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N M Kapranov, Yu O Davydova, I V Gal'tseva, N A Petinati, N V Sats, N I Drize, L A Kuz'mina, E N Parovichnikova, V G Savchenko
Analysis of changes in lymphocyte subpopulations during co-culturing with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) revealed two distinct MSC groups: one group (A) increased HLA-DR expression on lymphocytes during co-culturing and the other (B) did not change it in comparison with lymphocyte monoculture. In stromal cells interacting with lymphocytes, expression of HLA-DR molecules was initiated, but only in samples that induced enhanced expression on lymphocytes and irrespectively of whether allogeneic or autologous lymphocytes were used for co-culturing with MSC...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Steven Kelk, Fabio Pardi, Celine Scornavacca, Leo van Iersel
Phylogenetic networks are often constructed by merging multiple conflicting phylogenetic signals into a directed acyclic graph. It is interesting to explore whether a network constructed in this way induces biologically-relevant phylogenetic signals that were not present in the input. Here we show that, given a multiple alignment A for a set of taxa X and a rooted phylogenetic network N whose leaves are labelled by X, it is NP-hard to locate a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree displayed by N (with respect to A) even when the level of N-the maximum number of reticulation nodes within a biconnected component-is 1 and A contains only 2 distinct states...
August 19, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Tunde Nureini Oyebanji, Ganiyu Oyediran Oseni, Ismail Mohammed Inuwa, Jameel Ismail Ahmad, Sadiq Garba, Lawal Yusuf
INTRODUCTION: Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is a heterogenous neoplasm of variable histological grade. DDLPS uncommonly arises from the chest wall. There are limited data available about the tumor's response to chemotherapy and accessible reports indicate minimal benefits. Surgery is thus the cornerstone of management. Here, we demonstrate an uncommon situation where chemotherapy was used to arrest bleeding from a giant DDLPS that was refractory to all available hemostatic agents...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Adrian Davies, Alan Holt
In spite of considerable research, and many clinical trials involving thousands of patients, there is a conspicuous lack of antioxidant therapies available. In this paper we present results for the interaction and neutralization of a free radical species. We adopt two modeling techniques, one based upon Gillespieâ;;s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm and one based upon a discrete Markov chain. An advantage of these models is that they incorporate the number of molecules present per unit volume, and with the Markov chain model, the relative dimensions of these molecules...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Alexander Vandenbohede, Ilka Wallis, Tine Alleman
Subsurface iron removal (SIR) is an in-situ technique to lower the iron content of extracted groundwater. Through cyclic injection of oxygenated water ferrous iron oxidises and precipitates as iron hydroxide in a zone surrounding the extraction well, enhancing the sorptive capacity of the aquifer. During subsequent pumping phases, groundwater traverses the oxidation zone and ferrous iron sorbs to available and newly formed exchange and sorption sites, thereby retarding the breakthrough of dissolved iron. The process is well-understood in regards to the retardation of iron...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Roland Cormier, Michael Elliott, Jake Rice
Marine policy and management has to cope with a plethora of human activities that cause pressures leading to changes to the natural and human systems. Accordingly, it requires many policy and management responses to address traditional, cultural, social, ecological, technical, and economic policy objectives. Because of this, we advocate that a fully-structured approach using the IEC/ISO 31010 Bow-tie analysis will allow all elements to be integrated for a cost-effective system. This industry-standard system, described here with examples for the marine environment, will fulfil many of the demands by the users and uses of the marine system and the regulators of those users and uses...
August 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ayako Kumagai, Tsutomu Sasaki, Kenta Matsuoka, Masayoshi Abe, Toshihide Tabata, Yumi Itoh, Hiroyuki Fuchino, Sartagul Wugangerile, Mika Suga, Tomoko Yamaguchi, Hidehisa Kawahara, Yasuo Nagaoka, Kenji Kawabata, Miho Kusuda Furue, Hiroshi Takemori
Dysfunction of mitochondrial activity is often associated with the onset and progress of neurodegenerative diseases. Membrane depolarization induced by Na+ influx increases intracellular Ca2+ levels in neurons, which upregulates mitochondrial activity. However, overlimit of Na+ influx and its prolonged retention ultimately cause excitotoxicity leading to neuronal cell death. To return the membrane potential to the normal level, Na+ /K+ -ATPase exchanges intracellular Na+ with extracellular K+ by consuming a large amount of ATP...
August 18, 2018: Synapse
Suzanne A E Nooij, Paolo Pretto, Heinrich H Bülthoff
Full-field visual rotation around the vertical axis induces a sense of self-motion (vection), optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and, eventually, also motion sickness (MS). If the lights are then suddenly switched off, optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN) occurs. This is due to the discharge of the velocity storage mechanism (VSM), a central integrative network that has been suggested to be involved in motion sickness. We previously showed that visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) following optokinetic stimulation is dependent on vection intensity...
