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endocrine metabolic

Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Valeska Ormazabal, Stefanie Adam, Dominic Guanzon, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ratana Lim, Thomas Jansson, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Context: Molecules produced by adipose tissue (AT) function as an endocrine link between maternal AT and fetal growth by regulating placental function in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: We hypothesised that AT-derived exosomes from women with GDM carry a specific set of proteins that influences glucose metabolism in placenta. Design: Exosomes were isolated from omental AT-conditioned media from pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (exo-NGT, n=65) and women with GDM (exo-GDM, n=82)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kim G Harley, Kimberly P Berger, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi
STUDY QUESTION: Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Ahmed Ibrahim, Luisa Hugerth, Linnea Hases, Ashish Saxena, Maike Seifert, Quentin Thomas, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lars Engstrand, Cecilia Williams
Chronic inflammation of the colon (colitis) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hormone-replacement therapy reduces CRC incidences, and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) has been implicated in this protection. Gut microbiota is altered in both colitis and CRC and may influence the severity of both. Here we test the hypothesis that intestinal ERβ impacts the gut microbiota. Mice with and without intestine-specific deletion of ERβ (ERβKOVil ) were generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Colitis and CRC were induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by administration of three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Arijit Nath, Máté András Molnár, Attila Csighy, Kornélia Kőszegi, Ildikó Galambos, Klára Pásztorné Huszár, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid...
December 3, 2018: Medicina
Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Peter Holzer
The global prevalence of diabesity is on the rise, and the clinical, social and economic health burden arising from this epidemic is aggravated by a significant co-morbidity of diabesity with neuropsychiatric disease, particularly depression. Importantly, not only is the prevalence of mood disorders elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, depressed patients are also more prone to develop diabetes. This reciprocal relationship calls for a molecular and systemic analysis of diabesity-brain interactions to guide preventive and therapeutic strategies...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Victoria Dreier Thøfner Hultén, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen Jennum
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are a common complaint among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and were not usually present before the SCI. Their sleep disturbances, including disrupted sleep, spasms, and problems with initiating and sustaining sleep through the night, affect SCI individuals' overall quality of life due to excessive tiredness and low energy levels during the day. Despite the high prevalence of sleep complaints in this population, current knowledge about sleep in the SCI population has not been systematically assessed...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Erol Piskin, Mesut Ozdedeoglu, Bahtiyar Muhammedoglu, Yigit Mehmet Ozgun, Anhmet Kusdemir
PURPOSE: In this study, we compared the endocrine and cytokine reaction of the patients which laparoscopic and conventional appendectomy was done for acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHOD: 50 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis in Ankara Atatürk Research and Training Hospital between the dates December 2013 and February 2014 were enrolled and grouped as either laparoscopic or conventional. Serum ACTH, IL-6 and CRP levels were obtained at induction of anesthesia and postoperative 6th hour...
November 29, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heresh Amini, Pouria Heydarpour, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Lode Godderis
Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke...
November 30, 2018: Environment International
Gismar Mc Rodrigues, Bruno Db Borges, Leticia Gabriela Q Moreira, Érica Aparecida G Rossete, Suzelei de Castro Franca
The results of this work provide preliminary evidence that ovariectomized rats display the vaginal smear cells typical of the estrous phase of mature rats after long-term ingestion of Colocasia esculenta flavonoid glycosides. Moreover, the treatment caused beneficial effects on endocrine and reproductive organs compared to estradiol. The animals did not exhibit significant body weight alterations among the groups, demonstrating the maintenance of standard metabolism and energy balance. The overall findings obtained with the rat model of menopause highlight the importance of dietary consumption of C...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Adriana Herrera Lizarazo, Michelle McLoughlin, Maria G Vogiatzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in men. Hypogonadism and testicular degeneration are almost universal. Truncal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and low bone mass occur frequently. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the pathogenesis and management of the endocrine abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome. It is expected that optimal endocrine management will improve outcomes and quality of life in Klinefelter syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: In Klinefelter syndrome, testosterone replacement is routinely prescribed despite lack of evidence on the optimal dose and time for initiation of therapy...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Ozge Caglar, Akin Cayir
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine cancer. Great progress has been made in resolving its molecular mechanisms in recent years. The molecular changes observed in thyroid cancer can be used as biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components in biological and metabolic pathways, such as developmental stages, signal transduction, cell maintenance, and differentiation. Hence, their malfunctioning can expose humans to malignancies...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Robert B Hamanaka, Gökhan M Mutlu
Air pollution is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate components, each of which has detrimental effects on human health. While the composition of air pollution varies greatly depending on the source, studies from across the world have consistently shown that air pollution is an important modifiable risk factor for significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, clinical studies have generally shown a greater impact of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on health than the gaseous components...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Emine M Onal, Baris Afsar, Adrian Covic, Nosratola D Vaziri, Mehmet Kanbay
The health and proper functioning of the cardiovascular and renal systems largely depend on crosstalk in the gut-kidney-heart/vessel triangle. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has an integral function in this crosstalk. Mounting evidence indicates that the development of chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases follows chronic inflammatory processes that are affected by the gut microbiota via various immune, metabolic, endocrine, and neurologic pathways. Additionally, deterioration of the function of the cardiovascular and renal systems has been reported to disrupt the original gut microbiota composition, further contributing to the advancement of chronic cardiovascular and renal diseases...
