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Psychology Of

Daniel A Yudkin, Rotem Pick, Elina Yewon Hur, Nira Liberman, Yaacov Trope
Agents must sometimes decide whether to exploit a known resource or search for potentially more profitable options. Here, we investigate the role of psychological distancing in promoting exploratory behavior. We argue that exploration dilemmas pit the value of a reward ("desirability") against the difficulty or uncertainty of obtaining it ("feasibility"). Based on construal level theory, which suggests that psychological distance increases the importance of rewards' desirability (vs. feasibility), we expect that psychological distance will increase exploration...
October 16, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lea-Sophie Borgmann, Petra Rattay, Thomas Lampert
The lives of single mothers and fathers are associated with specific demands, which may result in higher psychosocial and physical strain compared to parents sharing their household with a partner. In this context, social support is known to function as a protective resource. The present article examines how different levels of social support interrelate with levels of mental health in single mothers and fathers in Germany. The data is drawn from the surveys 2009, 2010 and 2012 of the study "German Health Update" (GEDA) by the Robert Koch Institute...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Ikenna C Eze, Maria Foraster, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Reto Pieren, Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Rudzik, Thomas Rothe, Marco Pons, Robert Bettschart, Christian Schindler, Christian Cajochen, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Mark Brink, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Transportation noise leads to sleep disturbance and to psychological and physiological sustained stress reactions, which could impact respiratory health. However, epidemiologic evidence on associations of objective transportation noise exposure and also perceived noise annoyance with respiratory morbidity is limited. We investigated independent associations of transportation noise exposure and noise annoyance with prevalent respiratory symptoms and incident asthma in adults. Using 17,138 observations (from 7049 participants) from three SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults) surveys, we assessed associations of transportation noise exposure and noise annoyance with prevalent respiratory symptoms, and with incident asthma (in 10,657 nested observations from 6377 participants)...
October 12, 2018: Environment International
Su Woan Wo, Lai Choo Ong, Wah Yun Low, Pauline Siew Mei Lai
Because of the nature of epilepsy, and the unpredictability of seizure recurrence, epilepsy requires long-term treatment with medications. As a consequence, epilepsy has a negative pervasive impact in children with epilepsy (CWE), and their parents. Hence, our aim was to explore the needs and challenges of parents and their CWE. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 15 families (12 mothers and 3 fathers) and 15 CWE (aged 8-18 years). Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using the descriptive phenomenology approach...
October 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zsolt Horváth, Róbert Urbán
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use may harm not only the individual drinker, but also the lives of their family members. The stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model emphasizes that the stress experienced by family members could lead to the development of various physical and psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to examine the possible moderating and mediating role of coping on the relationship between stress and strain among family members seeking help due to a relative's alcohol misuse...
October 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Jessica Peterka-Bonetta, Cornelia Sindermann, Peng Sha, Min Zhou, Christian Montag
In the present study, we investigated the relationship between depression and Internet Use Disorder (IUD) and between burnout and IUD among German as well as Chinese college students. Due to cultural differences and their implications for the individual's psychological health, we expected Chinese college students to have in particular higher IUD than German college students. We further expected to find positive relationships between depression and IUD and between burnout and IUD. Furthermore, we believed these relationships to reflect global effects and thus to be present in both samples...
August 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Seth M Levine, Anja Wackerle, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
Humans experience emotions every day. Traditionally, psychology has described emotions through discrete labels (e.g. happy, afraid) or standardized affective dimensions (e.g. valence, arousal), and neuroscience has more recently sought the neurobiological basis of emotions via functional neuroimaging. However, by treating emotions similarly among everyone, we neglect that emotions are individualized; thus the overall relational structure of an individual's emotion information may be vital in understanding how the brain represents emotions...
October 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jaswant Bajwa, Mulugeta Abai, Sidonia Couto, Sean Kidd, Aytak Dibavar, Kwame McKenzie
Drawing on a 2-year community-based participatory research project, and grounded in the theories of positive psychology, this article examines the effects of targeted educational support on refugee participants' psychological capital (PsyCap)-hope, self-efficacy, resilience, and optimism-as well as life satisfaction. Two groups of participants attended a 14-week trauma-informed, educational support program in 2 consecutive sessions. The program was designed in collaboration with George Brown College, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Wellesley Institute, and the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Virginia Sánchez-Jiménez, Noelia Muñoz-Fernández, Javier Ortega-Rivera
This study presents the first evaluation of Dat-e Adolescence, a dating violence prevention program aimed at adolescents in Spain. A cluster randomized control trial was used involving two groups (a control group and experimental group) and two waves (pre-test and post-test six months apart). 1,764 students from across seven state high schools in Andalucía (southern Spain) participated in the study (856 in the control group and 908 in the experimental group); 52.3% were boys (n = 918), with ages ranging from 11 to 19 years (average age = 14...
2018: PloS One
Dennis Murr, Philip Feichtinger, Paul Larkin, Donna O'Connor, Oliver Höner
Within the multidimensional nature of soccer talent, recently there has been an increasing interest in psychological characteristics. The aim of this present research was to systematically review the predictive value of psychological talent predictors and provide better comprehension of the researchers' methodological approaches and the empirical evidence for individual factors (i.e., psychomotor, perceptual-cognitive and personality-related). Results highlighted heterogeneous study designs (e.g., participants, measurement methods, statistical analyses) which may limit the comparability of studies' findings...
