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Shape analysis

Ron Flatau, Michal Segoli, Irina Khokhlova, Hadas Hawlena
Endosymbionts-microbes that live within and engage in prolonged and intimate associations with their hosts-are gaining recognition for their direct impact on plant and animal reproduction. Here we used the overlooked Wolbachia-flea system to explore the possibility that endosymbionts may also play a role as mediators in shaping the reproductive success of their hosts. We simultaneously quantified the Wolbachia density in field- and laboratory-originated fleas that fed and mated on rodents for either five or ten days and assessed their body size and current reproductive success...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Unn K Haukvik, Christian K Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid Agartz
The hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15-887 subjects)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Rémy Gauthier, Max Langer, Hélène Follet, Cécile Olivier, Pierre-Jean Gouttenoire, Lukas Helfen, Frédéric Rongiéras, David Mitton, Françoise Peyrin
Human bone is known to adapt to its mechanical environment in a living body. Both its architecture and microstructure may differ between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. The aim of the current study was to analyze in three dimensions, the morphology of the multi-scale porosities on human cortical bone at different locations. Eight paired femoral diaphyses, femoral necks, and radial diaphyses were imaged using Synchrotron Radiation µCT with a 0.7 µm isotropic voxel size. The spatial resolution facilitates the investigation of the multiscale porosities of cortical bone, from the osteonal canals system down to the osteocyte lacunar system...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Karolin Holzwarth, Ralf Köhler, Lars Philipsen, Koji Tokoyoda, Valeriia Ladyhina, Carolina Wählby, Raluca A Niesner, Anja E Hauser
The bone marrow (BM) consists of multiple, structured micro-environmental entities-the so called niches, which contain hematopoietic cells as well as stromal cells. These niches fulfill a variety of functions, such as control of the hematopoietic stem cell pool, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and maintenance of immunological memory. However, due to the molecular and cellular complexity and a lack of suitable histological multiplexing methods, the composition of the various BM niches is still elusive...
August 14, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
F Murillo-Gómez, R B Wanderley, M F De Goes
The aim of this study was to determine whether using a silane-containing universal adhesive as a silane primer in glass-ceramic/resin cement systems affects biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and bonded interface integrity after loading. Glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) disc-shaped specimens (6.5±0.1mm in diameter, 0.5±0.1mm thick) were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 20 seconds and divided into four groups of 30 specimens, to be treated as follows: 1) One bottle silane primer (RCP); 2) Separate application of silane and adhesive (RCP+SB); 3) Silane-containing universal adhesive (SBU); 4) No treatment (C)...
August 14, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Karin Jongsma, Mark Schweda
The idea that dementia is essentially a return to childhood and those affected must somehow be similar to children constitutes a deeply rooted and pervasive cultural trope. While such tropes may be helpful in making sense of an otherwise elusive and inscrutable state, they can at the same time promote inadequate understandings of dementia and hence also influence our attitudes and behaviour towards those affected in several problematic ways. In the present work, we provide a detailed account of the origins and implications of the idea that people with dementia are somehow similar to children...
August 14, 2018: Bioethics
Michael Salmon, Christina Coppenrath, Benjamin Higgins
In this study, we compare and contrast armoring strategies during early ontogeny among three related species of marine turtles: the hawksbill, a species that diverged about 29 mya from the loggerhead and Kemp's ridley, which diverged from one another about 16 mya. Our purpose was to determine whether there was a correlation between divergence time and the evolution of unique morphological armoring specializations among these species. To find out, we completed a more detailed analysis of shell morphology for all of the species that revealed the following patterns...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
S Vasanthi, J Febin Prabhu Dass
Oryza sativa is vastly affected by microbial pathogen, causing blight-related diseases, which in turn deplete the growth and productivity of rice. In this study, we analyzed four bacterial rice pathogen genomes and reported on their codon usage that might have greater implication in mutation-related research. Differential codon usage indices, such as codon adaptation index (CAI), codon bias index (CBI), effective number of codons (ENc), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), correspondence analysis (COA), and parity plots, were applied on coding sequences of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Pseudomonas avenae speices...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Michalis Mazonakis, Antonis Tzedakis, Efrossyni Lyraraki, John Damilakis
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for cancer development due to radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy with 6 MV X-rays. METHODS: Orbital irradiation was simulated with the MCNP code. The radiation dose received by ten out-of-field organs having a strong disposition for carcinogenesis was calculated with Monte Carlo methods. These dose calculations were used to estimate the organ-dependent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for cancer induction in 30- and 50-year-old males and females on the basis of the linear model suggested by the BEIR-VII report...
August 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Jie Liu, Teh Lin, Jiajin Fan, Lili Chen, Robert Price, C-M Charlie Ma
PURPOSE: Two different respiratory monitoring systems (Varian's Real-Time Position Management (RPM) System and Siemens' ANZAI belt Respiratory Gating System) are compared in the context of respiratory signals and 4D CT images that are accordingly reconstructed. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of combined use of RPM and ANZAI systems for 4DCT simulation and gated radiotherapy treatment, respectively. METHODS: The RPM infrared reflecting marker and the ANZAI belt pressure sensor were both placed on the patient's abdomen during 4DCT scans...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Satheesh Krishna, Nicola Schieda, Matthew Df McInnes, Trevor A Flood, Rebecca E Thornhill
PURPOSE: To assess T2-weighted (T2W) MRI to differentiate transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer (PCa) from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: With IRB approval, 22 consecutive TZ PCa were retrospectively compared with 30 consecutive BPH (15 stromal, 15 glandular) nodules diagnosed using radical prostatectomy MRI maps. Two blinded radiologists (R1/R2) subjectively assessed the shape (round/oval vs. lenticular) and margin (circumscribed vs. blurred/indistinct) and for a T2W hypointense rim...
