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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212935/dissecting-biochemical-peculiarities-of-the-atpase-activity-of-tcsub2-a-component-of-the-mrna-export-pathway-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
Ize de Aguiar Bittencourt, Mariana Serpeloni, Priscila Mazzochi Hiraiwa, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de Souza, Andréa Rodrigues Ávila
The RNA helicase DEAD-box protein Sub2 (yeast)/UAP56 (mammals) is conserved across eukaryotes and is essential for mRNA export in trypanosomes. Despite the high conservation of Sub2 in lower eukaryotes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the low conservation of other mRNA export factors raises questions regarding whether the mode of action of TcSub2 is similar to that of orthologs from other eukaryotes. Mutation of the conserved K87 residue of TcSub2 abolishes ATPase activity, showing that its ATPase domain is functional...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209301/iswi-atp-dependent-remodeling-of-nucleoplasmic-%C3%AF-speckles-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Luca Lo Piccolo, Andrea Attardi, Rosa Bonaccorso, Lorenzo Li Greci, Giorgio Giurato, Antonia Maria Rita Ingrassia, Maria Cristina Onorati
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) belong to the RNA-binding proteins family. They are involved in processing heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs. These proteins participate in every step of mRNA cycle, such as mRNA export, localization, translation, stability and alternative splicing. At least 14 major hnRNPs, which have structural and functional homologues in mammals, are expressed in Drosophila melanogaster. Until now, six of these hnRNPs are known to be nucleus-localized and associated with the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) heat shock responsive ω (hsrω) in the omega speckle compartments (ω-speckles)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206710/sucrose-transporter2-contributes-to-maize-growth-development-and-crop-yield
#3
Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Thomas L Slewinski, Robert B Meeley, David M Braun
During daylight, plants produce excess photosynthates, including sucrose, which is temporarily stored in the vacuole. At night, plants remobilize sucrose to sustain metabolism and growth. Based on homology to other sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins, we hypothesized the maize (Zea mays) SUCROSE TRANSPORTER2 (ZmSUT2) protein functions as a sucrose/H(+) symporter on the vacuolar membrane to export transiently stored sucrose. To understand the biological role of ZmSut2, we examined its spatial and temporal gene expression, determined the protein subcellular localization, and characterized loss-of-function mutations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197904/roles-of-sumoylation-in-mrna-processing-and-metabolism
#4
Patricia Richard, Vasupradha Vethantham, James L Manley
SUMO has gained prominence as a regulator in a number of cellular processes. The roles of sumoylation in RNA metabolism, however, while considerable, remain less well understood. In this chapter we have assembled data from proteomic analyses, localization studies and key functional studies to extend SUMO's role to the area of mRNA processing and metabolism. Proteomic analyses have identified multiple putative sumoylation targets in complexes functioning in almost all aspects of mRNA metabolism, including capping, splicing and polyadenylation of mRNA precursors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181567/the-mitotic-checkpoint-regulator-rae1-induces-aggressive-breast-cancer-cell-phenotypes-by-mediating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Ji Hoon Oh, Ho Hur, Ji-Yeon Lee, Yeejeong Kim, Younsoo Seo, Myoung Hee Kim
The gene RAE1 encodes ribonucleic acid export 1 (RAE1), which is involved in mRNA export and is known to serve as a mitotic checkpoint regulator. In addition, RAE1 haplo-insufficiency leads to chromosome missegregation and early aging-associated phenotypes. In humans, a positive correlation has been found between RAE1 copy number abnormalities and gene amplification in breast cancer cells. However, the precise functional role of RAE1 in breast cancer remains to be determined. An in silico analysis of data retrieved from GENT and cBio-Portal identified RAE1 upregulation in breast cancer tissues relative to normal breast cells...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159804/lariat-capping-as-a-tool-to-study-5-cap-functions-of-individual-yeast-mrna-species-in-vivo
#6
Nicolai Krogh, Max Pietschmann, Manfred Schmid, Torben Heick Jensen, Henrik Nielsen
The 5' cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA is critical for its processing, transport, translation and stability. The many functions of the cap and the fact that most, if not all, mRNA carries the same type of cap makes it difficult to analyse cap function in vivo at individual steps of gene expression. We have used the lariat capping ribozyme (LCrz) from the myxomycete Didymium to replace the mRNA m7G cap of a single reporter mRNA species with a tiny lariat in which the first and the third nucleotide are joined by a 2', 5' phosphodiester bond...
