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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316293/p53-modeling-as-a-route-to-mesothelioma-patients-stratification-and-novel-therapeutic-identification
#1
Kun Tian, Emyr Bakker, Michelle Hussain, Alice Guazzelli, Hasen Alhebshi, Parisa Meysami, Constantinos Demonacos, Jean-Marc Schwartz, Luciano Mutti, Marija Krstic-Demonacos
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an orphan disease that is difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy, an approach which has been effective in other types of cancer. Most chemotherapeutics cause DNA damage leading to cell death. Recent discoveries have highlighted a potential role for the p53 tumor suppressor in this disease. Given the pivotal role of p53 in the DNA damage response, here we investigated the predictive power of the p53 interactome model for MPM patients' stratification...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311334/inhibition-of-kynurenine-aminotransferase-ii-attenuates-hippocampus-dependent-memory-deficit-in-adult-rats-treated-prenatally-with-kynurenine
#2
Ana Pocivavsek, Greg I Elmer, Robert Schwarcz
A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to schizophrenia (SZ), a catastrophic psychiatric disorder with a hypothesized neurodevelopmental origin. Increases in the brain levels of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptors, have been implicated specifically in the cognitive deficits seen in persons with SZ. Here we evaluated this role of KYNA by adding the KYNA precursor kynurenine (100 mg/day) to chow fed to pregnant rat dams from embryonic day (ED) 15 to ED 22 (control: ECon; kynurenine treated: EKyn)...
October 12, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311101/phylogeography-transmission-and-viral-proteins-of-nipah-virus
#3
REVIEW
Bangyao Sun, Lijia Jia, Bilin Liang, Quanjiao Chen, Di Liu
Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus, is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 pathogen based on its high pathogenicity in humans and the lack of available vaccines or therapeutics. Since its initial emergence in 1998 in Malaysia, this virus has become a great threat to domestic animals and humans. Sporadic outbreaks and person-to-person transmission over the past two decades have resulted in hundreds of human fatalities. Epidemiological surveys have shown that NiV is distributed in Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific Ocean, and is transmitted by its natural reservoir, Pteropid bats...
October 11, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307137/-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-an-emerging-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-in-europe
#4
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Nicolas Troillet
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp ticks or exposure to blood of infected persons or animals. It is present in European regions that are frequently visited by people living in Switzerland. It is suspected in case of fever with hemorrhagic signs and confirmed by PCR or serology. Because of its severity and potential for nosocomial transmission, it should be included of the differential diagnosis of fever in returning travelers in order to rapidly implement the adequate measures : hospitalisation with isolation precautions and treatment with ribavirin...
October 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302365/seroprevlance-of-coxiella-burnetii-among-abattoir-and-slaughterhouse-workers-a-meta-analysis
#5
Solomon M Woldeyohannes, Charles F Gilks, Peter Baker, Nigel R Perkins, Simon A Reid
Q fever caused by the gram negative bacteria, Coxiella burnetii, is an occupational hazard for those who live and work in rural settings and those who are in contact with animals, especially abattoir and slaughterhouse workers. Australia is the only country to register a vaccine to prevent Q fever (Q-vax®, Seqirus, Australia) that is used in high risk populations. Seroprevalence studies conducted to determine the burden of Q fever ( C. burnetii infection) in different settings have demonstrated high levels of heterogeneity with estimates of the percent positive ranging from 30% to 70%...
December 2018: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301947/stress-induced-changes-in-social-dominance-are-scaled-by-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-phosphorylation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Min-Jung Park, Bo Am Seo, Boyoung Lee, Hee-Sup Shin, Myoung-Goo Kang
The establishment and maintenance of social dominance are critical for social stability and the survival and health of individual animals. Stress lead to depression and a decrease in the social status of depressed persons is a risk factor for suicide. Therefore, we explored the mechanistic and behavioral links among stress, depression, and social dominance and found that mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS), an animal model of stress-induced depression, showed decreased social dominance as measured by a dominance tube test...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301309/spatial-learning-and-memory-using-a-radial-arm-maze-with-a-head-mounted-display
#7
Hyunjeong Kim, Jin Young Park, Kwanguk Kenny Kim
OBJECTIVE: A radial arm maze (RAM) is an essential tool for assessing spatial learning and memory. Although this tool is widely used to study deficits in spatial memory in animal models, it has several restrictions that prevent its adaptation to human research and training. Therefore, we developed a head-mounted-display RAM (HMD-RAM) program for humans and verified its validity by comparing it to the results obtained by previous RAM studies. We also compared the HMD and a flat monitor as experimental devices...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300891/advances-and-current-challenges-associated-with-the-use-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-modeling-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
REVIEW
Bonnie J Berry, Alec S T Smith, Jessica E Young, David L Mack
One of the most profound advances in the last decade of biomedical research has been the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models for identification of disease mechanisms and drug discovery. Human iPSC technology has the capacity to revolutionize healthcare and the realization of personalized medicine, but differentiated tissues derived from stem cells come with major criticisms compared to native tissue, including variability in genetic backgrounds, a lack of functional maturity, and differences in epigenetic profiles...
