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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148037/growth-performance-fatty-acid-composition-lipid-deposition-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-related-gene-expression-in-juvenile-pond-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-fed-diets-with-different-dietary-soybean-oil-levels
#1
Y Li, Z Jia, X Liang, D Matulic, M Hussein, J Gao
A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary soybean oil (SO) levels on growth performance, fatty-acid composition and lipid deposition in viscera, histology and histochemistry of liver, intestine and hepatic-lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus juveniles. Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (mean ± s.d. mass 0·40 ± 0·01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing SO at different concentrations: 0, 20, 32, 56 and 100% SO and a diet containing 100% fish oil (100% FO)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145159/potential-link-between-m-6-a-modification-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
REVIEW
Lian-Ju Li, Yin-Guang Fan, Rui-Xue Leng, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
The field of m(6)A modification and epitranscriptomics has recently attracted much attention. More methods allowing for precise m(6)A site profiling and location are developed and crucial players of m(6)A modification machinery are increasingly identified. Although some challenges remain, m(6)A modification is found to modulate almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, structure, translation, and export. Thus, m(6)A modification adds a new layer of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and it is implicated in T cell response to HIV infection, type I interferon production, and T cell differentiation and homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142127/epstein-barr-virus-protein-eb2-stimulates-translation-initiation-of-mrnas-through-direct-interactions-with-both-pabp-and-eif4g
#3
Fabrice Mure, Baptiste Panthu, Isabelle Zanella-Cléon, Frédéric Delolme, Evelyne Manet, Théophile Ohlmann, Henri Gruffat
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses several mRNAs produced from intronless genes that could potentially be unfavorably translated compared to cellular spliced mRNAs. To overcome this situation, the virus encodes an RNA-binding protein (RBP) called EB2, previously found to both facilitate the export of nuclear mRNAs and increase their translational yield. Here, we show that EB2 binds both nuclear and cytoplasmic cap-binding complexes (respectively, CBC and eIF4F) as well as the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) to enhance translation initiation of a given mRNP...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133588/quantitative-analysis-of-multilayer-organization-of-proteins-and-rna-in-nuclear-speckles-at-super-resolution
#4
Jingyi Fei, Mahdieh Jadaliha, Tyler S Harmon, Isaac T S Li, Boyang Hua, Qinyu Hao, Alex S Holehouse, Matthew Reyer, Qinyu Sun, Susan M Freier, Rohit V Pappu, Kannanganattu V Prasanth, Taekjip Ha
Nuclear speckles are self-assembled organelles composed of RNAs and proteins. They are proposed to act as structural domains that control distinct steps in gene expression, including transcription, splicing, and mRNA export. Earlier studies identified differential localization of a few components within the speckles. It was speculated that the spatial organization of speckle components might contribute directly to the order of operations that coordinate distinct processes. By performing multi-color structured illumination microscopy, we characterized the multilayer organization of speckles at a higher resolution...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130201/quantifying-gene-expression-in-living-cells-with-ratiometric-bimolecular-beacons
#5
Yantao Yang, Mingming Chen, Christopher J Krueger, Andrew Tsourkas, Antony K Chen
Molecular beacons (MBs), a class of oligonucleotide-based probes, have enabled researchers to study various RNA molecules in their native live-cell contexts. However, it is also increasingly recognized that, when delivered into cells, MBs have the tendency to be sequestered into the nucleus where they may generate false positive signals. In an attempt to overcome this issue, MBs have been synthesized with chemically modified oligonucleotide backbones to confer greater biostability. Alternatively, strategies have been developed to minimize nuclear entry...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125941/epitranscriptomics-regulation-of-mrna-metabolism-through-modifications
#6
REVIEW
Eyal Peer, Gideon Rechavi, Dan Dominissini
Cellular RNAs can be modified post-transcriptionally with dynamic and reversible chemical modifications. These modifications can alter the structure and metabolism of mRNA, but only recent methodological and conceptual advances allowed systematic mapping and functional analysis to unfold the role they play in mRNA biology. Mapping the most common internal mRNA modification, N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), paved the way for the deciphering of other types of mRNA modifications, such as N(1)-methyladenosine (m(1)A)...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116388/the-evolutionarily-conserved-factor-sus1-eny2-plays-a-role-in-telomere-length-maintenance
#7
Amparo Galán, Encar García-Oliver, Carme Nuño-Cabanes, Linda Rubinstein, Martin Kupiec, Susana Rodríguez-Navarro
Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in histone H2B de-ubiquitination and mRNA export from the nucleus in eukaryotes. Previous studies implicated Sus1 partners in genome integrity including telomere homeostasis. However, the implication of Sus1 in telomere maintenance remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that yeast Sus1 interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in telomere maintenance and its absence leads to elongated telomeres. Deletion of several of Sus1's partners also leads to longer telomeres...