February 3, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152302/sr-proteins-binders-regulators-and-connectors-of-rna
#7
REVIEW
Sunjoo Jeong
Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known as constitutive and alternative splicing regulators. As splicing is linked to transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps, SR proteins are implicated in the regulation of multiple aspects of the gene expression program. Recent global analyses of SR-RNA interaction maps have advanced our understanding of SR-regulated gene expression. Diverse SR proteins play partially overlapping but distinct roles in transcription-coupled splicing and mRNA processing in the nucleus...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148788/the-atp-dependent-rna-helicase-ddx3x-modulates-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-gene-expression
#8
Bita Khadivjam, Camille Stegen, Marc-Aurèle Hogue-Racine, Nabil El Bilali, Katinka Döhner, Beate Sodeik, Roger Lippé
: The human protein DDX3X is a DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase that regulates transcription, mRNA maturation, mRNA export and translation. DDX3X concomitantly modulates the replication of several RNA viruses and promotes innate immunity. We previously showed that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a human DNA virus, incorporates DDX3X into its mature particles and that DDX3X is required for optimal HSV-1 infectivity. Here, we show that viral gene expression, replication and propagation depend on optimal DDX3X protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143953/hemolytic-anemia-repressed-hepcidin-level-without-hepatocyte-iron-overload-lesson-from-g%C3%A3-nther-disease-model
#9
Sarah Millot, Constance Delaby, Boualem Moulouel, Thibaud Lefebvre, Nathalie Pilard, Nicolas Ducrot, Cécile Ged, Philippe Lettéron, Lucia de Franceschi, Jean Charles Deybach, Carole Beaumont, Laurent Gouya, Hubert De Verneuil, Saïd Lyoumi, Hervé Puy, Zoubida Karim
Hemolysis occurring in hematologic diseases is often associated with an iron loading anemia. This iron overload is the result of a massive outflow of hemoglobin into the bloodstream, but the mechanism of hemoglobin handling has not been fully elucidated. Here, in a congenital erythropoietic porphyria mouse model, we evaluate the impact of hemolysis and regenerative anemia on hepcidin synthesis and iron metabolism. Hemolysis was confirmed by a complete drop in haptoglobin, hemopexin and increased plasma lactate dehydrogenase, an increased red blood cell distribution width and osmotic fragility, a reduced half-life of red blood cells, and increased expression of heme oxygenase 1...
February 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142187/spatial-regulation-of-the-kh-domain-rna-binding-protein-rnc1-mediated-by-a-crm1-independent-nuclear-export-system-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#10
Ryosuke Satoh, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Akitomo Tanaka, Makoto Takada, Yuna Ito, Kanako Hagihara, Masahiro Inari, Ayako Kita, Akira Fukao, Toshinobu Fujiwara, Shinya Hirai, Tokio Tani, Reiko Sugiura
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, including mRNA stability, transport, and translation. Fission yeast rnc1(+) encodes a K Homology (KH)-type RBP, which binds and stabilizes the Pmp1 MAPK phosphatase mRNA thereby suppressing the Cl(-) hypersensitivity of calcineurin deletion and MAPK signaling mutants. Here, we analyzed the spatial regulation of Rnc1 and discovered a putative nuclear export signal (NES)Rnc1 , which dictates the cytoplasmic localization of Rnc1 in a Crm1-independent manner...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141492/rnase-e-and-rnase-j-are-needed-for-s-adenosylmethionine-homeostasis-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#11
Kathrin Baumgardt, Hendrik Melior, Ramakanth Madhugiri, Sebastian Thalmann, Adam Schikora, Matthew McIntosh, Anke Becker, Elena Evguenieva-Hackenberg
The ribonucleases (RNases) E and J play major roles in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively, and co-exist in Sinorhizobium meliloti. We analyzed S. meliloti 2011 mutants with mini-Tn5 insertions in the corresponding genes rne and rnj and found many overlapping effects. We observed similar changes in mRNA levels including lower mRNA levels of the motility and chemotaxis related genes flaA, flgB, and cheR and higher levels of ndvA (important for glucan export). The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) levels were also higher during exponential growth in both RNase mutants, despite no increase in the expression of the sinI AHL synthase gene...
