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animal personality

Fabian S Rudin, Leigh W Simmons, Joseph L Tomkins
The social environment is expected to have substantial effects on behavior, and as a consequence its heritability and evolvability. We investigated these effects by exposing Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to either silence or recordings of male acoustic sexual signals. We used a combined pedigree and full-sib/half-sib breeding design to estimate the repeatability, heritability, and evolvability of behaviors related to boldness, exploration, and activity. All behaviors measured were significantly repeatable in both social environments...
December 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Josephine Nabugoomu, Gloria K Seruwagi, Kitty Corbett, Edward Kanyesigye, Susan Horton, Rhona Hanning
For adolescent mothers in rural Eastern Uganda, nutrition and health may be compromised by many factors. Identifying individual and environmental needs and barriers at local levels is important to inform community-based interventions. This qualitative study used interviews based on constructs from social cognitive theory. 101 adolescent mothers, family members, health-related personnel and community workers in Budondo sub-county (Jinja district), eastern Uganda were interviewed. Young mothers had needs, related to going back to school, home-based small businesses; social needs, care support and belonging to their families, employment, shelter, clothing, personal land and animals, medical care and delivery materials...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lesley A Colby, Lois Zitzow
Zoonoses, diseases transmitted between animals and humans, have been a concern in laboratory animal medicine for decades. Exposure to zoonotic organisms not only poses health risks to personnel and research animals but may also affect research integrity. Early laboratory animal programs were ineffective at excluding and preventing transmission of zoonotic diseases: the health status of the animals were often unknown, endemic diseases occurred frequently, housing conditions were less controlled, and veterinary care programs were decentralized...
December 12, 2018: ILAR Journal
Eva Zahradnik, Bente Janssen-Weets, Ingrid Sander, Benjamin Kendzia, Wolfgang Mitlehner, Caroline May, Monika Raulf
BACKGROUND: Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples...
2018: PloS One
Katrin Gaardbo Kuhn, Eva Møller Nielsen, Kåre Mølbak, Steen Ethelberg
Background: Each year more than 4,000 cases of campylobacteriosis are reported in Denmark, making it the most common bacterial gastrointestinal infection. Here we describe a case-control study to identify sources of infection with a focus on environmental factors. Methods: From January to December 2016, we conducted a prospective case-control study among Danish persons aged 1-30 years. Participants were invited by letter to complete an online questionnaire. Crude and adjusted ORs were calculated and final parsimonious multivariate models developed using logistic regression...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
John H E Nash, James Robertson, Kristin Elwin, Rachel A Chalmers, Andrew M Kropinski, Rebecca A Guy
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes food and waterborne gastrointestinal disease and whose major animal reservoirs are cattle and small ruminants. We report here on a draft whole-genome sequence of a zoonotic isolate of C. parvum isolated from a person with cryptosporidiosis.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Mari Aguilera
Semantic disturbances have been proposed as a possible cause of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Fluency tasks, in which volunteers are asked to produce as many exemplars as they can for a given category during one minute, are usually applied to the assessment of semantic processing. However, studies associating fluency and proneness to psychosis have provided conflicting results so it is not clear whether these disturbances can be identified at subclinical stages. We conducted two experiments. In the first one, 71 volunteers completed written category fluency tasks with four semantic categories (animals, fruits, clothing and vehicles)...
December 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Isabel T Ramos, Markus Henningsson, Maryam Nezafat, Begoña Lavin, Silvia Lorrio, Pierre Gebhardt, Andrea Protti, Thomas R Eykyn, Marcelo E Andia, Ulrich Flögel, Alkystis Phinikaridou, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Background: Optimal healing of the myocardium following myocardial infarction (MI) requires a suitable degree of inflammation and its timely resolution, together with a well-orchestrated deposition and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods and Results: MI and SHAM-operated animals were imaged at 3,7,14 and 21 days with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 19 F/1 H surface coil. Mice were injected with 19 F-perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles to study inflammatory cell recruitment, and with a gadolinium-based elastin-binding contrast agent (Gd-ESMA) to evaluate elastin content...
November 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
C Gómez-Donoso, M A Martínez-González, A Gea, K J Murphy, N Parletta, M Bes-Rastrollo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given the enormous health, economic and societal consequences of the obesity pandemic, identifying effective primary prevention strategies represents a global priority. The aim of this study was to provide evidence on the association between adherence to a food-based score reflecting a set of targeted, well-informed, simple dietary recommendations and the incidence of overweight/obesity. METHODS: A total of 11,349 initially free of overweight/obesity young adults (mean [SD] age: 34...
November 23, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hasan Naz, Levent Aslan, Gülden Sönmez Tamer, Canan Naz
Myiasis; is defined as the infestation of dead or living tissues of humans and animals by the diptera larvae. It is prevalent all over the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries with low socioeconomic status. Myiasis of humans has been associated with low socioeconomic status, alcoholism, mental or neurological diseases, poor personal hygiene, patients with varicose veins, diabetes, malnutrition, advanced stage cancer, pediculosis, immunosuppression, sexually transmitted disease, gingivitis and other oral cavity lesions...