August 13, 2018: European Radiology
Bo-Shi Yuan, Ye Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yuan Dong, Guang-Yong Jin
Ablation morphology affects the quality of laser processing. Therefore, the control of ablation morphology is very important. The influence of spot size combination mode on the ablation morphology of aluminum alloy is studied for the first time. Experimental results show that when the nanosecond laser spot is larger, the ablation morphology looks like a bowl-shape, and there is little solidification near the edge. When the nanosecond laser spot is smaller, the shape of the ablation morphology is similar to a hole, and the protuberance is formed near the edge of the cavity...
August 13, 2018: Materials
Indrani Roy, Mala Thapa, Arunava Goswami
Here, the authors describe a simple method to formulate the nanodispersion of hexaconazole (hexa); henceforth, referred to as nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) that is water soluble and effective against several species of Aspergillus . Size and shape of the prepared nanocomposite was determined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Nanohexaconazole structure was further confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Deepika Singh, Vikas Kumar, Ekta Yadav, Neha Falls, Manvendra Singh, Ujendra Komal, Amita Verma
Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous extract of Carissa carandas ( C. carandas ) leaves was studied. Fabrication of AgNPs was confirmed by the UV-visible spectroscopy which gives absorption maxima at 420 nm. C. carandas leaves are the rich source of the bioactive molecules, acts as a reducing and stabilising agent in AgNPs, confirmed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The field emission scanning electron microscope revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesised AgNPs...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Claudia A F Wascher, Ipek G Kulahci, Ellis J G Langley, Rachael C Shaw
The requirements of living in social groups, and forming and maintaining social relationships are hypothesized to be one of the major drivers behind the evolution of cognitive abilities. Most empirical studies investigating the relationships between sociality and cognition compare cognitive performance between species living in systems that differ in social complexity. In this review, we ask whether and how individuals benefit from cognitive skills in their social interactions. Cognitive abilities, such as perception, attention, learning, memory, and inhibitory control, aid in forming and maintaining social relationships...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Shuqin Xu, Pei Liu, Yuanxing Chen, Yi Chen, Wei Zhang, Haixia Zhao, Yiwei Cao, Fuhua Wang, Nana Jiang, Shifeng Lin, Baojie Li, Zhenlin Zhang, Zhanying Wei, Ying Fan, Yunyun Jin, Lin He, Rujiang Zhou, Joseph D Dekker, Haley O Tucker, Simon E Fisher, Zhengju Yao, Quansheng Liu, Xuechun Xia, Xizhi Guo
Fundamental human traits, such as language and bipedalism, are associated with a range of anatomical adaptations in craniofacial shaping and skeletal remodeling. However, it is unclear how such morphological features arose during hominin evolution. FOXP2 is a brain-expressed transcription factor implicated in a rare disorder involving speech apraxia and language impairments. Analysis of its evolutionary history suggests that this gene may have contributed to the emergence of proficient spoken language. In the present study, through analyses of skeleton-specific knockout mice, we identified roles of Foxp2 in skull shaping and bone remodeling...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peter J Fernández, Carrie S Mongle, Louise Leakey, Daniel J Proctor, Caley M Orr, Biren A Patel, Sergio Almécija, Matthew W Tocheri, William L Jungers
The primate foot functions as a grasping organ. As such, its bones, soft tissues, and joints evolved to maximize power and stability in a variety of grasping configurations. Humans are the obvious exception to this primate pattern, with feet that evolved to support the unique biomechanical demands of bipedal locomotion. Of key functional importance to bipedalism is the morphology of the joints at the forefoot, known as the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs), but a comprehensive analysis of hominin MTPJ morphology is currently lacking...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sergio Razzano, Ryan Taylor, Fabrizio Schonauer, Andrea Figus
INTRODUCTION: Among the few methods available, none is able to determine accurately the volume of a DIEP flap. Specimen weight is commonly used to assess the amount of flap needed to reconstruct a breast, but the density of breast is different from that of abdominal tissues; therefore, the volume should be used as a unique unit of measure. The purpose of this study was to provide a simple method to calculate the predicted volume of a DIEP flap in order to match the volume of the breast being reconstructed...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Caitlin N Cain, Anna V Forzano, Sarah C Rutan, Maryanne M Collinson
The use of stationary phase gradients for liquid chromatography (LC) is a promising new strategy to allow for specific control over the selectivity of a separation by having a gradual change in the ligand density along the length of the column. Unfortunately, there have been very few, if any, methods to prepare continuous stationary phase gradients on traditional packed LC columns. In this work, destructive methodologies are used to create stationary phase gradients on commercial C18 columns by infusing trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto the column through controlled rate of infusion (CRI)...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bijaya Malla, Daniel M Aebersold, Alan Dal Pra
BACKGROUND: Circulating exosomes from prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radiotherapy are attractive candidate biomarkers for monitoring treatment response. Multiple workflows for isolation and content characterization of exosomes in biofluids have been attempted. We report a protocol to isolate and characterize exosomal miRNAs content and assess radiation-induced changes. METHODS: In this pilot study, we performed targeted exosomal miRNA profiling of 25 serum samples obtained from PCa patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease treated with curative radiotherapy (RT), and controls...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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