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Shape modelling

Amanda C Kentner, Stephanie Scalia, Junyoung Shin, Mattia M Migliore, Alejandro N Rondón-Ortiz
Both basic and clinical research support the use of tactile stimulation to rescue several neurobiobehavioral consequences that follow early life stress including. Here, using a translational rodent model of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we tested the individual prophylactic potential of a variety of sensory interventions including tactile (brushing pups with a paint brush to mimic maternal licking), auditory (a simulated lactating rat dam heart beat), and olfactory (a series of aroma therapy scents) stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nan Zhang, Dewei Zhao, Na Liu, Yunfeng Wu, Jiahui Yang, Yuefei Wang, Huanxin Xie, Ye Ji, Changlong Zhou, Jinpeng Zhuang, Yaming Wang, Jinglong Yan
Surgical repair of bone defects remains challenging, and the search for alternative procedures is ongoing. Devices made of Mg for bone repair have received much attention owing to their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. We developed a new type of scaffold made of a Mg-Zn-Ca alloy with a shape that mimics cortical bone and can be filled with morselized bone. We evaluated its durability and efficacy in a rabbit ulna-defect model. Three types of scaffold-surface coating were evaluated: group A, no coating; group B, a 10-μm microarc oxidation coating; group C, a hydrothermal duplex composite coating; and group D, an empty-defect control...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Matthias Brunner, Gabriela Czanner, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Vito Romano, Sajjad Ahmad, Mark Batterbury, Claire Britten, Colin E Willoughby, Stephen B Kaye
To investigate a method for precision analysis to discriminate true corneal change from measurement imprecision in keratoconus (KC). Thirty patients with KC and 30 healthy controls were included. Coefficients of repeatability and limits of agreement (LOA) were compared using multiple measurements for inter-observer and inter-device agreement with the Pentacam HR, Orbscan IIz, and Tomey Casia SS-1000. Correlation of repeated measurements was evaluated using a linear mixed effect model (also called random effect model)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie Schauer, Kristina J H Kleinwort, Roxane L Degroote, Carmen Wiedemann, Elisabeth Kremmer, Stefanie M Hauck, Cornelia A Deeg
The GTP-binding protein septin 7 is involved in various cellular processes, including cytoskeleton organization, migration and the regulation of cell shape. Septin 7 function in lymphocytes, however, is poorly characterized. Since the intracellular signaling role of septin 7 is dependent on its interaction network, interaction proteomics was applied to attain novel knowledge about septin 7 function in hematopoietic cells. Our previous finding of decreased septin 7 expression in blood-derived lymphocytes in ERU, a spontaneous animal model for autoimmune uveitis in man, extended the role of septin 7 to a potential key player in autoimmunity...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rabha W Ibrahim, Ali M Hasan, Hamid A Jalab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The MRI brain tumors segmentation is challenging due to variations in terms of size, shape, location and features' intensity of the tumor. Active contour has been applied in MRI scan image segmentation due to its ability to produce regions with boundaries. The main difficulty that encounters the active contour segmentation is the boundary tracking which is controlled by minimization of energy function for segmentation. Hence, this study proposes a novel fractional Wright function (FWF) as a minimization of energy technique to improve the performance of active contour without edge method...
September 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Neda Zamani Tajeddin, Babak Mohammadzadeh Asl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Melanoma is one of the most dangerous forms of skin cancer, but it has a high survival rate if diagnosed on time. The first diagnostic approach in melanoma recognition is to visually assess the lesion through dermoscopic images. Computer-aided diagnosis systems for melanoma recognition has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade and proved to be helpful in that area. Methods for skin lesions analysis usually involves three main steps: lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and features classification...
September 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Catherine Go, Youngjae J Chun, Jenna Kuhn, Yanfei Chen, Sung Kwon Cho, William C Clark, Bryan W Tillman
OBJECTIVE: Early hemorrhage control before the operating room is essential to reduce the significant mortality associated with traumatic injuries of the vena cava. Conventional approaches present logistical challenges on the battlefield or in the trauma bay. A retrievable stent graft would allow rapid hemorrhage control in the preoperative setting when endovascular expertise is not immediately available and without committing a patient to the limitations of current permanent stents. This study details a refined retrievable Rescue stent for percutaneous delivery that was examined in a porcine survival model of penetrating caval hemorrhage...
September 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Qiuke Wang, Jian Hu, Junjie Guan, Yunfeng Chen, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical efficacy of 3D printing fracture models to assist in creating pre-contoured plates to treat proximal third humeral shaft fractures. METHODS: We retrospectively identified proximal third humeral shaft fractures treated between February 2012 and February 2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment procedure: a Synbone group and a 3D-printed group. In the Synbone group, long proximal humeral internal locking system plates were pre-contoured into helical shape on Synbones before surgery, while in the 3D-printed group, they were contoured on 3D-printed bone models...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Gautam Gunjala, Stuart Sherwin, Aamod Shanker, Laura Waller
We present a computational method for field-varying aberration recovery in optical systems by imaging a weak (index-matched) diffuser. Using multiple images acquired under plane wave illumination at distinct angles, the aberrations of the imaging system can be uniquely determined up to a sign. Our method is based on a statistical model for image formation that relates the spectrum of the speckled intensity image to the local aberrations at different locations in the field-of-view. The diffuser is treated as a wide-sense stationary scattering object, eliminating the need for precise knowledge of its surface shape...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Yunfan Wang, Huijie Zhao, Hongzhi Jiang, Xudong Li
Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement system with binary defocusing technique can perform high-speed and flexible measurements if binary fringe patterns are defocused by projector properly. However, the actual defocusing degree is difficult to set, and the fringe period is difficult to determine accordingly. In this study, we present a square-binary defocusing parameter selection framework. First, we analyze the fringe formation process mathematically. The defocusing degree is quantified and manipulated by using the focusing distance of projector, which is calibrated by point spread function measurement...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Hua-Feng Xu, Yuan Zhou, Hong-Wei Wu, Hua-Jun Chen, Zong-Qiang Sheng, Jun Qu
In this paper, we introduce a new kind of partially coherent vector beam with special correlation function and vortex phase named radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) vortex beam as a natural extension of scalar LGCSM vortex beam. The realizability conditions for such beam are derived. The tight focusing properties of a radially polarized LGCSM vortex beam passing through a high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens are investigated numerically based on the vectorial diffraction theory...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Ken C L Wong, Tanveer Syeda-Mahmood, Mehdi Moradi
Deep learning has shown promising results in medical image analysis, however, the lack of very large annotated datasets confines its full potential. Although transfer learning with ImageNet pre-trained classification models can alleviate the problem, constrained image sizes and model complexities can lead to unnecessary increase in computational cost and decrease in performance. As many common morphological features are usually shared by different classification tasks of an organ, it is greatly beneficial if we can extract such features to improve classification with limited samples...
