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Min Hu, Lisheng Liu, Weirong Yao
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Glutaminolysis has been suggested as a therapeutic target for cancer. Costunolide is a natural sesquiterpene lactone showing potent antitumor activity. Our studies were aimed at evaluating how costunolide affected glutaminolysis leading to proliferation inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells. Costunolide suppressed viability and proliferation of HCT116 cells concentration-dependently, but did not apparently affect human intestinal epithelial cells...
August 10, 2018: Gene
Yue Shang, Xi-Feng Li, Ming-Ji Jin, Ying Li, Yan-Ling Wu, Quan Jin, Yu Zhang, Xia Li, Min Jiang, Ben-Wen Cui, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan
The current study was aimed to reveal that leucodin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia capillaris could inhibit the inflammatory response in macrophages and the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes via P2x7R-NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Several types of macrophages including mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and human macrophages THP-1 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of leucodin for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS and ATP. LPS plus ATP initiated IL-1β cleavage and release in mouse peritoneal macrophages and peaked at 4 h...
August 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yong Liu, Jingan Chen, Jieying Qian, Hao Lin, Ning Sun, Zunnan Huang
Agarwood originating from Aquilaria sinensis contains sesquiterpenoids that have tremendous commercial value in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industries. Aquilaria sinensis sesquiterpene synthase (AsSTS) is the key enzyme in the agarwood biosynthesis pathway, and its activity directly affects the chemical composition of agarwood; however, its role in species evolution remains unclear. In this study, we performed an evolutionary analysis based on 68 plant sesquiterpene synthase (STS) genes and further structural characterization of the gene encoding AsSTS to explore its molecular evolution...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Qun Wang, Shuang Gao, Guo-Zhen Wu, Niao Yang, Xian-Peng Zu, Wen-Cai Li, Ning Xie, Rong-Rong Zhang, Chen-Wei Li, Zhen-Lin Hu, Wei-Dong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Inula helenium L. is an herb whose anti-inflammatory properties are attributed to its active components, the sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Our previous study demonstrated that the total sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Inula helenium L. (TSL-IHL), consisting mainly of alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), may have potential in the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effect of TSL-IHL on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ramzi A Mothana, Jamal M Khaled, Omar M Noman, Ashok Kumar, Mohamed F Alajmi, Adnan J Al-Rehaily, Mine Kurkcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Cancers and microbial infections are still a major health problem, therefore research on new anticancer and antimicrobial agents ought to be continued. Natural products including essential oils from medicinal plants continue to be an important resource to manage various diseases. Thus, the particular objectives of this study are to investigate the chemical composition, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Plectranthus species namely P. cylindraceus Hocst...
August 10, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Xiaohe Li, Cheng Lu, Shuangwei Liu, Shuaishuai Liu, Chengcheng Su, Ting Xiao, Zhun Bi, Pengzhen Sheng, Mengying Huang, Xinhua Liu, Yujiao Wei, Lin Zhao, Shengxiang Miao, Jiahe Mao, Kai Huang, Shaoyan Gao, Ning Liu, Min Qi, Tongtong Liu, Shuanglin Qin, Luqing Wei, Tao Sun, Wen Ning, Guang Yang, Honggang Zhou, Cheng Yang
In this study, anti-IPF lead compounds 42 and 44, derived from natural sesquiterpene lactones Isoalantolactone and alantolactone, were discovered by screening from a high-throughput TGF-β1 reporter luciferase assay. Notably, they could reduce the myofibroblast activation and extracellular matrix deposition both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, compounds 42 and 44 could significantly attenuate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Further validation of pharmacokinetics study and toxicity evaluation indicated that compound 44 might be a promising anti-IPF drug candidate...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tarmo Nuutinen
Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes - both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence. Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail. The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Qinghao Jin, Jin Woo Lee, Hari Jang, Hye Lim Lee, Jun Gu Kim, Wanying Wu, Dongho Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Kyeong Lee, Bang Yeon Hwang
An undescribed unusual sesquiterpene trimer and three sesquiterpene dimers were isolated from the flowers of Inula japonica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS data. Inulajaponicolide A has an undescribed carbon skeleton comprising of one xanthanolide and two guaianolide units with the linkage mode of C-11/C-3' and C-11'/C-1'' via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. Inulajaponicolides C and D exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against A 549 and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8...