January 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138739/characterization-of-a-nuclear-pore-protein-sheds-light-on-the-roles-and-composition-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-nuclear-pore-complex
#12
Flavie Courjol, Thomas Mouveaux, Kevin Lesage, Jean-Michel Saliou, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Maurine Bonabaud, Marine Rohmer, Christian Slomianny, Franck Lafont, Mathieu Gissot
The nuclear pore is a key structure in eukaryotes regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic transport as well as a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we report the characterization of the first Toxoplasma gondii nuclear pore protein, named TgNup302, which appears to be the orthologue of the mammalian Nup98-96 protein. We produced a conditional knock-down mutant that expresses TgNup302 under the control of an inducible tetracycline-regulated promoter. Under ATc treatment, a substantial decrease of TgNup302 protein in inducible knock-down (iKD) parasites was observed, causing a delay in parasite proliferation...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126606/regulation-of-the-human-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-by-the-forkhead-box-transcription-factor-foxa2-hnf-3%C3%AE-in-hepatic-cells
#13
Maria Kanaki, Dimitris Kardassis
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) from circulating TG-rich lipoproteins. The role of LPL in the liver has been controversial but recent studies in mice with liver LPL overexpression or deficiency have revealed important new roles of the enzyme in glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify regulatory elements and factors that control the transcription of the human LPL gene in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis of the human LPL promoter revealed that the proximal region which harbors a binding site for the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA2/HNF-3β at position -47/-40 is important for its hepatic cell activity...
January 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100786/inositol-depletion-induced-by-acute-treatment-of-the-bipolar-disorder-drug-valproate-increases-levels-of-phytosphingosine
#14
Shyamalagauri Jadhav, Sarah Russo, L Ashley Cowart, Miriam L Greenberg
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ~2% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, though widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098260/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-is-capable-of-down-regulating-protein-level-of-host-antiviral-protein-apobec3g
#15
Ruidong Chen, Xue Zhao, Yongxiang Wang, Youhua Xie, Jing Liu
The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) family proteins bind RNA and single-stranded DNA, and create C-to-U base modifications through cytidine deaminase activity. APOBEC3G restricts human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection by creating hypermutations in proviral DNA, while HIV-1-encoded vif protein antagonizes such restriction by targeting APOBEC3G for degradation. APOBEC3G also inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV): APOBEC3G co-expression inhibits HBV replication and evidences exist indicating APOBEC3G-mediated HBV hypermutations in patients...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067465/cholestyramine-alters%C3%A2-bile-acid%C3%A2-amounts-and-the-expression-of-cholesterol-related-genes-in-rabbit-intestinal-and-hepatic-tissues
#16
Dong Ni Qiu, Quan Shang, Da Yu Sun, Wei Qun Ding, Zhong Guang Luo, Jian Chen, Wei Ru Jiang, Jian Ping Huang, Xiao Yun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Cholestyramine, as a bile acid sequestering exchange resin, has been wildly used to treat hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to explore how cholestyramine regulated serum cholesterol amounts and bile acid levels in animal models. METHODS: The New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to the control (given distilled water) and cholestyramine (CHO)-treated (given cholestyramine 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks) groups. To assess bile acid pool size, bile fistulas were generated in five rabbits in each group...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064320/-interactions-of-the-trex-2-complex-with-mrnp-particle-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-56d-gene
#17
V V Popova, A A Glukhova, S G Georgieva, G P Georgiev, D V Kopytova
mRNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. A pre-mRNA molecule undergoes modification, such as 5'-capping, splicing, and 3'-end processing, in the nucleus. The molecule being modified interacts with a large number of proteins and, thus, mRNP particles are formed. The binding of factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and mRNA processing. We have shown that the functioning of TREX-2, an mRNA export complex, is restricted to the nucleus...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059701/structural-and-biochemical-analyses-of-the-dead-box-atpase-sub2-in-association-with-tho-or-yra1
#18
Yi Ren, Philip Schmiege, Günter Blobel
mRNA is cotranscrptionally processed and packaged into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in the nucleus. Prior to export through the nuclear pore, mRNPs undergo several obligatory remodeling reactions. In yeast, one of these reactions involves loading of the mRNA-binding protein Yra1 by the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 as assisted by the hetero-pentameric THO complex. To obtain molecular insights into reaction mechanisms, we determined crystal structures of two relevant complexes: a THO hetero-pentamer bound to Sub2 at 6...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053097/subcellular-localization-of-hiv-1-gag-pol-mrnas-regulates-sites-of-virion-assembly
#19
Jordan T Becker, Nathan M Sherer
: HIV-1 full-length, unspliced RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052353/temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-mrna-export-single-particle-rna-imaging-provides-new-tools-and-insights
#20
Stephanie Heinrich, Carina Patrizia Derrer, Azra Lari, Karsten Weis, Ben Montpetit
The transport of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from the nucleus to cytoplasm is an essential step in the gene expression program of all eukaryotes. Recent technological advances in the areas of RNA-labeling, microscopy, and sequencing are leading to novel insights about mRNA biogenesis and export. This includes quantitative single molecule imaging (SMI) of RNA molecules in live cells, which is providing knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the export process. As this information becomes available, it leads to new questions, the reinterpretation of previous findings, and revised models of mRNA export...
January 4, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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