August 4, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Valentina Rey, Marcelo E Gramajo Feijoo, Rodrigo E Giménez, María E Tuttolomondo, Faustino E Morán Vieyra, Marcelo C Sosa Morales, Claudio D Borsarelli
A fast and single-step procedure is reported for the preparation of stable solutions of spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with lysozyme (LZ). The preparation of the AgNP@LZ nanocomposites was based on the reduction of Ag+ with ketyl radicals photo-generated by the UVA-photolysis of the benzoin I-2959. Both reaction precursors bind to LZ, modifying its superficial charge and conformational structure. The photo-induced kinetics of formation of the AgNPs as a function of the LZ concentration was monitored in-situ by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy...
August 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Bernd Van Snick, Jens Dhondt, Kenny Pandelaere, Johny Bertels, Roel Mertens, Didier Klingeleers, Giustino Di Pretoro, Jean Paul Remon, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer, Valérie Vanhoorne
In current study a holistic material characterization approach was proposed and an extensive raw material property database was developed including a wide variety of APIs and excipients with different functionalities. In total 55 different materials were characterized and described by over 100 raw material descriptors related to particle size and shape distribution, specific surface area, bulk, tapped and true density, compressibility, electrostatic charge, moisture content, hygroscopicity, permeability, flowability and wall friction...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Madelyne Z Greene, Tonda L Hughes, Marilyn S Sommers, Alexandra Hanlon, Salimah H Meghani
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority women (SMW) face barriers to healthcare that may result in lower utilization of cervical cancer screening. Previous experiences with the healthcare system-specifically reproductive health-related encounters-have the potential to affect future use of screening services. This study aimed to examine the association between pregnancy history and cervical cancer screening in a diverse sample of SMW. Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use guided the selection of variables included in the study...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Song Ming Du, Yanbei Chen
Quantum gravity corrections have been speculated to lead to modifications to space-time geometry near black-hole horizons. Such structures may reflect gravitational waves, causing echoes that follow the main gravitational waves from binary black-hole coalescence. By studying two phenomenological models of the near-horizon structures under the Schwarzschild approximation, we show that such echoes, if they exist, will give rise to a stochastic gravitational-wave background, which is very substantial if the near-horizon structure has a near-unity reflectivity for gravitational waves, readily detectable by Advanced LIGO...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
X Wendy Gu, Lindsey A Hanson, Carissa N Eisler, Matthew A Koc, A Paul Alivisatos
Pseudoelasticity in metals is typically associated with phase transformations (e.g., shape memory alloys) but has recently been observed in sub-10 nm Ag nanocrystals that rapidly recovered their original shape after deformation to large strains. The discovery of pseudoelasticity in nanoscale metals dramatically changes the current understanding of the properties of solids at the smallest length scales, and the motion of atoms at surfaces. Yet, it remains unclear whether pseudoelasticity exists in different metals and nanocrystal sizes...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
G De-Deus, F G Belladonna, M S Carvalho, D M Cavalcante, C N M J Ramalho, E M Souza, R T Lopes, E J N L Silva
AIM: To assess the shaping ability of the new XP-endo Shaper instrument after different working times. METHODOLOGY: Ten mesial roots of mandibular molars were scanned in a micro-computed tomographic device and prepared using the XP-endo Shaper instrument up to the working length (WL) according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Then, each specimen was subjected to an extra 15, 30 and 45 s of active instrumentation at the WL. Postoperative scans were performed after canal preparation at each time-point...
August 17, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Angel J Moreno, Federica Lo Verso
We present computer simulations of a realistic model of microgels. Unlike the regular network frameworks usually assumed in the simulation literature, we model and simulate a realistic and efficient synthesis route, mimicking cross-linking of functionalized chains inside a cavity. This model is inspired, e.g., by microfluidic fabrication of microgels from macromolecular precursors and is different from standard polymerization routes. The assembly of the chains is mediated by a low fraction of interchain crosslinks...
August 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Grazielle de A Lourenço-Vittorino, Michel Zamboni-Rached
In this paper, we study the propagation of the frozen wave (FW)-type beams through non-absorbing stratified media and develop a theoretical method capable of providing the desired spatially shaped diffraction-resistant beam in the last material medium. In this context, we also develop a matrix method to deal with stratified media with a large number of layers. Additionally, we undertake some discussion about minimizing reflection of the incident FW beam on the first material interface by using thin films. Our results show that it is indeed possible to obtain the control, on demand, of the longitudinal intensity pattern of a diffraction-resistant beam, even after it undergoes multiple reflections and transmissions at the layer interfaces...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
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