October 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300870/an-evaluation-of-a-low-intensity-mhealth-enhanced-mindfulness-intervention-for-chinese-university-students-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Brian J Hall, Peng Xiong, Xinqi Guo, Elvo Kuai Long Sou, Un I Chou, Zhuozhuo Shen
Mental disorders and sleep dysfunction are common among Chinese university students. This study aimed to evaluate a low cost scalable mindfulness intervention program to improve psychological health and sleep quality among Chinese university students. A randomized controlled trial with 101 university students (mean age 22.30 ± 2.63, 69.31% female) was conducted. Participants were randomized into 4 groups: Group 1: control group (n = 25), Group 2: mindfulness only group (n = 27), Group 3: mindfulness + plain-text reminder group (n = 24), and Group 4: mindfulness + enhanced text reminder with animal meme group (n = 25)...
October 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299205/integration-of-genomics-high-throughput-drug-screening-and-personalized-xenograft-models-as-a-novel-precision-medicine-paradigm-for-high-risk-pediatric-cancer
#10
Maria Tsoli, Carol Wadham, Mark Pinese, Tim Failes, Swapna Joshi, Emily Mould, Julia X Yin, Velimir Gayevskiy, Amit Kumar, Warren Kaplan, Paul G Ekert, Federica Saletta, Laura Franshaw, Jie Liu, Andrew Gifford, Martin A Weber, Michael Rodriguez, Richard J Cohn, Greg Arndt, Vanessa Tyrrell, Michelle Haber, Toby Trahair, Glenn M Marshall, Kerrie McDonald, Mark J Cowley, David S Ziegler
Pediatric high grade gliomas (HGG) are primary brain malignancies that result in significant morbidity and mortality. One of the challenges in their treatment is inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity. Precision medicine approaches have the potential to enhance diagnostic, prognostic and/or therapeutic information. In this case study we describe the molecular characterization of a pediatric HGG and the use of an integrated approach based on genomic, in vitro and in vivo testing to identify actionable targets and treatment options...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298799/bovine-tuberculosis-in-working-foxhounds-lessons-learned-from-a-complex-public-health-investigation
#11
Emily Phipps, Kate McPhedran, David Edwards, Katherine Russell, Catherine M O'Connor, Danielle A Gunn-Moore, Conor O'Halloran, Tony Roberts, Jill Morris
In 2017, Public Health England South East Health Protection Team (HPT) were involved in the management of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis) in a pack of working foxhounds. This paper summarises the actions taken by the team in managing the public health aspects of the outbreak, and lessons learned to improve the management of future potential outbreaks. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant publications on M. bovis. Clinical notes from the Public Health England (PHE) health protection database were reviewed and key points extracted...
October 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297037/improving-the-conduct-of-systematic-reviews-a-process-mining-perspective
#12
Ba' Pham, Ebrahim Bagheri, Patricia Rios, Asef Pourmasoumi, Reid C Robson, Jeremiah Hwee, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Nazia Darvesh, Matthew J Page, Andrea C Tricco
OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the use of process mining concepts, techniques, and tools to improve the systematic review process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We simulated review activities and step-specific methods in the process for systematic reviews conducted by one research team over 1 year to generate an event log of activities, with start/end dates, reviewer assignment by expertise, and person-hours worked. Process mining techniques were applied to the event log to "discover" process models, which allowed visual display, animation, or replay of the simulated review activities...
