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Huaizhen Cai, Laurel A Screven, Micheal L Dent
The perception of the build-up of auditory streaming has been widely investigated in humans, while it is unknown whether animals experience a similar perception when hearing high (H) and low (L) tonal pattern sequences. The paradigm previously used in European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) was adopted in two experiments to address the build-up of auditory streaming in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ). In experiment 1, different numbers of repetitions of low-high-low triplets were used in five conditions to study the build-up process...
September 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Rebecca E O'Connor, Marta Farré, Sunitha Joseph, Joana Damas, Lucas Kiazim, Rebecca Jennings, Sophie Bennett, Eden A Slack, Emily Allanson, Denis M Larkin, Darren K Griffin
BACKGROUND: The number of de novo genome sequence assemblies is increasing exponentially; however, relatively few contain one scaffold/contig per chromosome. Such assemblies are essential for studies of genotype-to-phenotype association, gross genomic evolution, and speciation. Inter-species differences can arise from chromosomal changes fixed during evolution, and we previously hypothesized that a higher fraction of elements under negative selection contributed to avian-specific phenotypes and avian genome organization stability...
October 24, 2018: Genome Biology
Zhaohui Cui, Dan Song, Meng Qi, Sumei Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are protozoans that cause diarrheal illness in humans and animals, including birds, worldwide. The present study was aimed to revisit the infectivity and pathogenicity of C. avium, recently considered to be a valid avian-infecting species of Cryptosporidium, and foster further understanding of its biological characteristics. RESULTS: Results showed that no Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the feces of experimentally inoculated BALB/c mice, Mongolian gerbils, quail or budgerigars within 30 days post-infection (dpi)...
September 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
A Rouzet, B Valot, G Reboux, L Millon, S Roussel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Karin Fragner, Herbert Weissenböck, Carter T Atkinson, Tatjana A Iezhova
BACKGROUND: Microscopic research has shown that Plasmodium relictum is the most common agent of avian malaria. Recent molecular studies confirmed this conclusion and identified several mtDNA lineages, suggesting the existence of significant intra-species genetic variation or cryptic speciation. Most identified lineages have a broad range of hosts and geographical distribution. Here, a rare new lineage of P. relictum was reported and information about biological characters of different lineages of this pathogen was reviewed, suggesting issues for future research...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alison Campbell, James W Tanaka
The face-inversion effect is the finding that picture-plane inversion disproportionately impairs face recognition compared to object recognition and is now attributed to greater orientation-sensitivity of holistic processing for faces but not common objects. Yet, expert dog judges have showed similar recognition deficits for inverted dogs and inverted faces, suggesting that holistic processing is not specific to faces but to the expert recognition of perceptually similar objects. Although processing changes in expert object recognition have since been extensively documented, no other studies have observed the distinct recognition deficits for inverted objects-of-expertise that people as face experts show for faces...
June 2018: Perception
A Schmitz, R Korbel, S Thiel, B Wörle, C Gohl, M Rinder
Mycobacterium genavense is regarded as the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in psittaciform and passeriform birds, which are commonly kept as pets. In humans, Mycobacterium genavense is especially pathogenic for young, old, pregnant and immunocompromised people (YOPIs). In birds, only few studies, mainly case reports, exist and there is still little e information about occurrence and relevance of this zoonotic pathogen. In this first pilot study concerning the prevalence of Mycobacterium genavense within flocks of naturally infected pet birds, real-time PCR examinations of 170 individual passeriform and psittaciform birds, including commonly kept budgerigars, lovebirds and zebra finches as well as gold finches and weaver finches, were conducted to determine the infection rate in six different aviaries...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Lan Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Jue Yu, Vinita Gowda, Gabriel Johnson, Jianke Yang, Xianzhao Kan, Xiaojun Yang
The budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus ) is one of the most widely studied parrot species, serving as an excellent animal model for behavior and neuroscience research. Until recently, it was unknown how sexual differences in the behavior, physiology, and development of organisms are regulated by differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a critical role in gonadal differentiation as well as early development of animals...
