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Psychology Of

A R Ruhaila, H C Chong
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, correlates and independent predictors of self-reported depression, anxiety and stress in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Hospital Melaka. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using convenient sampling of 192 RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Clinic outpatient appointment, Hospital Melaka from June 2013 to December 2013. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) questionnaire was used to evaluate symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress...
August 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Yangyang Qian, Wen Qin, Chengchao Zhou, Dandan Ge, Li Zhang, Long Sun
INTRODUCTION: Institutional care has been strongly promoted in China to meet seniors' long-term care needs. Empty-nest elderly, in comparison with their counterparts, have less social support and fewer caring networks. This study aimed to compare the utilisation willingness for institutional care and its predictors between empty-nest and non-empty-nest seniors. METHODS: A total of 3923 seniors were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression models were used to understand the association between the living arrangements of the elderly households and willingness for institutional care and to identify the predictors of the utilisation willingness for institutional care among empty nesters and non-empty nesters...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Mariana Bonati de Matos, Carolina Coelho Scholl, Jéssica Puchalski Trettim, Mariane Lopez Molina, Mariana Carret Soares, Fernanda Teixeira Coelho, Rochele Dias Castelli, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho, Luciana de Avila Quevedo, Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: The parental bonding is influenced by two dimensions: care and control or protection over the child of both parents. The lack of care during childhood may make the individual more susceptible to the onset of psychiatric disorders when adult. These psychiatric disorders when present during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the health of pregnant women and children. The aim of this study was to assess the association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in pregnant adolescents and the perception of parental bonding...
August 16, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Tania E Nichols, Stephanie R Damiano, Karen Gregg, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
We aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between psychological characteristics, body size, and body image outcomes in 6- to 7-year-old children. Participants were 202 children (91 boys, 111 girls) assessed when 6 and 7 years old. Body image-related variables, body mass index, and psychological characteristics were assessed. Cross-sectionally in the total sample, lower self-esteem was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, internalization of appearance ideals, and rewards of muscularity...
August 16, 2018: Body Image
Feng Pan, Jing Tian, Dawn Aitken, Flavia Cicuttini, Graeme Jones
OBJECTIVES: To identify distinct pain trajectories over 10.7 years and to examine predictors of identified pain trajectories in an older population and those with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (ROA). METHODS: 963 participants (aged 50-80 years) from a population-based cohort had baseline demographic, psychological, lifestyle and comorbidities data collected. T1-and T2-weighted MRI of the right knee was performed to measure knee structural pathology--cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and effusion-synovitis...
August 16, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
S Reeve, A Nickless, B Sheaves, S L K Stewart, A Gumley, D Fowler, A Morrison, D Freeman
Sleep disturbance is common among individuals at risk of psychosis, yet few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and clinical trajectory. The Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-2) trial provides longitudinal data on sleep duration and individual psychotic experiences from a cohort of individuals at risk of psychosis, which this study utilises in an opportunistic secondary analysis. Shorter and more variable sleep was hypothesised to be associated with more severe psychotic experiences and lower psychological wellbeing...
August 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Andrew R Jones, Saeed Al-Naseer, Owen Bodger, E T R James, Andrew P Davies
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is associated with psychological distress, most commonly manifested as anxiety and/or depression. METHODS: In order to investigate the effect of such distress on outcome from knee arthroplasty, we prospectively investigated the anxiety and depression levels of 104 patients undergoing a total of 107 primary knee arthroplasty procedures and the outcomes they achieved pre-operatively and at six weeks, one year and seven years post-operatively...
August 15, 2018: Knee
Rubén D Ledesma, Jeremías D Tosi, Carlos M Díaz-Lázaro, Fernando M Poó
Introduction The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the most widely used psychological models when it comes to explaining road safety behaviors. Recently, studies have also been conducted from the perspective of dual-process models. However, the present is the first study on road safety behaviors that integrates both perspectives. The study evaluates the roles of both implicit attitudes and TPB constructs in the prediction of seatbelt use. Method A sample of 100 drivers completed: (1) a self-reporting instrument on seatbelt use, (2) a questionnaire addressing TPB constructs, (3) an indirect measure of attitudes (Implicit Association Test), and (4) a social desirability scale...
September 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Jose Luis Vilchez
INTRODUCTION: The effect of traffic signs in the motor behavior of drivers is not completely understood. Knowing how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning, but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social, and psychological consequences of car accidents are well studied. Every effort to find the solution of this social problem is encouraged. METHOD: This study identifies which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, their effect in participants' movement trajectory in a driving-simulation task: the tracking task...
September 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Monica H Breitve, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Luiza J Chwiszczuk, Minna J Hynninen, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the consequences of apathy in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), because previous research on apathy in dementia focused mainly on Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we included patients with AD (n = 128) and patients with DLB (n = 81). At baseline, we analyzed the associations between apathy and cognition in the total sample and in AD and DLB separately. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between apathy and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over 4 years, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the association between apathy and survival or nursing home admission...
