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Shape modelling

Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alexandra Mailleur, Christophe Pirat, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Jean Colombani
We report on the observation of thin salt shells that form at the periphery of evaporating pure water drops on salt. Shell shapes range from rings of inclined walls to hollow toroidal rims. We interpret this phenomenon as a consequence of a molecular coffee-stain effect by which the dissolved salt is advected toward the pinned contact line where an increased evaporation takes place. The subsequent salt supersaturation in the vicinity of the triple line drives the crystallization of the shell at the liquid-air interface...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Delano Gurgel Silveira, Márcio Alencar Barreira, Luiz Gonzaga de Moura Junior, Charles Jean Gomes de Mesquita, Hermano Alexandre Lima Rocha, Gleydson Cesar de Oliveira Borges
PURPOSE: To discuss the use of models of hepatic retraction by laparoscopy, to present a new Hepatic Retractor (HR) and to evaluate its practicality, efficacy and safety in Esophageal Hiatus Exposure (EHE). METHODS: Experimental cross - sectional study with a quantitative character. It was carried out in the Laboratory of Health Training of Christus University Center. The sample consisted of 12 livers of adult pigs weighing between 30 and 45 kg. A circular-shaped HR, 5 cm diameter and deformable materials was developed with a polypropylene cloth, metallic guide wire, epidural needle plastic guide and nylon string...
November 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Friedrich Ehrendorfer, Michael H J Barfuss, Jean-Francois Manen, Gerald M Schneeweiss
The Rubiaceae tribe Rubieae has a world-wide distribution with up to 1,000 species. These collectively exhibit an enormous ecological and morphological diversity, making Rubieae an excellent group for macro- and microevolutionary studies. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses used only a limited sampling within the tribe or missed lineages crucial for understanding character evolution in this group. Here, we analyze sequences from two plastid spacer regions as well as morphological and biogeographic data from an extensive and evenly distributed sampling to establish a sound phylogenetic framework...
2018: PloS One
Paola Araneda, Walter Sielfeld, Cristián Bonacic, José Tomás Ibarra
Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients lies at the heart of community ecology and conservation. Previous studies have found variation in bird diversity and density along "natural" elevational gradients in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how bird communities respond to traditional land-use patterns, in association with other multiple drivers, along elevations. In the present study, we investigated biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sources of variation associated with bird species diversity, density and turnover along a 3000-m elevational gradient, in southern limit of the Tropical Andes Hotspot, northern Chile...
2018: PloS One
Manon Azaïs, Stéphane Blanco, Richard Bon, Richard Fournier, Marie-Hélène Pillot, Jacques Gautrais
Monitoring small groups of sheep in spontaneous evolution in the field, we decipher behavioural rules that sheep follow at the individual scale in order to sustain collective motion. Individuals alternate grazing mode at null speed and moving mode at walking speed, so cohesive motion stems from synchronising when they decide to switch between the two modes. We propose a model for the individual decision making process, based on switching rates between stopped / walking states that depend on behind / ahead locations and states of the others...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Rp Dechandt, Tatiane M Vicentini, Guilherme Pauperio Lanfredi, Rui M P da Silva, Enilza Maria Espreafico, José A C de Oliveira, Vitor Marcel Faça, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Luciane C Alberici
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an animal model of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, developed after genetic selection by sister x brother inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible to sound stimuli. Although metabolic changes have been described in this strain, nothing, however, is known about its mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we addressed mitochondrial aspects of OXPHOS, oxidative stress, biogenesis and dynamics in liver, skeletal muscle and heart of male WAR, correlating then to physiological aspects of body metabolism...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Duc H T Le, Eduardo Méndez-López, Chao Wang, Ulrich Commandeur, Miguel A Aranda, Nicole F Steinmetz
Nanoparticles with high aspect ratios have favorable attributes for drug delivery and bio-imaging applications based on their enhanced tissue penetration and tumor homing properties. Here, we investigated a novel filamentous viral nanoparticle (VNP) based on Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), a relative of the established platform Potato virus X (PVX). We studied the chemical reactivity of PepMV, produced fluorescent versions of PepMV and PVX, and then evaluated their biodistribution in mouse tumor models. We found that PepMV can be conjugated to various small chemical modifiers including fluorescent probes via the amine groups of surface-exposed lysine residues, yielding VNPs carrying payloads of up to 1600 modifiers per particle...
December 5, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Suyi Li, Hongbin Fang, Sahand Sadeghi, Priyanka Bhovad, Kon-Well Wang
Origami, the ancient Japanese art of paper folding, is not only an inspiring technique to create sophisticated shapes, but also a surprisingly powerful method to induce nonlinear mechanical properties. Over the last decade, advances in crease design, mechanics modeling, and scalable fabrication have fostered the rapid emergence of architected origami materials. These materials typically consist of folded origami sheets or modules with intricate 3D geometries, and feature many unique and desirable material properties like auxetics, tunable nonlinear stiffness, multistability, and impact absorption...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Brett McGettigan, Rachel McMahan, David Orlicky, Matthew Burchill, Thomas Danhorn, Prashanth Francis, Lin Ling Cheng, Lucy Golden-Mason, Claudia Jakubzick, Hugo Rosen
A crucial component of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis is lipid stress, which may contribute to hepatic inflammation and activation of innate immunity in the liver. However, little is known regarding how dietary lipids, including fat and cholesterol, may facilitate innate immune activation in vivo. We hypothesized that dietary fat and cholesterol drive NAFLD progression to steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis by altering the transcription and phenotype of hepatic macrophages METHODS: This hypothesis was tested by using RNA-seq methods to characterize and analyze sort-purified hepatic macrophage populations that were isolated from mice fed diets with varying amounts of fat and cholesterol RESULTS: The addition of cholesterol to a high fat diet triggered hepatic pathology reminiscent of advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans characterized by signs of cholesterol dysregulation, generation of oxidized LDL, increased recruitment of hepatic macrophages, and significant fibrosis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Miao Zhang, Meng-Zhou Zhang, Shu-Heng Wen, Ying-Fu Sun, Peng-Hao Jiang, Lin-Lin Wang, Rui Zhao, Chang-Liang Wang, Shu-Kun Jiang, Da-Wei Guan
HIPK2 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and is considered a co-regulator of an increasing number of transcription factors modulating a variety of cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle injuries repair is an overlapping event between inflammation and tissue repair. There are no reports about HIPK2 expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. A foundational study on distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 was performed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR, which is expected to obtain a preliminary insight into the functions of HIPK2 during the repair of contused skeletal muscle in mice...
