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C J Joonè, M L Schulman, G T Fosgate, T A Plagis, J E Crafford, S K Gupta, H J Bertschinger
Few studies have investigated the cell mediated immune response during zona pellucida-based immunocontraception, despite hypothesized cytotoxic T-cell involvement in ovarian dysfunction associated with these vaccines. This study aimed to investigate antigen-specific anamnestic responses of helper (CD4+ ) and cytotoxic (CD8+ ) T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from pony mares before and after their treatment with native porcine zona pellucida (pZP), recombinant pZP3 and pZP4 antigens (reZP) or adjuvanted saline...
December 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Tongjin Wu, Feng Ma, Xiuchang Ma, Weizhe Jia, Enxiang Pan, Genhong Cheng, Ling Chen, Caijun Sun
Persistent inflammation and extensive immune activation have been associated with HIV-1/SIV pathogenesis. Previously, we reported that cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and its metabolite 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) had a broad antiviral activity in inhibiting Zika, Ebola, and HIV-1 infection. However, the underlying immunological mechanism of CH25H and 25-HC in inhibiting viral infection remains poorly understood. We report here that 25-HC effectively regulates immune responses for controlling viral infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xue-Qin Yang, Yu-Ting Chen, Li-Mei Li, Chao-Xian Gao, Zheng-Yu Liu, Chang-Ye Hui, Wen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different stimultors (PHA, PMA and IL-2) and culture systems (PBMC and whole blood) on the proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, so as to provide the experimental basis for selecting the appropriate system according to the experimental purposes. METHODS: A total of 10 ml serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=6). The 300 μl whole blood was directly used to detect lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Brigitta M Laksono, Rory D de Vries, R Joyce Verburgh, Eline G Visser, Alwin de Jong, Pieter L A Fraaij, Wilhemina L M Ruijs, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Marion P G Koopmans, Menno C van Zelm, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rik L de Swart
Measles causes a transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In experimentally infected non-human primates (NHPs) measles virus (MV) infects and depletes pre-existing memory lymphocytes, causing immune amnesia. A measles outbreak in the Dutch Orthodox Protestant community provided a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression in unvaccinated children. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of prodromal measles patients, we detected MV-infected memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and naive and memory B cells at similar levels as those observed in NHPs...
November 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeremy Anderson, Zheng Quan Toh, Andrea Reitsma, Lien Anh Ha Do, Jordan Nathanielsz, Paul V Licciardi
Cryopreservation of blood-derived immune cells is commonly used in clinical trials to examine immunological responses. However, studies elucidating the effects of cryopreservation on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses have shown inconsistent results making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions. Therefore we sought to address this issue by comparing key innate and adaptive immune parameters between freshly-isolated and cryopreserved PBMCs from healthy adults. We examined the effect of cryopreservation on the expression of key markers on innate and adaptive immune cell populations (i...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Robert Z Harms, Kristina M Lorenzo-Arteaga, Katie R Ostlund, Victoria B Smith, Lynette M Smith, Peter Gottlieb, Nora Sarvetnick
We analyzed T cell subsets from cryopreserved PBMC obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention archives. We compared subjects who had previously seroconverted for one or more autoantibodies with non-seroconverted, autoantibody negative individuals. We observed a reduced frequency of MAIT cells among seroconverted subjects. Seroconverted subjects also possessed decreased frequencies of CCR4-expressing CD4 T cells, including a regulatory-like subset. Interestingly, we found an elevation of CD57+, CD28-, CD127-, CD27- CD8 T cells (SLEC) among seroconverted subjects that was most pronounced among those that progressed to disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael A Brehm, Laurie L Kenney, Michael V Wiles, Benjamin E Low, Roland M Tisch, Lisa Burzenski, Christian Mueller, Dale L Greiner, Leonard D Shultz
Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) support preclinical studies of human pathogens, allograft rejection, and human T-cell function. However, a major limitation of PBMC engraftment is development of acute xenogeneic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD) due to human T-cell recognition of murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC). To address this, we created 2 NOD- scid IL-2 receptor subunit γ ( IL2rg) null (NSG) strains that lack murine MHC class I and II [NSG-β-2-microglobulin ( B2M) null ( IA IE)null and NSG -( Kb Db ) null ( IAnull )]...
November 1, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sunny Malhotra, Luisa M Villar, Carme Costa, Luciana Midaglia, Marta Cubedo, Silvia Medina, Nicolás Fissolo, Jordi Río, Joaquín Castilló, José C Álvarez-Cermeño, Alex Sánchez, Xavier Montalban, Manuel Comabella
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest an involvement of the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2) in important processes such as cell adhesion and migration. METHODS: Here, we aimed to expand these initial observations by investigating the role of EZH2 in MS. mRNA expression levels for EZH2 were measured by real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 121 MS patients (62 untreated and 59 receiving treatment) and 24 healthy controls...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Elizabeth C Rosser, Hannah Lom, David Bending, Chantal L Duurland, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Lucy R Wedderburn
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that aberrant function of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), whose functional and transcriptional profile overlap with T helper (Th) cell subsets, contribute to immune-mediated pathologies. To date, analysis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) immune-pathology has concentrated on the contribution of CD4+ T-cells; we have previously identified an expansion of Th17 cells within the synovial fluid (SF) of JIA patients. Here, we extend this analysis to investigate a role for ILC and other IL-17 producing T-cell subsets...