October 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Anne-Sofie Ravn Ballegaard, Charlotte Bernhard Madsen, Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation to foods may occur in infancy without prior oral exposure to the offending food, leading to the assumption that food allergy sensitisation may occur through the skin. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of use of personal care products containing hydrolysed wheat proteins, since these products have been shown to induce allergy through the skin, and even cause an abrogation of an already established oral tolerance. OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for food allergy skin sensitisation and compare the sensitising capacity of an unmodified and an acid-hydrolysed gluten product via slightly damaged skin in naïve versus tolerant rats...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Kim G Harley, Kimberly P Berger, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi
STUDY QUESTION: Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
D Delibashvili, Z Dumbadze, I Krynytska, M Marushchak, H Habor, L Holovatiuk
The use of food additives in food manufacturing has been a public health issue for many years. Currently, more than 3000 food additives have been approved and estimates has shown that each person may consume 3.6 to 4.5 kg of food additives per year on average. One of the most common food additives in Ukraine and in Europe is monosodium glutamate (MSG). This paper reports the effect of monosodium glutamate administration at "safe" (allowed) doses on the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in leukocyte blood suspension of rats...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
S Stalder, X Sidler, M Hässig
At present, the usage of antimicrobial agents in organic dairy farming is a subject of controversial public debate because of its impact on animals, humans and the environment. This study shows how farms can be successfully managed without using antimicrobials for udder diseases. Thereby, animal welfare and targeted low bulk tank somatic cell counts should not be neglected. The operating data analysed in this study was collected during feeding and milking time on 18 swiss dairy farms that have not been treating diseased udders with antibiotics for at least 3 years...
December 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Noémi Kovács, Krisztián Szigeti, Nikolett Hegedűs, Ildikó Horváth, Dániel S Veres, Michael Bachmann, Ralf Bergmann, Domokos Máthé
Radiotherapy is one of the most frequently applied treatments in oncology. Tissue-absorbed ionizing radiation damages not only targeted cells but the surrounding cells too. The consequent long-term induced oxidative stress, irreversible tissue damage, or second malignancies draw attention to the urgent need of a follow-up medical method by which personalized treatment could be attained and the actually dose-limiting organ could be monitored in the clinical practice. We worked out a special hemisphere irradiation technique for mice which mimics the radiation exposure during radiotherapy...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Clarinda Larsson, Dag Hvidsten, Snorre Stuen, Anna J Henningsson, Peter Wilhelmsson
BACKGROUND: "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" is a gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae that, in Europe, is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. "Candidatus N. mikurensis" can cause a severe systemic inflammatory syndrome, neoehrlichiosis, mostly in persons with other underlying diseases. To date, "Ca. N. mikurensis" has been found in ticks in different countries in Asia and Europe, but never as far north as at the Arctic Circle...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Malavika Rajeev, Glenn Edosoa, Chantal Hanitriniaina, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Helene Guis, Ravo Ramiandrasoa, Rila Ratovoson, Laurence Randrianasolo, Mamitiana Andriamananjara, Jean-Michel Heraud, Laurence Baril, C Jessica E Metcalf, Katie Hampson
In Madagascar, dog-mediated rabies has been endemic for over a century, however there is little data on its incidence or impact. We collected data over a 16-month period on provisioning of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at a focal clinic in the Moramanga District and determined the rabies status of biting animals using clinical and laboratory diagnosis. We find that animal rabies cases are widespread, and clinic-based triage and investigation are effective ways to increase detection of rabies exposures and to rule out non-cases...
November 30, 2018: Vaccine
Evgeny N Imyanitov, Grigoriy A Yanus
Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is widely utilized in the routine management of cancer patients and various clinical trials for the treatment of breast, ovarian, rectal, esophageal, head and neck, lung, prostate and many other cancer types. There is a number of potential benefits of applying systemic treatment before the operation. NAT may significantly reduce the tumor burden thus allowing less traumatic surgery. NAT is often considered as personalized in vivo drug sensitivity test, as it allows rapid evaluation of tumor response to a given therapy and consequent adjustment of further treatment planning...
December 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Kim Appler, Scott Brunt, Jodie A Jarvis, April D Davis
OBJECTIVES: Each year, rabies virus infection results in the death of more than 50 000 persons worldwide. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 23 human rabies cases from May 1, 2008, through October 1, 2017. Although rabies testing in the United States is highly reliable, some specimens submitted to rabies laboratories do not have adequate tissues or may be substantially decomposed. In these instances, the specimen may be considered unsatisfactory for testing or produce indeterminate results using the gold standard direct fluorescent antibody test...
December 3, 2018: Public Health Reports
Alexia Harrist, Cara Cherry, Natalie Kwit, Katie Bryan, Ryan Pappert, Jeannine Petersen, Danielle Buttke, David Wong, Christina Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by the highly infectious bacterium Francisella tularensis. Persons having outdoor professions are more likely than others to be exposed to F. tularensis through increased contact with arthropods, infected animals, and contaminated aerosols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After a tularemia epizootic during July and August 2015 at Devils Tower National Monument and an associated tularemia infection in a park employee, we assessed seroprevalence of F...
December 1, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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