December 5, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Zheng Fang, Michael Moser, Edwin Zhang, W J Chris Zhang, Bing Zhang
In the present study, a monopolar expandable electrode (MEE) in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) proposed in our previous study was validated and evaluated using the in vitro experiment and computer simulation. Two commercial RF electrodes (conventional electrode, CE and umbrella electrode, UE) was used to compare the ablation results with MEE using the in vitro egg white model (experiment and computer simulation) and in vivo liver tumor model (computer simulation) to verify the efficacy of MEE in the large tumor ablation...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Sanaz Panahandeh, Siyu Li, Roya Zandi
Understanding how highly symmetric, robust, monodisperse protein nano-cages self-assemble can have major applications in various areas of bio-nanotechnology, such as drug delivery, biomedical imaging and gene therapy. We develop a model to investigate the assembly of protein subunits into the structures with different sizes and symmetries. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we obtain global minimum energy structures. Our results suggest that the physical properties including the spontaneous curvature, flexibility and bending rigidity of coat proteins are sufficient to predict the size, symmetry and shape selectivity of the assembly products...
December 5, 2018: Nanoscale
Beibei Zhu, Chunmei Liang, Xun Xia, Kun Huang, Shuangqin Yan, Jiahu Hao, Peng Zhu, Hui Gao, Fangbiao Tao
Iron is an essential micronutrient while its excessive load has been related to the etiology of diabetes. We used data of 3289 pregnant women from the Ma'anshan birth cohort (MABC) study in China to examine the associations of three iron-related factors (i.e., serum iron (SI) concentration, hemoglobin level, and use of iron supplements) with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Emphatically explore the potential non-linear relationship between SI concentration and risk of GDM. SI concentration was measured in fasting blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
December 5, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Carol A Kidron, Laurence J Kirmayer
Efforts to provide culturally appropriate global mental health interventions have included attention to local idioms of distress. This article critically examines the potential gap between lay ethnopsychological understandings of the Cambodian idiom of baksbat (broken courage) on the one hand and clinical conceptualizations of the idiom as a potential indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ethnographic semi-structured interviews with trauma survivors reveal resistance to current clinical translations and hybrid Euro-Western and Khmer treatment interventions...
December 4, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Emese Prandovszky, Ye Li, Sarven Sabunciyan, Curtis B Steinfeldt, Lauro Nathaniel Avalos, Kristin L Gressitt, James R White, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Robert H Yolken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of T. gondii. However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. While it is known that T. gondii infection in rodents is associated with behavioral changes, the mechanisms behind these changes remain unclear...
2018: Scientifica
Matthew D Martin, Vladimir P Badovinac
CD8 T cells comprising the memory pool display considerable heterogeneity, with individual cells differing in phenotype and function. This review will focus on our current understanding of heterogeneity within the antigen-specific memory CD8 T cell compartment and classifications of memory CD8 T cell subsets with defined and discrete functionalities. Recent data suggest that phenotype and/or function of numerically stable circulatory memory CD8 T cells are defined by the age of memory CD8 T cell (or time after initial antigen-encounter)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael Bartoschek, Nikolay Oskolkov, Matteo Bocci, John Lövrot, Christer Larsson, Mikael Sommarin, Chris D Madsen, David Lindgren, Gyula Pekar, Göran Karlsson, Markus Ringnér, Jonas Bergh, Åsa Björklund, Kristian Pietras
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, although their origin and roles in shaping disease initiation, progression and treatment response remain unclear due to significant heterogeneity. Here, following a negative selection strategy combined with single-cell RNA sequencing of 768 transcriptomes of mesenchymal cells from a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer, we define three distinct subpopulations of CAFs. Validation at the transcriptional and protein level in several experimental models of cancer and human tumors reveal spatial separation of the CAF subclasses attributable to different origins, including the peri-vascular niche, the mammary fat pad and the transformed epithelium...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Tong Wu, Fei Zhou, Adiilah K Soodeen-Lalloo, Xing Yang, Yingran Shen, Xi Ding, Jinpeng Shi, Jie Dai, Jingyun Shi
OBJECTIVES: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression might serve as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer. However, the relationship between PD-L1 expression and imaging features of lung cancer has not been fully understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 350 patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma who received surgical treatment and had preoperative thin section computed tomography (CT) examination were included...
November 14, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Shankar Lalitha Sridhar, Joseph K E Ortega, Franck J Vernerey
Expansive growth is a process by which walled cells of plants, algae, and fungi use turgor pressure to mediate irreversible wall deformation and regulate their shape and volume. The molecular structure of the primary cell wall must therefore perform multiple functions simultaneously, including providing structural support by combining elastic and irreversible deformation and facilitating the deposition of new material during growth. This is accomplished by a network of microfibrils and tethers composed of complex polysaccharides and proteins that can dynamically mediate the network topology via periodic detachment and reattachment events...
November 17, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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