August 17, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Rebecca Treiman
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial on statistical learning and its role in learning to spell and to discuss the implications of the research for educators. Method: The tutorial begins with a discussion of statistical learning and its characteristics. It then discusses research on how statistical learning plays out in learning to spell, how spelling should be taught, and similarities and differences among learners. The focus is on the learning of English, although studies of other alphabetic writing systems are also considered...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Joanne Arciuli
Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how learning to read can be thought of as learning statistical regularities and to demonstrate why this is relevant for theory, modeling, and practice. This tutorial also shows how triangulation of methods and cross-linguistic research can be used to gain insight. Method: The impossibility of conveying explicitly all of the regularities that children need to acquire in a deep orthography, such as English, can be demonstrated by examining lesser-known probabilistic orthographic cues to lexical stress...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Mary Alt
The purpose of this special issue is to introduce speech-language pathologists to the topic of statistical learning and how this is relevant to their practice. In the following articles, the concept of statistical learning will be explained, and readers will find (a) research studies showing how children with special needs can use statistical learning to learn language; (b) tutorials that show why statistical learning is meaningful for special populations; and (c) tutorials that show how statistical learning is involved in language, reading, and spelling...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Jeannine M Salamone, Wanda Lucas, Shelley B Brundage, Jamie N Holloway, Sherri M Stahl, Nora E Carbine, Margery London, Naomi Greenwood, Rosa Goyes, Deborah Charles Chisholm, Erin L Price, Roberta Carlin, Susan Winarsky, Kirsten Brecht Baker, Julia Maues
Advocates bring unique and important viewpoints to the cancer research process, ensuring that scientific and medical advances are patient-centered and relevant. In this article, we discuss the benefits of engaging advocates in cancer research and underscore ways in which both the scientific and patient communities can facilitate this mutually beneficial collaboration. We discuss how to establish and nurture successful scientist-advocate relationships throughout the research process. We review opportunities that are available to advocates who want to obtain training in the evaluation of cancer research...
August 17, 2018: Cancer Research
Kate Parkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Tom Hume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Giuseppe Lofano, Matthew J Gorman, Ashraf S Yousif, Wen-Han Yu, Julie M Fox, Anne-Sophie Dugast, Margaret E Ackerman, Todd J Suscovich, Joshua Weiner, Dan Barouch, Hendrik Streeck, Susan Little, Davey Smith, Douglas Richman, Douglas Lauffenburger, Bruce D Walker, Michael S Diamond, Galit Alter
HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) confer protection after passive immunization, but the immunological mechanisms that drive their development are poorly understood. Structural features of bNAbs indicate that they originate from extensive germinal center (GC) selection, which relies on persistent GC activity. However, why a fraction of infected individuals are able to successfully drive more effective affinity maturation is unclear. Delivery of antigens in the form of antibody-immune complexes (ICs), which bind to complement receptors (CRs) or Fc receptors (FcRs) on follicular dendritic cells, represents an effective mechanism for antigen delivery to the GC...
August 17, 2018: Science Immunology
Laura B Amsden, Neal H Shorstein, Helene Fevrier, Liyan Liu, James Carolan, Lisa J Herrinton
OBJECTIVE: We surveyed cataract surgeons to gain insight into their perceptions of and attitudes about immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: All active cataract surgeons in Kaiser Permanente Northern California in 2016. METHODS: Online survey that asked cataract surgeons why they did or did not perform ISBCS, their interest in offering ISBCS, concerns about the procedure, and desired supports...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Shona J Lee, Jennifer J Palmer
BACKGROUND: The recent development of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) enables elimination programmes to decentralise serological screening services to frontline health facilities. However, patients must still undertake multiple onwards referral steps to either be confirmed or discounted as cases. Accurate surveillance thus relies not only on the performance of diagnostic technologies but also on referral support structures and patient decisions. This study explored why some RDT-positive suspects failed to complete the diagnostic referral process in West Nile, Uganda...
August 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Elisabeth Mangrio, Slobodan Zdravkovic, Elisabeth Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Research shows that, depending on the route of travel during the escape, the journey presents the refugees with different health risks. Traumatic events during flight may have long-lasting physical and psychological effects on the refugee children. Therefore, it is important to illuminate the experiences that refugee families arriving in Sweden have endured during their flight. A qualitative study was conducted through interviews with fifteen recently arrived Syrian refugee families...
August 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Nan Cui, Xiaoguang Zhang, Zibo Zheng, Hengying Xu, Wenbo Zhang, Xianfeng Tang, Lixia Xi, Yuanyuan Fang, Liangchuan Li
In this paper, we highlight that it is inadequate to describe the rotation of the state of polarization (RSOP) in a fiber channel with the 2-parameter description model, which was mostly used in the literature. This inadequate model may result in problems in polarization demultiplexing (PolDemux) because the RSOP in a fiber channel is actually a 3-parameter issue that will influence the state of polarization (SOP) of the optical signal propagating in the fiber and is different from the 2-parameter SOP itself...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Xiang-An Zhao, Guangmei Chen, Yong Liu, Yuxin Chen, Hongyan Wu, Yali Xiong, Guiyang Wang, Bei Jia, Yang Li, Juan Xia, Jian Wang, Xiaomin Yan, Zhaoping Zhang, Rui Huang, Chao Wu
Curcumin has been reported to have anti-fibrotic effect. However, the anti-fibrotic mechanism of curcumin for liver fibrosis remains obscure. In the presenting study, we aimed to investigate whether curcumin reduce chemokines secretion by inhibiting kupffer cells (KCs) activation to decrease Ly6Chi monocyte infiltration in the treatment of liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-injection in mice. Mice in curcumin group received curcumin treatment by gavage...
July 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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