance than patients with chronic otitis media, which seems paradoxical. We aim to investigate if and potentially why this seems to be the case, since the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is thought to be severely traumatized less frequently during surgery in the former than in the latter. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Hospital of Vastmanland, Vasteras, Sweden...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Åsa B Gustafsson, Gerald W Dorn
The central functions fulfilled by mitochondria as both energy generators essential for tissue homeostasis and gateways to programmed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mandate tight control over the quality and quantity of these ubiquitous endosymbiotic organelles. Mitophagy, the targeted engulfment and destruction of mitochondria by the cellular autophagy apparatus, has conventionally been considered as the mechanism primarily responsible for mitochondrial quality control. However, our understanding of how, why, and under what specific conditions mitophagy is activated has grown tremendously over the past decade...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Bianca Marques Dos Santos, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade Silva, Eliane Ramos Pereira, Fabiana Lopes Joaquim, Ticiane Roberta Pinto Goés
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the productions of knowledge about the students' perception of humanized care. METHOD: Study of bibliographical revision of the integrative type. The databases Pubmed, Lilacs, Cuiden and the SciELO virtual library were chosen for selection in October 2017, using the health descriptors "Students, Nursing", "Perception" and "Humanization of assistance", in the languages Portuguese, English and Spanish. RESULTS: Only eight studies were included that met the objectives of the study, where the majority portrays the Brazilian reality...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Tingzhong Yang
Previous studies have repeatedly found the association between network homogeneity based on native-place and sexual risk behaviors among migrants. However, it remains unclear why such a simple numerical property of network composition can be correlated with a sexual risk behavior. Using a dataset (n = 1591) with detailed information on the sexual behaviors among male migrant laborers in the two Chinese provinces with the highest migrant inflows, we confirmed network homogeneity is significantly associated with prostitution patronage...
December 11, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Sarah Burhouse, Thomas P V Hartman
Previous writings in the area of natural history casting are exiguous especially in reference to the casting of fluid preserved specimens. The following attempts to recognize the importance of casts as natural history specimens and determine why this method of preservation might be used. This piece goes on to instruct the reader how to create their own casts using a simple method and materials which are readily available to all.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wai K Yeap, Md Hossain
Despite years of research into cognitive mapping, the process remains controversial and little understood. A computational theory of cognitive mapping is needed, but developing it is difficult due to the lack of a clear interpretation of the empirical findings. For example, without knowing what a cognitive map is or how landmarks are defined, how does one develop a computational theory for it? We thus face the conundrum of trying to develop a theory without knowing what is computed. In this paper, we overcome the conundrum by abandoning the idea that the process begins by integrating successive views to form a global map of the environment experienced...
December 11, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Michelle L Baglia, Mei-Tzu C Tang, Kathleen E Malone, Peggy Porter, Christopher I Li
PURPOSE: In situ breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary breast cancer than women in the general population have of developing breast cancer. We have limited understanding of why some women with a previous in situ breast cancer develop second primary breast cancers while others do not. METHODS: In this population-based nested case-control study, we evaluated the association between reproductive and menopausal factors and risk of developing a second primary breast cancer among women with a previous in situ breast cancer...