2018: PeerJ
Angela Medina-García, Jodie M Jawor, Timothy F Wright
To study the fitness effects of individual variation in cognitive traits, it is paramount to understand whether traits such as personality and physiological stress influence cognitive performance. We first tested whether budgerigars showed both consistent personalities and cognitive performance across time and tasks. We tested object and food neophobia, and exploratory behavior. We measured cognitive performance in habituation, ability to solve foraging problems, spatial memory, and seed discrimination tasks...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Marina O Cesar, Eliana R Matushima, Ticiana Zwarg, Alice S de Oliveira, Thaís C Sanches, Adriana M Joppert, Lara B Keid, Trícia Maria F S Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, Horwald Alexander Bedoya Llano, Guilherme Konradt, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Fábio Gregori, Luís Fernando P Gondim, Rodrigo M Soares
In a previous study in Brazil, six isolates of Sarcocystis spp. recovered from budgerigars fed sporocysts excreted by opossums of the genus Didelphis were characterized by means of sequencing fragments of gene coding cytochrome B (CYTB), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and surface antigen genes (SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). The isolates shared identical ITS1 and CYTB sequences, but differed at SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4: three allele variants of SAG2, 3 allele variants of SAG3 and 2 allele variants of SAG4 were encountered in three multilocus genotypes (MLGs) (MLG1, MLG2, and MLG3)...
May 2018: Experimental Parasitology
J Balko, D Lindemann, S Chinnadurai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Ronja Püstow, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, avian gastric yeast, is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). To better understand the clinical disease in budgerigars presented in a practice population, we reviewed the occurrence, clinical signs, and treatment success of M ornithogaster disease in budgerigars during a 2.5-year period at the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, University of Leipzig (Leipzig, Germany). The yeast was diagnosed by microscopic examination of fresh fecal samples...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Mary Flaherty, Micheal L Dent, James R Sawusch
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177676.].
2017: PloS One
E C Eto, P C Withers, C E Cooper
Birds have many physiological characteristics that are convergent with mammals. In the light of recent evidence that mammals can maintain a constant insensible evaporative water loss (EWL) over a range of perturbing environmental conditions, we hypothesized that birds might also regulate insensible EWL, reflecting this convergence. We found that budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ) maintain EWL constant over a range of relative humidities at three ambient temperatures. EWL, expressed as a function of water vapour pressure deficit, differed from a physical model where the water vapour pressure deficit between the animal and the ambient air is the driver of evaporation, indicating physiological control of EWL...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kenneth S Henry, Kassidy N Amburgey, Kristina S Abrams, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels are complex sounds with four to five spectral peaks known as formants. The frequencies of the two lowest formants, F1and F2, are sufficient for vowel discrimination. Behavioral studies show that many birds and mammals can discriminate vowels. However, few studies have quantified thresholds for formant-frequency discrimination. The present study examined formant-frequency discrimination in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans using stimuli with one or two formants and a constant fundamental frequency of 200 Hz...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Cole Tobin, Angela Medina-García, Gregory M Kohn, Timothy F Wright
In many bird species, male song functions both to defend a territory against other males and to attract a female mate. Male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) produce a song-like vocal signal, the warble, that can be directed at either females or other males. Warble is a long, complex, low amplitude, and variable vocalization composed of different element types. While there is some evidence that warble can induce reproduction, the function of this signal is largely uncertain and it is unclear whether male- and female-directed warble differ in either function or structure...
October 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Henriëtte van der Zwan, Francois van der Westhuizen, Carina Visser, Rencia van der Sluis
In aviculture, lovebirds are considered one of the most popular birds to keep. This African parakeet is known for its range of plumage colors and ease to tame. Plumage variation is the most important price-determining trait of these birds, and also the main selection criterion for breeders. Currently, no genetic screening tests for traits of economic importance or to confirm pedigree data are available for any of the nine lovebird species. As a starting point to develop these tests, the de novo genome of Agapornis roseicollis (rosy-faced lovebird) was sequenced, assembled, and annotated...
October 16, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
Thomas F Cooke, Curt R Fischer, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Kathleen T Xie, James Kuo, Elizabeth Doctorov, Ashley Zehnder, Chaitan Khosla, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Carlos D Bustamante
Parrot feathers contain red, orange, and yellow polyene pigments called psittacofulvins. Budgerigars are parrots that have been extensively bred for plumage traits during the last century, but the underlying genes are unknown. Here we use genome-wide association mapping and gene-expression analysis to map the Mendelian blue locus, which abolishes yellow pigmentation in the budgerigar. We find that the blue trait maps to a single amino acid substitution (R644W) in an uncharacterized polyketide synthase (MuPKS)...
October 5, 2017: Cell
Angelo J d'Antonio-Bertagnolli, Matthew J Anderson
Hemispheric laterality and its provision of potential fitness advantages to aves is a widespread topic of research in budgerigars and other parrot species [e.g., Magat, M. & Brown, C. (2009). Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276, 4155-4162]. In the current study, lateral preferences were tracked for 11 captive-reared budgerigars that subsequently underwent 2 cognitive problem-solving tests: a tool-use problem and a dig-discrimination task...
May 2018: Laterality
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