November 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296836/mapping-genes-is-good-for-you
#13
James E Jim Womack
I abandoned my original career choice of high school teaching to pursue dentistry and soon abandoned that path for genetics. The latter decision was due to a challenge by a professor that led to me reading Nobel speeches by pioneer geneticists before I had formal exposure to the subject. Even then, I was 15 years into my career before my interest in rodent genomes gave way to mapping cattle genes. Events behind these twists and turns in my career path comprise the first part of this review. The remainder is a review of the development of the field of bovine genomics from my personal perspective...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293980/200-years-after-frankenstein
#14
Christopher Nowlin
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is 200 years old and remains relevant to 21st-century scientific experimentation. Molecular biologists today have become especially bold in their attempts to cure diseases while remaining mindful of the real dangers of their research. Scientists presumably share an abiding concern about producing uncontrollable mutations in people, animals, and the wider environment, yet a sense of urgency appears to inform the current scientific willingness to take risks, especially in the realm of embryology and germ-line modification...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293576/human-metabolomics-reveal-daily-variations-under-nutritional-challenges-specific-to-serum-and-skeletal-muscle
#15
Shogo Sato, Evelyn B Parr, Brooke L Devlin, John A Hawley, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
OBJECTIVE: Advances in the field of metabolomics and the concomitant development of bioinformatics tools constitute a promising avenue towards the development of precision medicine and personalized profiling for numerous disease states. Studies in animal models have strengthened this concept, but the application in human subjects is scarce. METHODS: Utilizing high-throughput metabolomics, we have analyzed the metabolome levels of human serum and skeletal muscle in the morning and evening in response to divergent nutritional challenges in order to identify unique signatures present in serum and muscle...
October 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288296/start-up-financing-of-professional-pest-control-in-pig-farming-in-north-rhine-westphalia-in-germany
#16
Odile C Hecker, Marc Boelhauve, Marcus Mergenthaler
Background: Due to the risk of spreading epizootic diseases through rodents, pest control is mandatory in pig farming in European countries. However, there is limited research focused on rodent control practices, usage of anticoagulant rodenticides, and the acceptance of Pest Control Operators (PCOs) in pig farming in Germany. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate current control practices in pig holdings and to analyze the potential of a financial support on the implementation of professional pest control...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285600/qualitative-pilot-study-of-veterinarians-perceptions-of-and-experiences-with-counseling-about-dog-walking-in-companion-animal-practice-in-southern-ontario
#17
Kathleen E Burns, John J M Dwyer, Jason B Coe, Gloriana C Y Tam, Samantha N R Wong
Dog wal king is beneficial to dogs and their owners, and it supports One Health, an initiative devoted to improving the health of animals and humans. Despite the benefits of dog walking, many dogs and their owners are not engaging in adequate dog-walking exercise. One way to encourage dog walking is for veterinarians to counsel owners on dog walking during veterinary appointments. This pilot study used individual in-person or telephone interviews to understand veterinarians' perceptions of and experiences with counseling about dog walking in companion animal practice...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285589/analysis-of-small-animal-rotating-internship-applicants-personal-statements
#18
Erik H Hofmeister, Kathryn A Diehl, Kate E Creevy, Medora Pashmakova, Andrew Woolcock, Shane Lyon
The primary purpose of this study was to identify themes that are consistent across veterinary internship applicants' personal statements and that are correlated with the statements' perceived overall quality. A secondary purpose was to investigate the reliability in personal statement quality scoring among six experienced internship candidate evaluators. One hundred applications to the University of Georgia Small Animal Rotating Internship program were evaluated. Each evaluator wrote a description of what he or she values in personal statements and his or her beliefs about content and presentation in high- and low-quality statements...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284684/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-cirrhosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Roman Maslennikov, Chavdar Pavlov, Vladimir Ivashkin
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was detected in cirrhosis in many studies. The aim is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of SIBO in cirrhosis and on the relationship of SIBO with features of cirrhosis. METHODS: PUBMED search (until 14 January 2018) was performed. Specific search terms were: '(cirrhosis) AND (SIBO OR bacterial overgrowth)'. Studies not relating to cirrhosis or SIBO, animal studies, and non-original articles were excluded...
October 4, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282831/a-sheep-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-generated-by-crispr-cas9-disruption-of-the-cftr-gene
#20
Zhiqiang Fan, Iuri Viotti Perisse, Calvin U Cotton, Misha Regouski, Qinggang Meng, Chaim Domb, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Zhongde Wang, Ann Harris, Kenneth L White, Irina A Polejaeva
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The major cause of limited life span in CF patients is progressive lung disease. CF models have been generated in 4 species (mice, rats, ferrets, and pigs) to enhance our understanding of the CF pathogenesis. Sheep may be a particularly relevant animal to model CF in humans due to the similarities in lung anatomy and development in the two species. Here, we describe the generation of a sheep model for CF using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
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