November 30, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Shuangyu Ma, Ryan Viola, Lina Sui, Valentino Cherubini, Fabrizio Barbetti, Dieter Egli
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) can be caused by insulin mutations. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts of a patient with PNDM and undetectable insulin at birth due to a homozygous mutation in the translation start site of the insulin gene. Differentiation of mutant cells resulted in insulin-negative endocrine stem cells expressing MAFA, NKX6.1, and chromogranin A. Correction of the mutation in stem cells and differentiation to pancreatic endocrine cells restored insulin production and insulin secretion to levels comparable to those of wild-type cells...
November 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
S A Durward-Akhurst, N E Schultz, E M Norton, A K Rendahl, H Besselink, P A Behnisch, A Brouwer, R J Geor, J R Mickelson, M E McCue
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is characterized by abnormalities in insulin regulation, increased adiposity and laminitis, and has several similarities to human metabolic syndrome. A large amount of environmental variability in the EMS phenotype is not explained by commonly measured factors (diet, exercise, and season), suggesting that other environmental factors play a role in EMS development. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are associated with metabolic syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities in humans...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Sydney Tang Chi Wai, Yanbo Zhang, Maria P Portillo, Paolo Paoli, Yijing Wu, Wai San Cheang, Bin Liu, Christian Carpéné, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent disease and becoming a serious public health threat worldwide. It is a severe endocrine metabolic disorder that has the ability to induce serious complications in all kinds of organs. Although mechanisms of anti-diabetics have been described before, we focus here on the cellular and physiological mechanisms involved in the modulation of insulin and glucose blood levels. As obesity and inflammation are intimately associated with the development of T2DM, their possible relationships are also described...
December 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Neruja Loganathan, Ashkan Salehi, Jennifer A Chalmers, Denise D Belsham
Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous, environmental endocrine disruptor, is considered an obesogen. Its role in the hypothalamic control of energy balance, however, remains largely unexplored. As disruption of the circadian clock is tightly associated with metabolic consequences, we explored how BPA affects the components of the molecular circadian clock in the feeding-related neurons of the hypothalamus. In immortalized POMC and NPY/AgRP-expressing hypothalamic cell lines and primary culture, we describe that BPA significantly alters mRNA expression of circadian clock genes Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-Erbα...
November 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Michele Colaci, Lorenzo Malatino, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi, Dilia Giuggioli, Clodoveo Ferri
The term "HCV syndrome" encompasses several organ- and systemic pathophysiological states, which often recognize autoimmunity or neoplastic evolution in their pathophysiology, as well as chronic HCV infection as trigger. The clinical features of HCV patients are heterogenous, and may include endocrine or metabolic disorders, namely autoimmune thyroiditis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and erectile/sexual dysfunctions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the endocrine/metabolic diseases associated with chronic HCV infection, focusing on the main concepts emerged in the recent literature in this field...
November 29, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Jin-Ho Choi, Ja Hyang Cho, Ja Hye Kim, Eun-Gyong Yoo, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone can be caused by innate resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyroid hormone cell transporter defects, or thyroid hormone metabolism defects. This study was performed to describe clinical, endocrinological, and molecular characteristics of patients with disorders associated with impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone due to THRB or SLC16A2 mutations. METHODS: This study included 5 probands (1 male and 4 females) with RTH and 6 patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS)...
November 29, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Michael J D'Occhio, Pietro S Baruselli, Giuseppe Campanile
Nutrition is of fundamental importance in reproductive function of female beef cattle. Nutrition determines live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCs) and both were found more than 50 years ago to underpin fertility in pubertal heifers and postpartum cows. In heifers, LW at weaning and average daily gain (ADG) after weaning determines age and LW at puberty, and subsequent lifetime fertility. In cows, BCS at parturition is the most important factor that determines the period to re-conception postpartum...
November 20, 2018: Theriogenology
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