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Psychology Of

Johanna G Winkler, Eva J Brandl, H Joachim Bretz, Andreas Heinz, Meryam Schouler-Ocak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess asylum seekers' views on their legal situations, asylum procedures and living conditions, and the relationship of these factors towards psychological stress. METHODS: 650 asylum seekers in Berlin received a questionnaire. RESULTS: 76,3 % (N = 496) completed the questionnaires in full. According to psychological test criteria, 74,6 % (N = 370) of these respondents indicated symptoms of mental disorders...
December 12, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
Aaron M Ogletree, Mark Brennan-Ing, Rosemary Blieszner, Stephen E Karpiak, Laura P Sands
Background and Objectives: Older adults with HIV face greater health burden than HIV-uninfected counterparts. Little is known about resources that might mediate the influence of physiological health burden on psychological well-being. Informed by the stress process model, we assessed the influence of multifaceted health burden indicators on depressive symptoms and evaluated the mediating effects of social support adequacy. Research Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling with data from 640 older men who participated in the Research on Older Adults with HIV study in the United States...
December 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Pariya L Fazeli, Jessica L Montoya, Chastity N McDavid, David J Moore
Background and Objective: As HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals age, there is a need to understand successful aging (SA) from the patient perspective. This study compared SA definitions between HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) older adults and then examined correlates of SA categories. Research Design and Methods: Ninety-three HIV+ and 46 HIV- older (aged 50+) adults provided brief definitions of SA, which was examined using content analysis. We then compared the frequency of SA categories by serostatus and examined the correlates of SA categories within both groups...
December 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Mark Hamer, Adrian Bauman, Joshua A Bell, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Background: The purpose of a negative control is to reproduce a condition that cannot involve the hypothesized causal mechanism, but does involve the same sources of bias and confounding that may distort the primary association of interest. Observational studies suggest physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), although potential sources of bias, including reverse causation and residual confounding, make it difficult to infer causality. The aim was to employ a negative control outcome to explore the extent to which the association between physical activity and CVD mortality is explained by confounding...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Qaiser Suleman, Ishtiaq Hussain, Saqib Shehzad, Makhdoom Ali Syed, Sadaf Ayub Raja
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived occupational stress and psychological well-being among secondary school heads in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 402 secondary school heads (male n = 260, female n = 142) was selected through multistage sampling technique. A descriptive, quantitative and correlative research design was used. For gathering information from the participants, two standardized tools i.e., "Occupational Stress Index (OSI)" and "Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scale (RPWB)" were used for measuring perceived occupational stress and psychological well-being respectively...
2018: PloS One
Jiangjie Sun, Liping Zhang, Ruochuan Sun, Yuanyuan Jiang, Xiuyun Chen, Chengsen He, Jiuchang Wei
BACKGROUND: The tension in doctor-patient relationships is becoming progressively greater due to the high expectations of patients and the physicians' work pressure. Recent studies have addressed factors which affect the tension of doctor-patient relationships, and our study continues this trend by looking at the influence of resiliency and physician trust in the patient (PTP), that is, how much the doctor trusts the patient. METHODS: Based on a survey of 329 physicians, a descriptive analysis of measured data was done using SPSS 19...
2018: PloS One
Jenna K Rieder, Lorie S Goshin, D R Gina Sissoko, Olena Kleshchova, Mariann R Weierich
BACKGROUND: Community criminal justice supervised mothers are an underserved population who experience high rates of psychological distress and unique parenting challenges, but little is known about physiological stress system function in this population. OBJECTIVE: We tested the salivary biomarkers of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function as predictors of subjective maternal stress. METHOD: We recruited 23 mothers (age: M = 35...
January 2019: Nursing Research
Kitty Galiger-Dobos, Ferenc Túry
Common gynecological complications of various eating disorders include infertility, unwanted pregnancy, miscarriage, sexual dysfunction and complications in the treatment of gynecological cancers. Women with eating disorders typically see their gynecologists because of menstrual and other endocrine disorders or unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms, and often report on psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression or decreased libido). In spite of anovulation, menstruation may occur and ovulation without menstruation may be possible, which may lead to an increased incidence of unwanted pregnancies in case of prior or current eating disorders...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
Émilie Dupret, Christine Bocéréan, Martine Feltrin, Élise Chemolle, Julie Lebon
OBJECTIVES: The study presents the French validation of the scale of Need for Recovery after work (Need for Recovery) as well as the average scores according to sex, age, occupation and branch of industry. METHOD: A representative sample of the French employees completed a questionnaire made up of the Need for Recovery Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Analyses of internal consistency led us to withdraw an item from original scale; validity as well as discriminating quality were evaluated with the adequate analyses...
July 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Alberto Pena-Gayo, Víctor Manuel González-Chordá, Águeda Cervera-Gasch, Desirée Mena-Tudela
OBJECTIVES: the current study aimed to adapt the Self-Transcendence Scale (STS) to the Spanish context and analyse its psychometric properties. METHOD: the STS was administered to a general Spanish population of adults (i.e., older than 20 years; n = 116) through an online platform. The Psychological Well-Being (PWB) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-being - modified version for healthy people (FACIT-Sp-Non-Illness) scales were also applied in two moments separated by an interval of 15 days...