December 11, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Chris Kenyon, Jozefien Buyze, Teodora Wi
Aims: The reasons why antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged explosively in certain populations but not others are poorly understood. We hypothesized that population level consumption of antimicrobials plays a role. Methods: Using susceptibility data from the World Health Organizations Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme and antimicrobial consumption data from the IMS Health MIDAS database we built linear regression models with country-level cephalosporin, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone consumption (standard doses/1,000 population/year) as the explanatory variable and 1-year lagged ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin resistance as the outcome variables...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Hashem Neshati, Fereshte Sheybani, HamidReza Naderi, MohamadReza Sarvghad, Ahmad Khalifeh Soltani, Elaheh Efterkharpoor, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi
Although there is still much to learn about the types of errors committed in health care and why they occur, enough is known today to recognize that a serious concern exists for patients. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is frequently subject to diagnostic errors. Missed or delayed diagnosis of TB can affect patients and community adversely. Our aim in the present study was at evaluating the type of diagnostic errors in TB patients from symptom onset to diagnosis. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in three university hospitals in Mashhad, Iran...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Naghmeh Foroutan, Jean-Eric Tarride, Feng Xie, Mitchell Levine
Introduction: Budget impact analysis (BIA) in health care, sometimes referred to as resource impact, is the financial change in the use of health resources associated with adding a new drug to a formulary or the adoption of a new health technology. Several national and transnational organizations worldwide have updated their BIA guidelines in the past 4 years. The aim of the present review was to provide a comprehensive list of the key recommendations of BIA guidelines from different countries that may be of interest for those who wish to build or to update BIA guidelines...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Jason Arthur, Petra Duran-Gehring, Christopher Kumetz, Steven Chadwick, Mark McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare, difficult-to-diagnose form of venous thromboembolic disease and is considered a type of stroke. Its presentation is highly variable and may be easily confused for more common and less debilitating or life-threatening diagnoses such as migraine, seizure, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old woman presented with a complaint of bifrontal throbbing headache and blurry vision. A bedside ultrasound of the orbit suggested increased intracranial pressure...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rodrigo García-Muelas, Federico Dattila, Tatsuya Shinagawa, Antonio J Martín, Javier Pérez-Ramírez, Nuria Lopez
The electrochemical reduction of atmospheric CO2 by renewable electricity opens new routes to synthesize fuels and chemicals, but more selective and efficient catalysts are needed. Herein, by combining experimental and first principles studies, we explain why chalcogen-modified copper catalysts are selective towards formate as the only carbon product. On the unmodified copper, adsorbed CO2 is the key intermediate, yielding carbon monoxide and formate as carbon products. On the sulfur- and selenium-modified copper, the chalcogen adatoms are present on the surface and actively participate in the reaction, either by transferring a hydride or by tethering CO2 thus suppressing the formation of CO...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Silvano Milani, Lodovico Benso
BACKGROUND: Maturation is the irreversible biological process leading to adult form or function. The degree of maturation can be derived from the examination of maturity indicators, i.e. of particular aspects of the overall maturation, such as pubertal status, skeletal and dental morphology. Rhythm of maturation of each indicator differs between populations and individuals, because of genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. Skeletal maturation is usually expressed as skeletal age, which is the median age at which a given degree of maturation is attained...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rebecca M Marton, John P A Ioannidis
The potential applications of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells has led to immense interest in developing new protocols to differentiate specific cell types or modifying existing protocols. To investigate to what extent and why new protocols for the same cell types are developed and adopted, we systematically evaluated 158 publications (2004-2017) that differentiated human stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. We categorized each article by degree of novelty and recorded motivations for protocol development...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Eleni N Tsakiri, Sentiljana Gumeni, Kalliopi K Iliaki, Dimitra Benaki, Konstantinos Vougas, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Emmanuel Mikros, Luca Scorrano, Ioannis P Trougakos
Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Aging Cell
Genevra F Murray, Thomas D'Aunno, Valerie A Lewis
Policy Points Accountable care organizations (ACOs) form alliances with management partners to access financial, technical, and managerial support. Alliances between ACOs and management partners are subject to destabilizing tension around decision-making authority, distribution of shared savings, and conflicting goals and values. Management partners may serve either as trainers, ultimately breaking off from the ACO, or as central drivers of the ACO. Management partner participation in ACOs is currently unregulated, and management partners may receive a significant portion (in some cases, majority) of shared savings...
December 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Gemma Radley, Ina Laura Pieper, Bethan R Thomas, Karl Hawkins, Catherine A Thornton
Medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), introduce both foreign materials and artificial shear stress to the circulatory system. The effects these have on leukocytes and the immune response are not well understood. Understanding how these two elements combine to affect leukocytes may reveal why some patients are susceptible to recurrent device-related infections and provide insight into the development of pump thrombosis. Biomaterials - DLC: diamond-like carbon coated stainless steel; Sap: single-crystal sapphire; and Ti: titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were attached to the parallel plates of a rheometer...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
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