November 7, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112714/the-rna-processing-factors-thrap3-and-bclaf1-promote-the-dna-damage-response-through-selective-mrna-splicing-and-nuclear-export
#8
Jekaterina Vohhodina, Eliana M Barros, Abigail L Savage, Fabio G Liberante, Lorenzo Manti, Peter Bankhead, Nicola Cosgrove, Angelina F Madden, D Paul Harkin, Kienan I Savage
mRNA splicing and export plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression, with recent evidence suggesting an additional layer of regulation of gene expression and cellular function through the selective splicing and export of genes within specific pathways. Here we describe a role for the RNA processing factors THRAP3 and BCLAF1 in the regulation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, a key pathway involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the prevention of oncogenic transformation...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109432/als-associated-mutations-in-matrin-3-alter-protein-protein-interactions-and-impede-mrna-nuclear-export
#9
Ashley Boehringer, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Gurkaran Singh, Nadine Bakkar, Patrick Pirrotte, Robert Bowser
Mutations in Matrin 3 have recently been linked to ALS, though the mechanism that induces disease in these patients is unknown. To define the protein interactome of wild-type and ALS-linked MATR3 mutations, we performed immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry using NSC-34 cells expressing human wild-type or mutant Matrin 3. Gene ontology analysis identified a novel role for Matrin 3 in mRNA transport centered on proteins in the TRanscription and EXport (TREX) complex, known to function in mRNA biogenesis and nuclear export...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107136/maternal-hypercholesterolemia-enhances-oxysterol-concentration-in-mothers-and-newly-weaned-offspring-but-is-attenuated-by-maternal-phytosterol-supplementation
#10
Jerad H Dumolt, Sandhya K Radhakrishnan, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Khuong Le, Mulchand S Patel, Richard W Browne, Todd C Rideout
In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: (1) chow, (2) high cholesterol (CH; 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099484/lin28b-and-mir-142-3p-regulate-neuronal-differentiation-by-modulating-staufen1-expression
#11
Younseo Oh, Jungyun Park, Jin-Il Kim, Mi-Yoon Chang, Sang-Hun Lee, Youl-Hee Cho, Jungwook Hwang
Staufen1 (STAU1) and Lin28B are RNA-binding proteins that are involved in neuronal differentiation as a function of post-transcriptional regulation. STAU1 triggers post-transcriptional regulation, including mRNA export, mRNA relocation, translation and mRNA decay. Lin28B also has multiple functions in miRNA biogenesis and the regulation of translation. Here, we examined the connection between STAU1 and Lin28B and found that Lin28B regulates the abundance of STAU1 mRNA via miRNA maturation. Decreases in the expression of both STAU1 and Lin28B were observed during neuronal differentiation...
November 3, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096075/getting-mrna-containing-ribonucleoprotein-granules-out-of-a-nuclear-back-door
#12
REVIEW
Anup Parchure, Mary Munson, Vivian Budnik
A pivotal feature of long-lasting synaptic plasticity is the localization of RNAs and the protein synthesis machinery at synaptic sites. How and where ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transport granules that support this synthetic activity are formed is of fundamental importance. The prevailing model poses that the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the sole gatekeeper for transit of cellular material in and out of the nucleus. However, insights from the nuclear assembly of large viral capsids highlight a back door route for nuclear escape, a process referred to nuclear envelope (NE) budding...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044402/yersinia-enterocolitica-csra-regulates-expression-of-the-ysa-and-ysc-type-3-secretion-system-in-unique-ways
#13
Gulustan Ozturk, Karen LeGrand, Yan Zheng, Glenn M Young
This study investigated how carbon storage regulator A (CsrA) affects expression of the Ysa and Ysc type 3 secretion (T3S) system genetic regulatory cascades that control Ysps (Yersinia secreted proteins) and Yops (Yersinia outer proteins) export, respectively. Given that most often CsrA acts as a mediator of mRNA stability, an activity that can be monitored using lacZ transcriptional fusions, we employed a collection of reporter strains to assess Ysa and Ysc gene expression. To this end, bacteria were cultivated to induce either the Ysa or the Ysc T3S system...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042644/hiv-1-viral-protein-r-vpr-induces-fatty-liver-in-mice-via-lxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-dysregulation-implications-for-hiv-specific-pathogenesis-of-nafld
#14
Neeti Agarwal, Dinakar Iyer, Chiara Gabbi, Pradip Saha, Sanjeet G Patel, Qianxing Mo, Benny Chang, Biman Goswami, Ulrich Schubert, Jeffrey B Kopp, Dorothy E Lewis, Ashok Balasubramanyam
HIV patients develop hepatic steatosis. We investigated hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr (Vpr-Tg) in liver and adipose tissues, and WT mice infused with synthetic Vpr. Vpr-Tg mice developed increased liver triglyceride content and elevated ALT, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase due to three hepatic defects: 1.6-fold accelerated de novo lipogenesis (DNL), 45% slower fatty acid ß-oxidation, and 40% decreased VLDL-triglyceride export. Accelerated hepatic DNL was due to coactivation by Vpr of liver X receptor-α (LXRα) with increased expression of its lipogenic targets Srebp1c, Chrebp, Lpk, Dgat, Fasn and Scd1, and intranuclear SREBP1c and ChREBP...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036368/proteomic-identification-of-histone-post-translational-modifications-and-proteins-enriched-at-a-dna-double-strand-break
#15
Pingping Wang, Stephanie Byrum, Faith C Fowler, Sangita Pal, Alan J Tackett, Jessica K Tyler
Here, we use ChAP-MS (chromatin affinity purification with mass spectrometry), for the affinity purification of a sequence-specific single-copy endogenous chromosomal locus containing a DNA double-strand break (DSB). We found multiple new histone post-translational modifications enriched on chromatin bearing a DSB from budding yeast. One of these, methylation of histone H3 on lysine 125, has not previously been reported. Among over 100 novel proteins enriched at a DSB were the phosphatase Sit4, the RNA pol II degradation factor Def1, the mRNA export protein Yra1 and the HECT E3 ligase Tom1...