December 10, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Cristian Roncada, Karina Soldera, Julia Andrade, Luísa Carolina Bischoff, Bianca Martininghi Bugança, Thiago de Araujo Cardoso, Paulo Márcio Pitrez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of quality of life of parents/caregivers of children with and without diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: Parents of children with asthma (asthma group) undergoing outpatient care and parents of children without asthma or asthma in remission (control group) were selected from public schools. They answered a questionnaire about quality of life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life- WHOQOL-BREF), previously validated for the study population...
October 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Raquel Pellizzari Calixto, Cristina Flores, Carlos Fernando Francesconi
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease frequently affects patients at working age, compromising their quality of life in several levels: physical, psychological, familial and social. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Inflammatory bowel disease on quality of life, anxiety and depression in Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate quality of life and its correlation with psychological aspects of patients with inflammatory bowel disease through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
July 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi Gabatz, Eda Schwartz, Viviane Marten Milbrath, Hudson Cristiano Wander de Carvalho, Celmira Lange, Marilu Correa Soares
OBJECTIVE: to understand the perspective of caregivers about the formation and disruption of bonds with institutionalized children. METHOD: a qualitative research that used as a theoretical framework the Attachment Theory and the Symbolic Interactionism, and the Grounded Theory as methodological framework. Participating in the study were 15 female caregivers of children aged zero to three years, from a child care institution in the south of Brazil, from April to July 2015...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Grey Y Ceballos, Cristiane S Paula, Edith L Ribeiro, Darci N Santos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the service use profile of Child and Adolescent Psychosocial Care Centers (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-Juvenil [CAPSi]) in Brazil regarding diagnostic categories, sociodemographic aspects, and care modalities between 2008 and 2012. METHODS: A descriptive, ecological study was performed using data from the Unified Health System regarding high-complexity procedure authorizations (Autorização de Procedimentos de Alta Complexidade [APAC]) for the period from 2008-2012...
December 6, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Alejandro Camacho Alpuente, Francisca Anaya Cintas, Chiara Foà, Chiara Cosentino
BACKGROUND: Thousands of caregivers around the world take care of impaired people, with negative repercussions on their physical, psychological, social and economic resources. The need to promote caregivers' wellbeing is internationally recognized, thus reducing health inequalities. Mindfulness is a powerful tool, directly related to the reduction of stress, able to increase skills and attitudes promoting well-being. The basis of this project of community development based on active health, is the self-care achieved through mindfulness...
December 7, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Kent R Kerley, Rashaan A DeShay, Heith Copes
People who use illicit drugs face significant physical risks in the acquisition, use, and aftermath of their use. This is particularly the case among those who use heroin in view of recent spikes in heroin-associated overdoses, injuries, and deaths. Using a restrictive deterrence framework, we identify the risks that women associate with chronic heroin use and the ways they seek to manage those risks. We also examine psychological and physiological disinhibitors that contribute to women reducing use of risk reduction strategies...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Emanuele Preti, Erica Casini, Juliette Richetin, Chiara De Panfilis, Andrea Fontana
In this article, we focus on rejection sensitivity (RS) in adolescents. Although the RS model distinguishes clearly between the emotional (i.e., anger and anxiety) and the cognitive (i.e., expectation of rejection) components, research has rarely examined their unique connection with psychological problems. We argue that considering the three components separately would provide additional insights regarding the relationship between RS and psychological problems. We aimed to test the goodness of fit of a three-factor solution and to investigate the validity of the three components separately in predicting self- and interpersonal functioning in adolescents...
December 12, 2018: Assessment
Ashima Pyngottu, Helene Werner, Phaedra Lehmann, Christian Balmer
The absence of cardiac symptoms, the improved exercise tolerance and the increased life expectancy are the advantages of a successful cardiac device therapy. Nevertheless, the fact of a lifelong device dependency, the inherent possibility of device malfunction and the progression of the underlying heart disease may impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the psychological adjustment of these individuals. To date, an overview of findings on these topics is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence on generic and disease-specific HRQoL and psychological adjustment in paediatric patients with a pacemaker (PM) or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)...
December 11, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Sonja Zamrik, Federica Giachero, Michael Heldmann, Kai O Hensel, Stefan Wirth, Andreas C Jenke
The importance for mortality and morbidity of an in-house pediatric surgery unit for premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains undefined. Data on 389 consecutive very low birth weight infants with a birth weight <1250 g admitted between 2009 and 2014 was retrospectively analyzed in two almost identical neonatal intensive care units. Epidemiological data (n=172 and n=217, respectively) were comparable. Incidence of NEC stage II+ was significantly higher in center 1 (15.1 versus 5.5%, n=18 versus 6)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jeanette M Bennett, Glenn Reeves, George E Billman, Joachim P Sturmberg
Siloed or singular system approach to disease management is common practice, developing out of traditional medical school education. Textbooks of medicine describe a huge number of discrete diseases, usually in a systematic fashion following headings like etiology, pathology, investigations, differential diagnoses, and management. This approach suggests that the body has a multitude of ways to respond to harmful incidences. However, physiology and systems biology provide evidence that there is a simple mechanism behind this phenotypical variability...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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