October 22, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Aulia Rizka, Siti Setiati, Kuntjoro Harimurti, M Sadikin, Indra G Mansur
BACKGROUND: Alphacalcidol, a vitamin D analog, shows immune regulatory potency as it works on the macrophage and T cell to control inflammation and T cell dysregulation in elderly. None has been known about its effect on elderly with various states of frailty syndrome, which have different level of chronic low grade inflammation. This study aimed to determine the effect of alphacalcidol on inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, g-IFN ) and T cell subsets (CD4/CD8 ratio and CD8+ CD28-) of elderly with various stages of frailty syndrome...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Pascual Martínez-Peinado, Sandra Pascual-García, Enrique Roche, José Miguel Sempere-Ortells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a widely used population in cell therapy for their ability to differentiate into distinct tissues and more lately, for their immunomodulatory properties. However, the use of heterogeneous populations could be responsible for the nondesired outcomes reflected in the literature. Here, we analyse the different capacities of five one-cell-derived MSC clones to exert their immunomodulation ex vivo. We assessed proliferation assays in cocultures of MSC clones and purified cluster of differentiation (CD)3+ , CD4+ , or CD8+ lymphocytes; analysed the regulatory T (Treg) cells fold change rate; determined the effects on viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and also measured the coculture cytokine profiles (Th1/Th2)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Jennifer E Slovak, Sol M Rivera-Velez, Julianne K Hwang, Nicolas F Villarino
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the plasma disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its derivatives MPA glucuronide and MPA glucoside after twice-daily infusions of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in healthy cats for 3 days and to assess the effect of MMF administration on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts and CD4+ -to-CD8+ ratios. ANIMALS 5 healthy adult cats. PROCEDURES MMF was administered to each cat (10 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h for 3 days). Each dose of MMF was diluted with 5% dextrose in water and then administered over a 2-hour period with a syringe pump...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ziv Sevilya, Ehud Chorin, Orit Gal-Garber, Einat Zelinger, Dan Turner, Boaz Avidor, Gideon Berke, David Hassin
The role of HIV-specific CD8 T cell activity in the course of HIV infection and the way it affects the virus that resides in the latent reservoir resting memory cells is debated. The PBMC of HIV-infected patients contain HIV-specific CD8 T cells and their potential targets, CD4 T cells latently infected by HIV. CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells procured from PBMC of HIV-infected patients were co-incubated and analyzed: Formation of CD8 T cells and HIV-infected CD4 T cell conjugates and apoptosis of these CD4 T cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy with in situ PCR of HIV LTR DNA...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chan Chen, Huan Shi, Baoli Wang, Ningning Cao, Chuangqi Yu, Lingyan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze bone marrow stromal antigen-2 (BST-2) levels in labial glands, total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subpopulations from primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients and determine the correlation between BST-2 expression and clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBMC subsets were positively separated using magnetic microbeads. BST-2 mRNA levels in labial glands, total PBMCs and PBMC subsets of 30 pSS and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Cheryl L Day, Deborah A Abrahams, Rubina Bunjun, Lynnett Stone, Marwou de Kock, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers, Willem A Hanekom
Persistent antigen stimulation in chronic infections has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction and upregulation of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is characterized by high levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet the relationship between bacterial load, PD-1 expression, and Mtb-specific T cell function in human TB has not been well-defined. Using peripheral blood samples from adults with LTBI and with pulmonary TB disease, we tested the hypothesis that PD-1 expression is associated with bacterial load and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cell responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Saskia J Santegoets, Vanessa J van Ham, Ilina Ehsan, Pornpimol Charoentong, Chantal L Duurland, Vincent van Unen, Thomas Höllt, Lilly-Ann van der Velden, Sylvia L van Egmond, Kim E Kortekaas, Peggy J de Vos van Steenwijk, Mariëtte I E van Poelgeest, Marij J P Welters, Sjoerd H van der Burg
Purpose: The tumor immune microenvironment determines clinical outcome. Whether the original tissue in which a primary tumor develops influences this microenvironment is not well understood. Experimental Design: We applied high-dimensional single-cell mass cytometry [Cytometry by Time-Of-Flight (CyTOF)] analysis and functional studies to analyze immune cell populations in human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced primary tumors of the cervix (cervical carcinoma) and oropharynx (oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, OPSCC)...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Chungwon J Chung, Sang-Ho Cha, Amanda L Grimm, Dharani Ajithdoss, Joanna Rzepka, Grace Chung, Jieun Yu, William C Davis, Chak-Sum Ho
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is difficult to control because the virus undergoes antigenic variation during infection and also modulates the protective host immune response. Although current vaccines do not provide full protection, they have provided insight into the mechanisms of protection. Live PRRSV vaccines induce partial protection before the appearance of neutralizing antibody, suggesting cell-mediated immunity or other mechanisms may be involved. Herein, we demonstrate recovery from infection is associated with development of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that can kill PRRSV-infected target cells...
2018: PloS One
W-C Cheng, F Saleh, B Abuaisha Karim, F J Hughes, L S Taams
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the colonization of teeth by the bacterial plaque biofilm and the resultant host immune responses in adjacent periodontal tissues. Disease severity can vary dramatically between patients with periodontitis, with some subjects displaying inflammation without bony destruction (gingivitis), while others experience chronic progressive or rapidly aggressive gingival connective tissue damage and bone loss. To determine whether peripheral immune dysregulation is associated with periodontitis, we performed extensive analysis of immune cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis versus periodontally healthy control subjects...
December 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jun Chen, Jingna Xun, Junyang Yang, Yongjia Ji, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Rosalie Ponte, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Hongzhou Lu
Background: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoirs. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, total HIV DNA in PBMCs from 127 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was quantified. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations, as well as microbial translocation markers were measured in plasma samples...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xinan Jiao, Zhiming Pan
Influenza A (H7N9) viruses have caused severe human infections and deaths every year in China since 2013. To reduce the risk of human infection and prevent a new influenza pandemic, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is an organic polycation used extensively as a transfection reagent for decades. Although the adjuvant potential of PEI is well studied in mammals, its applicability and immune characteristics to avian species are still very rare...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
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