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endocrine metabolic

Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu R Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Changes in skeletal muscle adiponectin induction have been described in obesity and exercise. However, whether changes are consistent across muscle types and with different exercise modalities, remain unclear. This study compared the effects of diet and two isocaloric training programs on adiponectin induction and its regulators in three muscles: quadriceps (exercising/glycolytic-oxidative), gastrocnemius (exercising/glycolytic), and masseter (nonexercising/glycolytic). Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat) or standard CHOW diet (12% fat) ad libitum and underwent one of two training regimes: (1) constant-moderate training (END), or (2) high intensity interval training (HIIT) for 10 weeks (3 × 40 min sessions/week)...
October 2018: Physiological Reports
Sara Castro-Barquero, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Mónica Doménech, Ramon Estruch
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols' effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Yugo Takaki, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Junko Nishioka, Keisuke Eda, Shuichi Yatsuga, Yushiro Yamashita
RATIONALE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), among the commonest chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents, is considered a reflection of the current obesity epidemic in children and adults. This liver disease has been linked with various metabolic disorders, but not with prolactinoma (PRLoma). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 13-year-old Japanese girl manifested obesity, serum transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase elevations, and amenorrhea. Abdominal ultrasonography showed fatty liver...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville
Obesity and diabetes have reached epidemic proportions the past few decades and continue to progress worldwide with no clear sign of decline of the epidemic. Obesity is of high concern because it is the main risk factor for a number of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic diseases constitute a major challenge as they are associated with an overall reduced quality of life and impose a heavy economic burden on countries. These are multifactorial diseases and it is now recognized that environmental exposure to man-made chemical pollutants is part of the equation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jing Fu, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent, is ubiquitously detected in the natural environment. There is increasing evidence TCS can produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects in aquatic biota, including algae, crustaceans, and fish. Metabolomics can provide important information regarding molecular-level effects and toxicity of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of TCS in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Brendan F Boyce, Jinbo Li, Lianping Xing, Zhenqiang Yao
Skeletal health is maintained by bone remodeling, a process in which microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone, which is laid down by osteoblasts. This normal process can be disturbed in a variety of pathologic processes, including localized or generalized inflammation, metabolic and endocrine disorders, primary and metastatic cancers, and during aging as a result of low-grade chronic inflammation. Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Antonino Crinò, Danilo Fintini, Sarah Bocchini, Graziano Grugni
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem disorder due to the absent expression of the paternally active genes in the PWS critical region on chromosome 15 (15q11.2-q13). The syndrome is considered the most common genetic cause of obesity, occurring in 1:10,000-1:30,000 live births. Its main characteristics include neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and lack of appetite in infancy, followed by weight gain, lack of satiety, and uncontrolled appetite, frequently after the age of 2-3 years. The clinical picture includes short stature, multiple endocrine abnormalities (hypogonadism, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction, hypothyroidism, central adrenal insufficiency), dysmorphic features, scoliosis, osteoporosis, mental retardation, and behavioral and psychiatric problems...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Sanjay Kalra, Deepak Khandelwal
The concept of glucocrinology calls for an understanding of the links between diabetes and endocrine function. One of the most clinically relevant aspects of glucocrinology is the relationship of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. This review discusses the vigilance that one must exercise, with respect to thyroid and glycaemic status, while managing diabetes and thyroid disease respectively. We term this clinical approach as thyrovigilance in diabetes, and as glucovigilance in thyroidology.
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya, Yashdeep Gupta
Diabetes is a complex syndrome, with multiple pathophysiologic connections. While the vasculometabolic aspects are certainly important, current discourse tends to ignore the endocrine facets of diabetes. We propose the term 'glucocrinology', to define the study of medicine that relates to the relationship of glycaemia with the endocrine system. Glucocrinology includes in its ambit, endocrinopathies that may cause secondary diabetes, coexist with metabolic syndrome, precipitate hypoglycaemia, lead to refractory hyperglycaemia, or simply coexist with diabetes...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Małgorzata Kiełczykowska, Ewelina Kopciał, Joanna Kocot, Jacek Kurzepa, Zbigniew Marzec, Irena Musik
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential element which shows protective properties against diverse harmful factors. Lithium compounds are widely used in medicine, but, in spite of undoubted beneficial effects, treatment with these compounds may lead to severe side effects, including renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, endocrine and metabolic disorders. This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of selenium and/or lithium on lithium, iron, zinc and copper content in rats' erythrocytes as well as estimate the action of additional selenium on lithium exposure effects...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Xue-Ying He, Carl Dobkin, Song-Yu Yang
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are indispensable for downstream enzyme steps of the neurosteroidogenesis. Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in neurons and glia from cholesterol transported into mitochondria, or by conversion from proneurosteroids, e. g. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone, through the same metabolic pathway as revealed in the de novo neurosteroidogenesis. Hormonal steroids generated from endocrine glands are transported into brain from the circulation to exert neuronal activity via genomic pathway, whereas neurosteroids produced in brain cells without genomic targets identified could bind to cell surface targets, e...