September 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035012/regulatory-effects-of-black-rice-extract-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection-induced-apoptosis
#16
Sa-Hyun Kim, Min Ho Lee, Min Park, Hyun Jun Woo, Yoon Suk Kim, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Woo-Duck Seo, Jong-Bae Kim
SCOPE: Black rice extract (BRE) contains cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin, as the major component. In this study, we found that BRE inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of genes encoding cytotoxin-associated protein A (cagA) and vacuolating protein A (vacA) in Helicobacter pylori 60190 strain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed RT-PCR and western blotting to show that BRE inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of SecA. Because SecA is involved in VacA export in bacteria, our result suggested a positive correlation between BRE-induced inhibition of secA expression and VacA secretion...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030442/an-a-u-rich-enhancer-region-is-required-for-high-level-protein-secretion-through-the-hlya-type-i-secretion-system
#17
Sakshi Khosa, Romy Scholz, Christian Schwarz, Mirko Trilling, Hartmut Hengel, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Sander H J Smits, Lutz Schmitt
Efficient protein secretion is often a valuable alternative to classic cellular expression. Early on, bacterial Type I secretion systems (T1SS) were employed to allow heterologous secretion of fusion proteins. However, this approach was not fully exploited, as many proteins could not be secreted at all or only at low levels. Here, we present an engineered microbial secretion system, which allows the effective production of proteins up to a molecular weight above 88 kDa. This system is based on the hemolysin A (HlyA) T1SS of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, which exports polypeptides when fused to a hemolysin secretion signal...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028476/differential-interaction-between-human-and-murine-crm1-and-lentiviral-rev-proteins
#18
Yan Yue, Ayse K Coskun, Navneet Jawanda, Jim Auer, Richard E Sutton
Mice have multiple obstacles to HIV replication, including a block of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNA nuclear export. In human, Rev binds to the Rev-response element and human (h) Crm1, facilitating nuclear export of RRE-containing viral RNAs. Murine (m) Crm1 is less functional than hCrm1 in this regard. Here we demonstrated that in biochemical experiments mCrm1 failed to interact with HIV Rev whereas hCrm1 did. In genetic experiments in human cells, we observed a modest but significant differential effect between mCrm1 and hCrm1, which was also true of other lentiviral Revs tested...
October 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024760/rna-processing-in-the-male-germline-mechanisms-and-implications-for-fertility
#19
REVIEW
Julien M D Legrand, Robin M Hobbs
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a tightly coordinated process that gives rise to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilising an ovum during sexual reproduction. A population of stem and progenitor cells known as undifferentiated spermatogonia enables continual spermatogenesis throughout life. A complex transcriptional network that balances self-renewal of spermatogonia with their timely differentiation in order to maintain constant fertility regulates this process. Importantly, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, necessitated by the profound genetic and morphological changes that occur during meiosis and sperm maturation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993159/prevention-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease-by-schaftoside-in-lithogenic-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mouse-model
#20
Meijing Liu, Changhui Liu, Hao Chen, Xiaotao Huang, Xiaohui Zeng, Juncheng Zhou, Suiqing Mi
Schaftoside (SS) is a bioactive compound present in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii (DS), a herb that has been used to treat cholelithiasis and urolithiasis in Chinese medicine. Whether SS inhibits cholesterol (Ch) gallstone formation has not been investigated. This study examined the effects of oral intake of SS on Ch gallstone formation in C57BL/6 mice fed a lithogenic diet. The rate of gallstone formation was recorded. Levels of Ch, triglycerides (TG) and bile salts (BS) were measured in the bile and serum...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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