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animal personality

Matthew Shupler, William Godwin, Joseph Frostad, Paul Gustafson, Raphael E Arku, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with dirty fuels is a leading health risk factor within Asia, Africa and Central/South America. The concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is an important metric to evaluate HAP risk, however epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant variation in HAP-PM2.5 concentrations at household, community and country levels. To quantify the global risk due to HAP exposure, novel estimation methods are needed, as financial and resource constraints render it difficult to monitor exposures in all relevant areas...
August 14, 2018: Environment International
A Engel, A Feigel
In an iterated two-person game, for instance prisoner's dilemma or the snowdrift game, there exist strategies that force the payoffs of the opponents to be equal. These equalizer strategies form a subset of the more general zero-determinant strategies that unilaterally set the payoff of an opponent. A challenge in the attempts to understand the role of these strategies in the evolution of animal behavior is the lack of iterations in the fights for mating opportunities or territory control. We show that an arbitrary two-parameter strategy may possess a corresponding equalizer strategy which produces the same result: statistics of the fight outcomes in the contests with competitors are the same for each of these two strategies...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
H W Neave, D M Weary, M A G von Keyserlingk
Individual animals behave differently from one another, especially when confronting challenges such as changes in diet (e.g. weaning), environment (e.g. moving from pasture to feedlot) and social grouping (e.g. movement to lactating group after parturition). Each of these challenges involves some element of novelty, impacting the welfare and productivity of the animal. Indeed, the large individual variability in the development and expression of feeding behaviour cannot be fully explained by differences in genetics, management practices, body size or growth rate...
August 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Matthew R Baker, Alexander C Goodman, Jonathan B Santo, Ryan Y Wong
Behavioral responses to novel situations often vary and can belong to a suite of correlated behaviors. Characteristic behaviors of different personality types (e.g. stress coping styles) are generally consistent across contexts and time. Here, we compare the repeatability and reliability of exploratory behaviors between zebrafish strains selectively bred to display contrasting behavioral responses to stressors that represent the proactive-reactive axis. Specifically, we measure exploratory behavior of individual fish in an open field test over five weeks...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia C Young, Michelle R Quayle, Justin W Adams, John F Bertram, Paul G McMenamin
The practical aspect of human developmental biology education is often limited to the observation and use of animal models to illustrate developmental anatomy. This is due in part to the difficulty of accessing human embryonic and fetal specimens, and the sensitivity inherent to presenting these specimens as teaching materials. This report presents a new approach using three-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of actual human materials in practical classes, thus allowing for the inclusion of accurate examples of human developmental anatomy in the educational context...
August 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Fred W Sabb, Gerhard Hellemann, Nicholas B Allen, Carrie E Bearden
INTRODUCTION: Working Memory and Task-Switching are essential components of cognitive control, which underlies many symptoms evident across multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychotic and mood disorders. Vulnerability to these disorders has a substantial genetic component, suggesting that clinically unaffected first-degree relatives may carry some vulnerability-related traits. Converging evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that dopamine transmission, striatal and frontal brain regions, and attention and switching behaviors are essential components of a multilevel circuit involved in salience, and disruptions in that circuit may lead to features of psychosis...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Liam R Dougherty, Lauren M Guillette
In the past decade, several conceptual papers have linked variation in animal personality to variation in cognition, and recent years have seen a flood of empirical studies testing this link. However, these results have not been synthesized in a quantitative way. Here, we systematically search the literature and conduct a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis of empirical papers that have tested the relationship between animal personality (exploration, boldness, activity, aggression and sociability) and cognition (initial learning/reversal speed, number of correct choices/errors after standard training)...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
S T Pote, U Khan, K K Lahiri, M S Patole, M R Thakar, S R Shah
Onychomycosis is the most common infection of the toe-nails or finger-nails and it may be caused by a large variety of fungal species. Achaetomium species which belong to the phylum Ascomycota (Family Chaetomiaceae), are usually soil saprophytes or endophytic fungi which have been rarely reported as human or animal pathogens. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by Achaetomium strumarium in a healthy person who showed involvement of all fingers of both hands with yellowish brown discoloration. The causative agent isolated was identified as Achaetomium species by morphology, colony morphometry and growth at high temperature and as A...
August 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
J R Jensen, M H Pitcher, Z X Yuan, C E Ramsden, A F Domenichiello
Chronic pain is both a global public health concern and a serious source of personal suffering for which current treatments have limited efficacy. Recently, oxylipins derived from linoleic acid (LA), the most abundantly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the modern diet, have been implicated as mediators of pain in the periphery and spinal cord. However, oxidized linoleic acid derived mediators (OXLAMs) remain understudied in the brain, particularly during pain states. In this study, we employed a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain followed by a targeted lipidomic analysis of the animals' amygdala and periaqueductal grey (PAG) using LC-MS/MS to investigate the effect of chronic inflammatory pain on oxylipin concentrations in these two brain nuclei known to participate in pain sensation and perception...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Robert Dantzer, Sheldon Cohen, Scott Russo, Timothy Dinan
Resilience is the process that allows individuals to adapt to adverse conditions and recover from them. This process is favored by individual qualities that have been amply studied in the field of stress such as personal control, positive affect, optimism, and social support. Biopsychosocial studies on the individual qualities that promote resilience show that these factors help protect against the deleterious influences of stressors on physiology in general and immunity in particular. The reverse is also true as there is evidence that immune processes influence resilience...
