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Thomas F O'Brien, Adam Clark, Rob Peters, John Stelling
OBJECTIVES: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance can now be automated to analyze the reports of microbiology laboratories continually without operator assistance It can also be made comprehensive to monitor all the reports of all the world's microbiology laboratories. METHODS AND RESULTS: As illustrated through examples provided in this work, each clinical report can be scanned automatically by algorithms to suspect emerging problems and prompt sampling to confirm such problems, now increasingly by nucleotide sequencing...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Silvan Quax, Marcel van Gerven
Recent advances in machine learning have enabled neural networks to solve tasks humans typically perform. These networks offer an exciting new tool for neuroscience that can give us insight in the emergence of neural and behavioral mechanisms. A big gap remains though between the very deep neural networks that have risen in popularity and outperformed many existing shallow networks in the field of computer vision and the highly recurrently connected human brain. This trend towards ever-deeper architectures raises the question why the brain has not developed such an architecture...
2018: PloS One
Baoxing Song, Richard Mott, Xiangchao Gan
Short insertions, deletions (INDELs) and larger structural variants have been increasingly employed in genetic association studies, but few improvements over SNP-based association have been reported. In order to understand why this might be the case, we analysed two publicly available datasets and observed that 63% of INDELs called in A. thaliana and 64% in D. melanogaster populations are misrepresented as multiple alleles with different functional annotations, i.e. where the same underlying variant is represented by inconsistent alignments leading to different variant calls...
October 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Kilhoe Na, R Kelly Garrett, Michael D Slater
Rumors pose a significant challenge to officials combatting a public health crisis. The flow of unsubstantiated and often inaccurate information can dilute the effects of more accurate messaging. Understanding why rumors thrive in this context is a crucial first step to constraining them. We propose a novel mechanism for explaining rumor acceptance during a health crisis, arguing that the congruence between one's emotional state and the emotion induced by a rumor leads people to believe the rumor. Data collected using a novel experimental design provide preliminary evidence for our emotional congruence hypothesis...
2018: Journal of Health Communication
Noelle L Anglin, Ahmed Amri, Zakaria Kehel, Dave Ellis
Genebanks are responsible for collecting, maintaining, characterizing, documenting, and distributing plant genetic resources for research, education, and breeding purposes. The rationale for requests of plant materials varies highly from areas of anthropology, social science, small-holder farmers, the commercial sector, rehabilitation of degraded systems, all the way to crop improvement and basic research. Matching "the right" accessions to a particular request is not always a straightforward process especially when genetic resource collections are large and the user does not already know which accession or even which species they want to study...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Martha M Robbins, Andrew M Robbins
A focus of socioecological research is to understand how ecological, social, and life history factors influence the variability of social organization within and between species. The genus Gorilla exhibits variability in social organization with western gorilla groups being almost exclusively one-male, yet approximately 40% of mountain gorilla groups are multimale. We review five ultimate causes for the variability in social organization within and among gorilla populations: human disturbance, ecological constraints on group size, risk of infanticide, life history patterns, and population density...
October 16, 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
Fiona R Hay, Rocel Valdez, Jae-Sung Lee, Pompe C Sta Cruz
The length of time that seed lots maintain their viability and vigour in storage has become a trait of interest for rice and other crop and model species. However, different research groups have taken different approaches to measure this trait, including storing seeds under 'natural ageing', accelerated ageing and controlled deterioration test conditions. There has also been a tendency to only use a single germination test result to assess the relative longevity of different genotypes. Here we explain why we have taken a different approach in our GWAS study of seed longevity in Indica rice, and offer suggestions as to how, moving forward, this trait should be assessed to make it possible to improve the longevity / storability of seeds, depending on the target storage environment...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Connor, Kianoush Kashani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing rapidly. Patients on ECMO have a high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) and needing renal replacement therapy (RRT). The aim of this review is to describe different strategies of combining RRT and ECMO and to outline their advantages and drawbacks. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid overload is the most common indication for RRT during ECMO, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the most commonly used modality...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Jessica Pierce, Marc Bekoff
Discussions on the welfare of nonhuman animals in zoos tend to focus on incremental improvements without addressing the underlying problem of captivity. But alterations to the conditions of zoo captivity are irrelevant for animals. Real zoo reform will involve working to completely change the landscape. We offer six necessary reforms to bring zoos into a more ethical future: (1) Shut down bad zoos, now; (2) stop exhibiting animals who cannot and never will do well in captivity; (3) stop killing healthy animals; (4) stop captive breeding; (5) stop moving animals around from one zoo to another; and (6) use the science of animal cognition and emotion on behalf on animals...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Deniz Özçeker, Utkucan Uçkun, Dürdane İslamova, Zeynep Tamay, Nermin Güler
Özçeker D, Uçkun U, İslamova D, Tamay Z, Güler N. Corticosteroid phobia among parents of asthmatic children. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 142-146. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children. Its prevalence and morbidity have been rising in recent decades. Pediatric asthma causes a significant burden on families; allergen-avoidance measures, uncontrolled disease, and disease severity which are the major cost predictors of childhood asthma in Turkey. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are considered as cornerstone medications in asthma management which reduce asthma morbidity and mortality...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Aman Kansal, Chandler A Long, Manesh R Patel, W Schuyler Jones
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a major health concern affecting more than 200 million people worldwide and studies have shown PAD to be a strong predictor of mortality, morbidity, and disability. The management of PAD is multi-tiered and advancements in technology have given physicians more options for endovascular revascularization if medical therapy does not result in substantial improvement. Many randomized controlled trials (RCT) have reported efficacy of various therapies including laser atherectomy, stent technology, and drug-coated balloons over standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; however, uncertainty regarding the best standard of care remains unclear due to a lack of head to head comparisons between novel therapies...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Otília C d'Almeida, Inês R Violante, Bruno Quendera, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: It has remained a mystery why some genetic mitochondrial disorders affect predominantly specific cell types such as the retinal ganglion cell. This is particularly intriguing concerning retinal and cortical function since they are tightly linked in health and disease. Autosomal dominant optic neuropathy (ADOA) is a mitochondrial disease that affects the ganglion cell. However, it is unknown whether alterations are also present in the visual cortex, namely in excitation/inhibition balance...
