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Aulia Rizka, Siti Setiati, Kuntjoro Harimurti, M Sadikin, Indra G Mansur
BACKGROUND: Alphacalcidol, a vitamin D analog, shows immune regulatory potency as it works on the macrophage and T cell to control inflammation and T cell dysregulation in elderly. None has been known about its effect on elderly with various states of frailty syndrome, which have different level of chronic low grade inflammation. This study aimed to determine the effect of alphacalcidol on inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, g-IFN ) and T cell subsets (CD4/CD8 ratio and CD8+ CD28-) of elderly with various stages of frailty syndrome...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Pascual Martínez-Peinado, Sandra Pascual-García, Enrique Roche, José Miguel Sempere-Ortells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a widely used population in cell therapy for their ability to differentiate into distinct tissues and more lately, for their immunomodulatory properties. However, the use of heterogeneous populations could be responsible for the nondesired outcomes reflected in the literature. Here, we analyse the different capacities of five one-cell-derived MSC clones to exert their immunomodulation ex vivo. We assessed proliferation assays in cocultures of MSC clones and purified cluster of differentiation (CD)3+ , CD4+ , or CD8+ lymphocytes; analysed the regulatory T (Treg) cells fold change rate; determined the effects on viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and also measured the coculture cytokine profiles (Th1/Th2)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Jennifer E Slovak, Sol M Rivera-Velez, Julianne K Hwang, Nicolas F Villarino
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the plasma disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its derivatives MPA glucuronide and MPA glucoside after twice-daily infusions of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in healthy cats for 3 days and to assess the effect of MMF administration on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts and CD4+ -to-CD8+ ratios. ANIMALS 5 healthy adult cats. PROCEDURES MMF was administered to each cat (10 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h for 3 days). Each dose of MMF was diluted with 5% dextrose in water and then administered over a 2-hour period with a syringe pump...
October 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ziv Sevilya, Ehud Chorin, Orit Gal-Garber, Einat Zelinger, Dan Turner, Boaz Avidor, Gideon Berke, David Hassin
The role of HIV-specific CD8 T cell activity in the course of HIV infection and the way it affects the virus that resides in the latent reservoir resting memory cells is debated. The PBMC of HIV-infected patients contain HIV-specific CD8 T cells and their potential targets, CD4 T cells latently infected by HIV. CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells procured from PBMC of HIV-infected patients were co-incubated and analyzed: Formation of CD8 T cells and HIV-infected CD4 T cell conjugates and apoptosis of these CD4 T cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy with in situ PCR of HIV LTR DNA...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chan Chen, Huan Shi, Baoli Wang, Ningning Cao, Chuangqi Yu, Lingyan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze bone marrow stromal antigen-2 (BST-2) levels in labial glands, total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subpopulations from primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients and determine the correlation between BST-2 expression and clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBMC subsets were positively separated using magnetic microbeads. BST-2 mRNA levels in labial glands, total PBMCs and PBMC subsets of 30 pSS and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Cheryl L Day, Deborah A Abrahams, Rubina Bunjun, Lynnett Stone, Marwou de Kock, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers, Willem A Hanekom
Persistent antigen stimulation in chronic infections has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction and upregulation of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is characterized by high levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet the relationship between bacterial load, PD-1 expression, and Mtb-specific T cell function in human TB has not been well-defined. Using peripheral blood samples from adults with LTBI and with pulmonary TB disease, we tested the hypothesis that PD-1 expression is associated with bacterial load and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cell responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Saskia J Santegoets, Vanessa J van Ham, Ilina Ehsan, Pornpimol Charoentong, Chantal L Duurland, Vincent van Unen, Thomas Höllt, Lilly-Ann van der Velden, Sylvia I van Egmond, Kim Kortekaas, Peggy J de Vos van Steenwijk, Mariette Ie van Poelgeest, Marij J P Welters, Sjoerd H van der Burg
PURPOSE: The tumor immune microenvironment determines clinical outcome. Whether the original tissue in which a primary tumor develops influences this microenvironment is not well understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We applied high-dimensional single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis and functional studies to analyze immune cell populations in human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced primary tumors of the cervix (CxCa) and oropharynx (OPSCC). RESULTS: Despite the same etiology of these tumors, the composition and functionality of their lymphocytic infiltrate substantially differed...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Chungwon J Chung, Sang-Ho Cha, Amanda L Grimm, Dharani Ajithdoss, Joanna Rzepka, Grace Chung, Jieun Yu, William C Davis, Chak-Sum Ho
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is difficult to control because the virus undergoes antigenic variation during infection and also modulates the protective host immune response. Although current vaccines do not provide full protection, they have provided insight into the mechanisms of protection. Live PRRSV vaccines induce partial protection before the appearance of neutralizing antibody, suggesting cell-mediated immunity or other mechanisms may be involved. Herein, we demonstrate recovery from infection is associated with development of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that can kill PRRSV-infected target cells...