2018: PloS One
Carol Sinnott, Tony Foley, Justin Forsyth, Kathleen McLoughlin, Linda Horgan, Colin P Bradley
OBJECTIVES: To review the empirical evidence on approaches used by Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) in fitness to drive (FtD) consultations with people living with cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Scoping review of empirical literature focused on primary studies of any design. SETTING: Primary care practice. PARTICIPANTS: PCPs or their equivalent and/ or individuals with cognitive impairment across the spectrum of mild cognitive impairment to dementia...
2018: PloS One
Aklilu Abrham Roba, Tamirat Tesfaye Dasa, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Abyot Asfaw, Habtamu Mitiku, Zelalem Teklemariam, Mahantash Naganuri, Bahubali Jinnappa Geddugol, Frehiwot Mesfin, Hilina Befikadu, Eden Tesfaye
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) impairs respiratory physiology and functional ability, resulting in economic and social dependence upon others. Patients with tuberculosis especially multi drug resistant (MDR-TB) suffer from social isolation, stigma, lack of support and economic constraints. In Ethiopia, the trend of MDR TB is increasing and becoming a serious public health problem. However, little is known about patients except treatment outcomes, financial burden and psychological distress with serious deficiency of data on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)...
2018: PloS One
John S Y Chan, Guanmin Liu, Danxia Liang, Kanfeng Deng, Jiamin Wu, Jin H Yan
In contemporary society, people experience considerable stress in their daily lives. Therefore, developing effective approaches and convenient means to cope with their mood problems is important nowadays. Physical activity has been consistently reported as a cost-effective way to improve physical fitness, prevent mental illnesses, and alleviate mood problems. In this systematic review, the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality on mood change are discussed. Results show that moderate-intensity anaerobic exercise is associated with greater mood improvements...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Tricia S Williams
Childhood arterial ischemic stroke often involves basal ganglia and thalamus but little is known about neuropsychological outcomes in this group. We examined intellectual ability, academics, attention, executive function, and psychological diagnoses in children and adolescents (6-20 years of age) with childhood stroke involving the basal ganglia (n = 32) or thalamus (n = 12). Intellectual ability was age-appropriate but working memory was significantly lower than expected. Compared to the normative mean, the stroke group exhibited significantly weaker performance in reading comprehension, math fluency, attention, and greater challenges with executive function...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Stephanie Madon, Lee Jussim, Max Guyll, Heather Nofziger, Elizabeth R Salib, Jennifer Willard, Kyle C Scherr
A recurring theme in the psychological literature is that the self-fulfilling effect of stereotypes can accumulate across perceivers. This article provides the first empirical support for this long-standing hypothesis. In three experiments (Ns = 123-241), targets more strongly confirmed a stereotype as the number of perceivers who held stereotypic expectations about them increased. A fourth experiment (N = 121) showed that new perceivers judged targets according to the stereotypic behaviors they had previously been channeled to adopt, an effect that even occurred among perceivers who were privy to the fact that targets' behavior had been shaped by the actions of others...
November 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Settling for less out of fear of being single" by Stephanie S. Spielmann, Geoff MacDonald, Jessica A. Maxwell, Samantha Joel, Diana Peragine, Amy Muise and Emily A. Impett ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 2013[Dec], Vol 105[6], 1049-1073). In the article, the Fear of Being Single Scale used in Study 3 was in fact a version adapted for those currently involved in relationships. In error, it was reported that participants completed the exact same Fear of Being Single Scale as in the other studies in the manuscript, with items generally worded as though participants were currently single (e...
November 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Julienne E Bower, Joshua Wiley, Laura Petersen, Michael R Irwin, Steve W Cole, Patricia A Ganz
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer treatment, but there is considerable variability in fatigue severity and persistence among survivors. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal trajectories of fatigue after breast cancer treatment and to identify predictors of varying fatigue trajectories. METHODS: Women (N = 191) from the Mind-Body Study completed assessments after primary treatment for early stage breast cancer and at regular follow-ups that occurred up to 6 years after treatment (M = 4...
November 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Rachel Campbell, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Liesbeth Delesie, Els Tobback, An Mariman, Dirk Vogelaers, Athanasios Mouratidis
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings indicate that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) report significant day-to-day fluctuations in subjective energy and sleep. Herein, we examined whether daily variation in the satisfaction and frustration of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness would contribute to daily variation in subjective energy and quality and quantity of sleep. In addition, we examined whether daily variation in sleep would contribute to daily need-based experiences through (i...
October 15, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
T D Stanley, Evan C Carter, Hristos Doucouliagos
Can recent failures to replicate psychological research be explained by typical magnitudes of statistical power, bias or heterogeneity? A large survey of 12,065 estimated effect sizes from 200 meta-analyses and nearly 8,000 papers is used to assess these key dimensions of replicability. First, our survey finds that psychological research is, on average, afflicted with low statistical power. The median of median power across these 200 areas of research is about 36%, and only about 8% of studies have adequate power (using Cohen's 80% convention)...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Daniel G Lannin, David L Vogel, Max Guyll, Andrew J Seidman
This research was an examination of the effects of two types of self-affirmation interventions in reducing threat responses associated with receiving help-seeking information. Help-seeking information can be threatening to one's positive self-perceptions and people may avoid seeking such information to protect themselves. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values affirmation) may bolster self-integrity and mitigate this avoidance, and it is possible that reflecting on safe, close social relationships (social affirmation) could exhibit similar effects...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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