August 7, 2018: Phytochemistry
Fei Ren, Andriy Kovalchuk, Mukrimin Mukrimin, Mengxia Liu, Zhen Zeng, Rajendra P Ghimire, Minna Kivimäenpää, Jarmo K Holopainen, Hui Sun, Fred O Asiegbu
Plants live in close association with microbial symbionts, which may affect the host fitness, productivity, and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors. The composition of plant microbial communities is influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, but little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on the structure of these communities. In this study, we investigated the structure of bacterial communities associated with different tissues of asymptomatic and symptomatic (Heterobasidion-rotten) Norway spruce (Picea abies (L...
August 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Xu Deng, Yan Wang, Hong-Hua Wu, Weize Zhang, Xueqi Dong, Zhimei Wang, Yan Zhu, Xiu-Mei Gao, Li Li, Ya-Nan Wang, Yan-Tong Xu
Four sesquiterpenoid-chalcone hybrids (nardochalaristolones A-D, 1-4), a pair of epimeric sesquiterpenoid-flavonone hybrids ((2'S)- and (2'R)-nardoflavaristolone A, 5 and 6), and a sesquiterpenoid dimer (dinardokanshone F, 7), all sharing a kanshone C-derived sesquiterpenoid unit, were isolated from the underground parts of Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the extensive spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were established by analysis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data including NOESY data, combined with comparisons of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra...
August 2, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Frank Schulz, Michael Dirkmann, Julia Nowack
The enzymatic synthesis of terpenes was investigated using a cascade based on the mevalonic acid pathway. Suitable enzymes from all kingdoms of life were identified and combined to give rise to geosmin and patchoulol as representative compounds. The pathway was studied in three separate segments which were subsequently combined to a 10-step cascade plus added cofactor regeneration systems. The cascade delivers farnesyl pyrophosphate with >40% conversion and cyclises it to sesquiterpenes with >90% conversion...
August 7, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Simon Haberstroh, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Maria C Caldeira, Maren Dubbert, Christiane Werner
Drought is a major environmental constrain affecting plant performance and survival, particularly in Mediterranean ecosystems. Terpenoids may play a protective role under these conditions, however, observations of drought effects on plant terpenoid emissions are controversial ranging from decreased emissions to unaffected or increased release of terpenoids. In the present study we investigated terpenoid emissions of cork oak ( Quercus suber ) and gum rockrose ( Cistus ladanifer ) in response to summer drought stress in 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jia-Yu Zhou, Kai Sun, Fei Chen, Jie Yuan, Xia Li, Chuan-Chao Dai
The bacterial endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B significantly enhances photosynthate accumulations in Atractylodes lancea. These carbohydrates are preferentially used by the host plant to synthesize secondary metabolites, rather than to increase plant biomass accumulation. Mechanisms underlying the allocation of endophyte-increased carbohydrate in different plant metabolic processes are largely unknown. We have studied how P. fluorescens ALEB7B enhances photosynthate accumulation and how bacterial elicitors regulate metabolic flux and increase medicinal sesquiterpenoid formation in A...