2018: PloS One
Wan-Chien Cheng, Fahd Saleh, Belkais Abuaisha Karim, Francis J Hughes, Leonie S Taams
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the colonisation of teeth by the bacterial plaque biofilm and the resultant host immune responses in adjacent periodontal tissues. Disease severity can vary dramatically between patients with periodontitis, with some subjects displaying inflammation without bony destruction (gingivitis), whilst others experience chronic progressive or rapidly aggressive gingival connective tissue damage and bone loss. To determine whether peripheral immune dysregulation is associated with periodontitis, we performed extensive analysis of immune cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis vs...
August 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jun Chen, Jingna Xun, Junyang Yang, Yongjia Ji, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Rosalie Ponte, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Hongzhou Lu
Background: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoirs. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, total HIV DNA in PBMCs from 127 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was quantified. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations, as well as microbial translocation markers were measured in plasma samples...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xinan Jiao, Zhiming Pan
Influenza A (H7N9) viruses have caused severe human infections and deaths every year in China since 2013. To reduce the risk of human infection and prevent a new influenza pandemic, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is an organic polycation used extensively as a transfection reagent for decades. Although the adjuvant potential of PEI is well studied in mammals, its applicability and immune characteristics to avian species are still very rare...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Andrea Tompa, Anette Nilsson-Bowers, Maria Faresjö
Several key factors can affect the outcome of immunological studies; isolation/cryopreservation can possibly alter T, B, NK, and T-regulatory (Treg) cell marker expression patterns. Blood samples from 50 blood donors supplemented with Na-heparin or K2 EDTA were handled within 4 and 24 h after blood sampling. PBMC were isolated with different density gradients. Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular and extracellular CD markers was performed on blood samples freshly isolated PBMC, and PBMC was thawed 6 and 12 mo post-cryopreservation for the purpose of identifying B, NK, Th, T-cytotoxic, and Treg cells...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Susanne Jahreis, Sarah Böttcher, Susann Hartung, Tobias Rachow, Silke Rummler, Anna-Maria Dietl, Hubertus Haas, Grit Walther, Andreas Hochhaus, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal
Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T cells (TC) which are known to be activated by several bacteria and viruses. However, activation of MAIT cells by moulds, such as the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus, is not well described. Stimulation of human PBMC with A. fumigatus, A. flavus, or A. terreus conidia revealed that in contrast to conventional CD4+ and CD8+ TC, MAIT cells responded already after 4 h of coincubation with upregulation of CD69. Furthermore, concurrent increase of CD107a expression and reduced intracellular expression of cytolytic proteins like perforin and granzyme indicated degranulation of intracellular vesicles...
October 2018: European Journal of Immunology
H W Nam, Y J Cho, J A Lim, S J Kim, H Kim, S Y Sim, D G Lim
Although patients with diabetes contract infectious diseases at higher frequencies, and in more severe forms, compared to non-diabetics, the underlying defects of the immune function have not been defined clearly. To address this, we designed an immune monitoring protocol and analysed the functional status of various immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with the proper ligands and the functional reactivity of each lineage of cells was subsequently measured. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) had PBMC composition ratios comparable to healthy controls, except for a higher frequency of B cell and effector T cell fractions...