August 10, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Paola Spitalieri, Rosa V Talarico, Michela Murdocca, Luana Fontana, Marzia Marcaurelio, Elena Campione, Roberto Massa, Giovanni Meola, Annalucia Serafino, Giuseppe Novelli, Federica Sangiuolo, Annalisa Botta
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-patient specific are an innovative tool to reproduce a model of disease in vitro and summarize the pathological phenotype and the disease etiopathology. Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is caused by an unstable (CCTG)n expansion in intron 1 of the CNBP gene, leading to a progressive multisystemic disease with muscle, heart and central nervous dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of CNS involvement in DM2 is poorly understood since no cellular or animal models fully recapitulate the molecular and clinical neurodegenerative phenotype of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew K Hennenfent, Preetha Iyengar, John Davies-Cole
Once a person is exposed to the rabies virus, it is universally fatal unless postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is administered promptly. In the United States, determining whether PEP recommeded is often a collaborative effort where health departments work with both animal and human healthcare professionals to enact animal quarantines (or rabies testing), recommending PEP when appropriate. A failure in the knowledge base of either profession can result in incorrect PEP recommendations and an increased risk of adverse outcomes...
August 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Kathleen T Watson, Tonita E Wroolie, Gabby Tong, Lara C Foland-Ross, Sophia Frangou, Manpreet Singh, Roger McIntyre, Siena Roat-Shumway, Alison Myoraku, Allan L Reiss, Natalie L Rasgon
Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic state preceding development of type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP) agonist, is an insulin-sensitizing agent with neuroprotective properties, as shown in animal studies. The purpose of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to examine the neural effects of administration of liraglutide in cognitively normal late middle-aged individuals with subjective cognitive complaints (half of subjects had family history of AD)...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lindsay R Gabbert, Justin D Smith, John G Neilan, Geoffrey S Ferman, Max V Rasmussen
Validated procedures for decontamination of laboratory surfaces and equipment are essential to biosafety and biorisk programs at high-containment laboratories. Each high-containment laboratory contains a unique combination of surfaces, procedures, and biological agents that require decontamination methods tailored to specific facility practices. The Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) is a high-containment laboratory operating multiple biosafety level (BSL)-3, ABSL-3, and BSL-3 Ag spaces. The PIADC facility requires the use of federally issued smart cards, called personal identity verification (PIV) cards, to access information technology (IT) networks both outside and within the high-containment laboratory...
August 10, 2018: Health Security
David Q Beversdorf, Hanna E Stevens, Karen L Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While genetic factors are a major etiological contributor to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), evidence also supports a role for environmental factors. Herein, we will discuss two such factors that have been associated with a significant proportion of ASD risk: prenatal stress exposure and maternal immune dysregulation, and how sex and gender relate to these factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence suggests that maternal stress susceptibility interacts with prenatal stress exposure to affect offspring neurodevelopment...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Laura Willerton, Howard J Mason
Rabbits are used as laboratory animal models and are also popular domestic pets. Allergic responses to rabbit allergens have been documented in both settings, and several rabbit allergens identified. We have purified an 18 kD protein extracted from rabbit fur that was shown by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS) to be a lipocalin, identical to that identified as an odorant binding protein and an allergen with the formal nomenclature of Ory c 1. De novo sequencing of the MS peptide fragments gave additional primary sequence data of this protein...
2018: AIMS Public Health
Elvis Efe Isere, Akinola Ayoola Fatiregun, Olayinka Ilesanmi, Ibidolapo Ijarotimi, Beatrice Egube, Adewale Adejugbagbe, Gboyega Adekunle Famokun
INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of Lassa Fever (LF) reported and confirmed in Ondo state, Southwest Nigeria in January 2016 was investigated. This paper provides the epidemiology of the LF and lessons learnt from the investigation of the outbreak. METHODS: The incidence management system (IMS) model was used for the outbreak coordination. Cases and deaths were identified through the routine surveillance system using standard definitions for suspected and confirmed cases and deaths respectively...
June 29, 2018: PLoS Currents
Jeremiah Ngurimu Ngugi, Alfred Kilango Maza, Owiti Jack Omolo, Mark Obonyo
BACKGROUND: Human animal-bite injuries are a serious public health problem due to associated risk for rabies virus exposure. Animal-bite injuries especially dog bites are useful indicators for assessing the risk of rabies virus transmission and need for rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Understanding the epidemiology and surveillance of animal bites and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis is critical in implementing Kenya's national rabies elimination strategy. We aimed to describe the incidence of human animal-bite injuries, patient/biting animal characteristics, uptake of rabies PEP and factors associated with animal bite incidents...
August 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Karla J F Satchell
Over 1.3 billion persons are at risk for cholera globally. Vaccination campaigns are growing, but intervention options providing nearly immediate protection are also needed. Two recent papers in Science Translational Medicine describe probiotic bacteria that reduce intestinal colonization in animal models and show promise for development as prophylaxis agents.
August 8, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Isaac Planas-Sitjà, Stamatios C Nicolis, Grégory Sempo, Jean-Louis Deneubourg
Collective decision-making plays a central role in group-living animals and can be crucial to the survival of a group and the fitness of its members. As group-level properties emerge from individual decisions, personality variation can be a major determinant of collective behaviours. Here, we explore the relationship between personality and social interactions to explain the speed and cohesion of collective decision making during the aggregation process of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). We composed groups solely with shy individuals (spending a long time sheltered) or bold individuals (spending a short time sheltered) and tested them in a binary setup (arena with two shelters) for 3 consecutive days...
2018: PloS One
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