October 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Isabelle Bourdeau Julien, Chantelle F Sephton, Paul A Dutchak
Advancements in metabolomic and genomic research tools are revealing new insights into how metabolic networks can influence skeletal muscle fiber composition. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent progress of metabolite-dependent signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that control glycolytic and oxidative metabolism and ultimately influence the type of fibers in muscle depots. These mechanisms expand the role of metabolites beyond that of basic building blocks of cellular components, and illustrate how particular metabolites can take an active role in regulating metabolic homeostasis and fiber adaptation...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Marcio S Ferreira, Paulo H R Aride, Adalberto L Val
Background: In the wild, matrinchã ( Brycon amazonicus ) and tambaqui ( Colossoma macropomum ) rely strongly on their swimming capacity to perform feeding, migration and reproductive activities. Sustained swimming speed in fishes is performed almost exclusively by aerobic red muscles. The white muscle has high contraction power, but fatigue quickly, being used mainly in sprints and bursts, with a maximum duration of few seconds. The Ucrit test, an incremental velocity procedure, is mainly a measure of the aerobic capacity of a fish, but with a high participation of anaerobic metabolism close to the velocity of fatigue...
2018: PeerJ
Fritz Geiser, Clare Stawski, Anna C Doty, Christine E Cooper, Julia Nowack
Although wildfires are increasing globally, available information on how mammals respond behaviourally and physiologically to fires is scant. Despite a large number of ecological studies, often examining animal diversity and abundance before and after fires, the reasons as to why some species perform better than others remain obscure. We examine how especially small mammals, which generally have high rates of energy expenditure and food requirements, deal with fires and post-fire conditions. We evaluate whether mammalian torpor, characterised by substantial reductions in body temperature, metabolic rate and water loss, plays a functional role in survival of mammals impacted by fires...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Min-Rui Wang, Zhen-Hua Cui, Jing-Wei Li, Xin-Yi Hao, Lei Zhao, Qiao-Chun Wang
Production of virus-free plants is necessary to control viral diseases, import novel cultivars from other countries, exchange breeding materials between countries or regions and preserve plant germplasm. In vitro techniques represent the most successful approaches for virus eradication. In vitro thermotherapy-based methods, including combining thermotherapy with shoot tip culture, chemotherapy, micrografting or shoot tip cryotherapy, have been successfully established for efficient eradication of various viruses from almost all of the most economically important crops...
2018: Plant Methods
Annemarie van Nieuwenhuijze, Oliver Burton, Pierre Lemaitre, Alice E Denton, Ana Cascalho, Rose E Goodchild, Bert Malengier-Devlies, Bénédicte Cauwe, Michelle A Linterman, Stephanie Humblet-Baron, Adrian Liston
The nucleopore is an essential structure of the eukaryotic cell, regulating passage between the nucleus and cytoplasm. While individual functions of core nucleopore proteins have been identified, the role of other components, such as Nup210, are poorly defined. Here, through the use of an unbiased ENU mutagenesis screen for mutations effecting the peripheral T cell compartment, we identified a Nup210 mutation in a mouse strain with altered CD4/CD8 T cell ratios. Through the generation of Nup210 knockout mice we identified Nup210 as having a T cell-intrinsic function in the peripheral homeostasis of T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rutger A Middelburg, M Sesmu Arbous, Judith G Middelburg, Johanna G van der Bom
Evidence-based medicine has become associated with a preference for randomized trials. Randomization is a powerful tool against both known and unknown confounding. However, due to cost-induced constraints in size, randomized trials are seldom able to provide the subgroup analyses needed to gain much insight into effect modification. To apply results to an individual patient, effect modification needs to be considered. Results from randomized trials are therefore often difficult to apply in daily clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Thomas E Keller, Bahia Overton, Julia M Pryce, Johanna E Barry, Andrew Sutherland, David L DuBois
Formal youth mentoring programs tend to focus on the mentor-mentee dyad as the primary relationship cultivated and supported. The interests and preferences of the parent or caregiver in the mentoring relationship may receive little attention. In this study, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with primary caregivers (N=20) of early adolescent girls participating in a Big Brothers Big Sisters community-based mentoring program to explore reasons why they wanted mentors for their daughters. Thematic analysis revealed that caregivers expected mentors to support their daughters as trusted companions, confidants, and conduits to opportunities and services...
May 2018: Children and Youth Services Review
Esther Ortega, Srinivasan Rengachari, Ziad Ibrahim, Naghmeh Hoghoughi, Jonathan Gaucher, Alex S Holehouse, Saadi Khochbin, Daniel Panne
The transcriptional co-activator p300 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is typically recruited to transcriptional enhancers and regulates gene expression by acetylating chromatin. Here we show that the activation of p300 directly depends on the activation and oligomerization status of transcription factor ligands. Using two model transcription factors, IRF3 and STAT1, we demonstrate that transcription factor dimerization enables the trans-autoacetylation of p300 in a highly conserved and intrinsically disordered autoinhibitory lysine-rich loop, resulting in p300 activation...
October 15, 2018: Nature
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