August 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Wanjie Tang, Gang Wang, Tao Hu, Qian Dai, Jiajun Xu, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Separation from migrant parents threatens the mental health of approximately 61 million left-behind children (LBC) in China. This study compared the prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems between LBC and controls in Sichuan province, China. METHODS: We randomly recruited LBC and adolescents aged 12-16 years old from 16 rural high schools in 8 counties in Sichuan province. We compared frequency of school bullying, self-esteem, panic symptoms, depression and severe psychological distress(SPD) between LBC and controls from the same schools...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elizabeth Vella, Shane McIver
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Identifying ways to manage the psychological and emotional costs of workplace stress is essential. Mindfulness meditation is reported to support mental wellbeing, however findings are limited in Australian business settings. Accordingly, this study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness meditation program tailored for an Australian public sector workplace. METHODS: A mixed-methods, single-group, pre/post-test design was used to evaluate a proof-of-concept mindfulness intervention...
August 18, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Pierre Maurage, Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Jean-Baptiste Trabut
BACKGROUND: Decision-making impairments have been repeatedly evaluated in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD) using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT, capitalizing on strong theoretical background and ecological significance, allowed identifying large-scale deficits in this population and is now a standard decision-making assessment in therapeutic settings. However, the clinical usefulness of the IGT, particularly regarding its ability to predict relapse and its link with key cognitive-physiological deficits, remains to be clarified...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Wioletta Mikuľáková, Eleonóra Klímová, Lucia Kendrová, Miloslav Gajdoš, Marek Chmelík
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rehabilitation program in changing the perception of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study involved 65 respondents/patients with clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis (54 women, 11 men, average age 46.49 years). The evaluation of the effects of fatigue on the physical, psychological, and psychosocial aspects of life was assessed using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). To test the effectiveness of the neurorehabilitation program, we enrolled 2 groups: the experimental group (EG, n=32, 29 women, 3 men, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 4...
August 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Sharon Chen, Kenneth J Malmberg, Melissa Prince, Shantai Peckoo, Amy H Criss
Retrieval from episodic memory has consequences (Malmberg, Lehman, Annis, Criss, & Shiffrin, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 61; 285-313, 2014). In some cases, the consequences are beneficial, as in the improvement in memory for items that were already retrieved (Izawa, 1970, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2, Pt.1), 340-344; Izawa, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(1): 10-21, 1971; Roediger & Karpicke, Psychological Science, 17(3), 249-255, 2006). In other cases, the consequences are negative, as in the case of output interference (OI; Wickens, Borne, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 440-445, 1963)...
August 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mustafa Tekke, P J Watson, Saim Kayadibi, Zhuo Job Chen
Amanah refers to the accountability of Muslims to their community. In Malaysian Muslim university students (N = 209), an Amanah Scale predicted a stronger sense of identity along with more adaptive religious and psychosocial functioning. Multiple regression analyses identified Accountability to Society as especially influential, but Accountability to Allah exhibited at least some problematic implications. Amanah mediated Identity linkages with some measures of religious and psychological adjustment, but also suppressed Identity relationships with greater self-knowledge and lower anxiety...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Tam Truong Donnelly, Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi, Awad Al-Qahtani, Nidal Asaad, Rajvir Singh
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among cardiovascular patients, depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding how depression is conceptualized from cardiovascular patients' perspective can help with prevention, early detection, and treatment for depression. This might reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among Arab cardiovascular patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Erika A Waters, Caitlin Biddle, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Elizabeth Schofield, Marc T Kiviniemi, Heather Orom, Yuelin Li, Jennifer L Hay
BACKGROUND: Health literacy and numeracy influence many health-related behaviors and outcomes. Health literacy and numeracy have been assessed objectively and subjectively, but interrelationships among the measures and the consistency of their association with health knowledge have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: To increase understanding of the structure and interrelations among objective and subjective health literacy and numeracy and how these constructs relate to knowledge of risk factors of two major diseases...
August 17, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Alessandro Di Rienzo, Roberto Colasanti, Valentina Liverotti, Roberta Benigni, Riccardo Paracino, Gianluca Bizzocchi, Massimo Scerrati, Maurizio Iacoangeli
The early identification and optimized treatment of wound dehiscence are a complex issue, with implications on the patient's clinical and psychological postoperative recovery and on healthcare system costs. The most widely accepted treatment is surgical debridement (also called "wash out"), performed in theater under general anesthesia (GA), followed by either wide-spectrum or targeted antibiotic therapy. Although usually effective, in some cases, such a strategy may be insufficient (generally ill, aged, or immunocompromised patients; poor tissue conditions)...
August 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Sun Young Rha, Mira Park, Jiyeon Lee
PURPOSE: Ascertaining the stability of symptom clusters and identifying sentinel symptoms have been top priorities in symptom cluster research. Identifying sentinel symptoms would help to determine the underlying mechanisms of symptom clusters and facilitate effective symptom management. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of symptom clusters during the 1st and 2nd cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) and to identify sentinel symptoms. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of data from the Paradigm Shift in Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (PS-CINV) study...
August 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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