October 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Beatriz Tavira, Hugo Barcenilla, Jeannette Wahlberg, Peter Achenbach, Johnny Ludvigsson, Rosaura Casas
GAD-alum given into lymph nodes to type 1 diabetes patients participating in an open-label pilot trial resulted in preservation of C-peptide similar to promising results from other trials. Here, we compared the immunomodulatory effect of giving GAD-alum directly into lymph nodes versus that induced by subcutaneous administration. Samples from T1D patients ( n = 6) who received 4  μ g GAD-alum into lymph nodes (LNs), followed by two booster injections one month apart, and from patients ( n = 6) who received two subcutaneous injections (SC) (20  μ g) given one month apart were compared...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Kaijian Zhou, Shu Guo, Shuang Tong, Qiang Sun, Fei Li, Xiaowei Zhang, Ying Qiao, Guoxin Liang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a type of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with immunosuppressive capacities. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of ADSCs on T cells are not completely elucidated. In this study, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated beads were cultured with or without allogeneic ADSCs (ADSC-to-PBMC ratio, 1:5). Surface marker levels, violet-labeled cell proliferation, apoptosis, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) phosphorylation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected using flow cytometry...
September 1, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Amy Y Liu, Stephen C De Rosa, Brandon L Guthrie, Robert Y Choi, Rose Kerubo-Bosire, Barbra A Richardson, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Barbara Lohman-Payne
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous interferon-γ (IFNγ) released detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays may be a biological phenomenon. Markers of immune activation levels were assessed as correlates of high background among individuals in Kenya. METHODS: Couples concordantly seronegative for HIV-1 were enrolled. IFN-γ ELISpot assays were conducted and negative control wells were categorized as having either high or low background (≥50 and <50 SFU/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMC], respectively)...
September 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Bikash Sahay, Alek M Aranyos, Andrew McAvoy, Janet K Yamamoto
The prototype and the commercial dual-subtype feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccines conferred protection against homologous FIV strains as well as heterologous FIV strains from the vaccine subtypes with closely related envelope (Env) sequences. Such protection was mediated by the FIV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the vaccines. Remarkably, both prototype and commercial FIV vaccines also conferred protection against heterologous FIV subtypes with highly divergent Env sequences from the vaccine strains...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chrisann Kyi, Vladimir Roudko, Rachel Sabado, Yvonne Saenger, William Loging, John Mandeli, Tin Htwe Thin, Deborah Lehrer, Michael Donovan, Marshall Posner, Krzysztof Misiukiewicz, Benjamin Greenbaum, Andres Salazar, Philip Friedlander, Nina Bhardwaj
Purpose: Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-l-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), a synthetic double-stranded RNA complex, is a ligand for toll-like receptor-3 and MDA-5 that can activate immune cells, such as dendritic cells, and trigger natural killer cells to kill tumor cells. Patients and Methods: In this pilot study, eligible patients included those with recurrent metastatic disease in whom prior systemic therapy (head and neck squamous cell cancer and melanoma) failed. Patients received 2 treatment cycles, each cycle consisting of 1 mg poly-ICLC 3× weekly intratumorally (IT) for 2 weeks followed by intramuscular (IM) boosters biweekly for 7 weeks, with a 1-week rest period...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
J M Schaenman, M Rossetti, T Sidwell, V Groysberg, G Sunga, Y Korin, E Liang, X Zhou, B Abdalla, E Lum, S Bunnapradist, T Pham, G Danovitch, E F Reed
Older kidney transplant recipients experience increased rates of infection and death, and less rejection, compared with younger patients. However, little is known about immune dysfunction in older compared with younger kidney transplant recipients and whether it is associated with infection. We evaluated T cell phenotypes including maturation, immune senescence, and exhaustion in a novel investigation into differences in older compared with younger patients receiving identical immune suppression regimens. We evaluated PBMC from 60 kidney transplant recipients (23 older and 37 matched younger patients) by multiparameter immune phenotyping...
September 2018: Human Immunology
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