July 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Markus Menke, Kristina Melnik, Pardha S Peram, Iris Starnberger, Walter Hödl, Miguel Vences, Stefan Schulz
Some amphibians use chemical signals in addition to optical and acoustical signals to transmit information. Males of mantellid frogs from Madagascar and hyperoliid frogs from Africa emit complex, species- and sex-specific bouquets of volatiles from their femoral or gular glands. We report here on the identification, synthesis, and determination of the absolute configuration of a macrocyclic lactone occurring in several species of both families, ( S )-3,7,11-dodec-6,10-dien-12-olide ( S - 14 , frogolide). Macrolides are a preferred compound class of frog volatiles...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Claudia Giuliani, Roberta Ascrizzi, Daniela Lupi, Giacomo Tassera, Laura Santagostini, Manuela Giovanetti, Guido Flamini, Gelsomina Fico
Plants have developed a plethora of signals to interact with other organisms, finally building up a sophisticate language for communication. In this context, we investigated Salvia verticillata L. (Lamiaceae), with the primary goal to link secondary metabolites and actual biotic relationships. We specifically analysed the volatile organic compounds (VOC) spontaneously emitted by leaves and flowers and determined the composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts across 2015 and 2016. We merged information of chemical analyses to a micromorphological investigation on the glandular indumentum and to focal observations on the pollinator assemblage...
August 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Qing-Yan Zhou, Xue-Qiong Yang, Zhuo-Xi Zhang, Bang-Yan Wang, Ming Hu, Ya-Bin Yang, Hao Zhou, Zhong-Tao Ding
Five new metabolites belonging to two backbones of pulvilloric acid-type azaphilone and tremulane sesquiterpene were obtained and their structures were determined by spectral analysis. Based on the biogenesis analysis, tremulane sesquiterpenes were obtained from Irpex lacteus by the stimulation of mixed-culture. The antifungal selectivities of metabolites produced by fungus against their co-culture fungus and common pathogens, exhibited competitive interaction of this mix-culture. The tremulane sesquiterpene conocenol B produced by I...
August 1, 2018: Fitoterapia
Yang-Guo Xie, Guo-Jing Wu, Tao-Fang Cheng, Sheng-Lan Zhu, Shi-Kai Yan, Hui-Zi Jin, Wei-Dong Zhang
Five new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid dimers vielopsides A-E, connecting patterns through two direct CC bonds (C-2 to C-2', C-4 to C-1'), were isolated from the roots of Xylopia vielana. Their absolute configurations were established by NOE analysis, the Cu Kα X-ray crystallographic and circular dichroism (CD) experiment. Among them, compound 5 showed moderate activity IC50 values of 33.8 μM on NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
August 1, 2018: Fitoterapia
Dörte Mayer, Axel Mithöfer, Erich Glawischnig, Elisabeth Georgii, Andrea Ghirardo, Basem Kanawati, Phillipe Schmitt-Kopplin, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler, Jörg Durner, Frank Gaupels
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forms in plants under stress conditions, but little is known about its physiological functions. Here, we explored the physiological functions of NO2 in plant cells using short-term fumigation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) for 1 h with 10 parts per million (ppm) NO2. Although leaf symptoms were absent, the expression of genes related to pathogen resistance was induced. Fumigated plants developed basal disease resistance, or pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae...
August 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Shu Wang, Peng-Fei Tu, Ke-Wu Zeng
Apoptosis is an essential type of programmed cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that a wide range of natural-derived anticancer agents induce apoptosis by trigging oxidative stress. Artemisia argyi is a traditional Chinese herb for treating diverse diseases including dyspepsia, arthroncus, and anaphylactic disease. In this study, sesquiterpene lactone 3 (SL3), a bioactive ingredient isolated from Artemisia argyi was found to show obvious inhibitory effect on two gastric carcinoma cells. Mechanism study revealed that SL3 promoted the membrane translocation of p47, activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase, and evaluated intracellular reactive oxygen species production, leading to the activation of mitochondria-dependent caspase apoptosis pathway...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hui Huang, Junxing Niu, Fei Wang, Lihong Hu, Qiang Yu
We investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of 2-desoxy-4β-propylcarbamate-pulchellin (P-13), a sesquiterpene lactone derivative of 2-desoxy-4-epi-pulchellin from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Carpesium abrotanoides L, in regulating STAT3 signaling and cancer cell growth. We found that P-13 inhibited the IL-6-induced, as well as the constitutive, STAT3 activation in a dose and time-dependent manner. In vitro kinase activity analyses demonstrated that P-13 directly inhibited JAK2 kinase activity...
August 3, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
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