October 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Sílvia Xargay-Torrent, Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Sara Borrat-Padrosa, Anna Prats-Puig, Pilar Soriano, Elena Álvarez-Castaño, Mª Jose Ferri, Francis De Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez, Abel López-Bermejo, Judit Bassols
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) negatively associates with pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. The link with other cardio-metabolic risk factors in pregnant women is poorly understood. Our aim was to study the association of SHBG levels with common cardio-metabolic risk parameters in pregnant woman. Serum SHBG was quantified in 291 Caucasian pregnant women (142 with normal weight, 42 with pregestational obesity, 50 with gestational obesity and 57 with pregestational plus gestational obesity) with uncomplicated pregnancies and parturition...
2018: PloS One
Lin-Chen Li, Xin-Xin Yu, Yu-Wei Zhang, Ye Feng, Wei-Lin Qiu, Cheng-Ran Xu
Pancreatic endocrine cells, which are clustered in islets, regulate blood glucose stability and energy metabolism. The distinct cell types in islets, including insulin-secreting β cells, are differentiated from common endocrine progenitors during the embryonic stage. Immature endocrine cells expand via cell proliferation and mature during a long postnatal developmental period. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not clearly defined. Single-cell RNA-sequencing is a promising approach for the characterization of distinct cell populations and tracing cell lineage differentiation pathways...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nicolas J Cabaton, Nathalie Poupin, Cécile Canlet, Marie Tremblay-Franco, Marc Audebert, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Anne Riu, Fabien Jourdan, Daniel Zalko
The model xeno-estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) has been extensively studied over the past two decades, contributing to major advances in the field of endocrine disrupting chemicals research. Besides its well documented adverse effects on reproduction and development observed in rodents, latest studies strongly suggest that BPA disrupts several endogenous metabolic pathways, with suspected steatogenic and obesogenic effects. BPA's adverse effects on reproduction are attributed to its ability to activate estrogen receptors (ERs), but its effects on metabolism and its mechanism(s) of action at low doses are so far only marginally understood...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Mabrouk Elsabagh, Motomi Ishikake, Yasuaki Sakamoto, Atsushi Haruno, Makoto Miura, Takeshi Fujieda, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino
Single amino acids (AA) feeding is gaining more attention for their functional roles beyond nutritional needs. This study aimed to describe the endocrine and metabolic responses to a single AA administration (at 10% of MP for maintenance) in 48 hr fasted sheep (n = 4) receiving, over continued 4 hr, a duodenal infusate of saline (control), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), lysine HCl (Lys), threonine (Thr), or valine (Val) in a 4 by 6 Youden square design with weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min relative to the infusion onset, and plasma AA, glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations were measured...
October 14, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Xiaoji Liu, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Elizabeth H Jeffery, Harold E Seifried, Sharon A Ross, Michael J Miller, Kelly S Swanson, Hannah D Holscher
The human gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to health outcomes; however, our understanding of how specific foods alter the microbiota is limited. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli are a good source of dietary fiber and phytonutrients, including glucosinolates, which can be metabolized by gastrointestinal microbes. This study aimed to determine the impact of broccoli consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota of healthy adults. A controlled feeding, randomized, crossover study consisting of two 18-day treatment periods separated by a 24-day washout was conducted in healthy adults (n=18)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Laura G Cooney, Anuja Dokras
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic disorder affecting millions of women worldwide. Women with PCOS are often identified in adolescence or early adulthood with symptoms of oligomenorrhea or hirsutism or when presenting for infertility care. The health risks associated out of PCOS, however, go far beyond management of these common presenting symptoms or fertility treatment and likely extend past the reproductive years through and beyond menopause. International surveys suggest that most patients are dissatisfied with long-term counseling related to medical and psychologic issues...
October 2018: Fertility and Sterility
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