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Tissue Heart Valve

A Whelan, J Duffy, R T Gaul, D O'Reilly, D R Nolan, P Gunning, C Lally, B P Murphy
The durability of bovine pericardium leaflets employed in bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) can significantly limit the longevity of heart valve prostheses. Collagen fibres are the dominant load bearing component of bovine pericardium, however fibre architecture within leaflet geometries is not explicitly controlled in the manufacture of commercial devices. Thus, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of pre-determined collagen fibre orientation and dispersion on the mechanical performance of bovine pericardium...
September 26, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xing-Jian Hu, Wen-Cong-Hui Wu, Nian-Guo Dong, Jia-Wei Shi, Jun-Wei Liu, Si Chen, Chen Deng, Feng Shi
A tissue engineering model of heart valve calcification induced in a bioreactor was established to evaluate the calcification induced by abnormal mechanical stimulation and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified decellularized porcine aortic leaflets seeded with human valve interstitial cells (huVICs) were mounted on a Ti-Ni alloy frame to fabricate two-leaflet and threeleaflet tissue engineered valves. The two-leaflet model valves were exposed to abnormal pulsatile flow stimulation with null (group A), low (1000 mL/min, group B), medium (2000 mL/min, group C), and high velocity (3000 mL/min, group D) for 14 days...
October 2018: Current medical science
Jeremy P Moore, Kevin M Shannon, Roberto G Gallotti, Christopher J McLeod, Anca Chiriac, Edward P Walsh, Narayanswami Sreeram, Akash R Patel, Natasja M De Groot, Johannes von Alvensleben, Seshadri Balaji, David S Frankel, Christina Y Miyake, James C Perry, Kalyanam Shivkumar
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the ventricular arrhythmia (VA) substrates in patients with unoperated and post-surgical Ebstein's Anomaly (EA). BACKGROUND: EA is associated with variable atrialization of the right ventricle and a propensity for VA and sudden death. There are scant data on catheter ablation for VA in this population. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 11 congenital heart disease centers...
October 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Augustin Coisne, Sandro Ninni, Staniel Ortmans, Laurent Davin, Kevin Kasprzak, Benjamin Longère, Claire Seunes, Amandine Coppin, Stéphanie Mouton, Hélène Ridon, Cedric Klein, Brieuc Noirot-Cosson, Bart Staels, Patrizio Lancellotti, David Montaigne, François Pontana
Both genetic and environmental factors interact to control left ventricular (LV) remodeling in the context of aortic stenosis (AS). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a specific visceral adipose tissue with paracrine properties in close contact with the myocardium. We sought to assess determinants of EAT amount and its association with the magnitude and pattern of LV remodeling in patients suffering from severe AS. Between January 2014 and September 2017, we prospectively explored consecutive patients referred to our Heart Valve Center for SAVR presenting with severe AS and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (> 50%)...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Gaoyang Guo, Linhe Jin, Wanyu Jin, Liang Chen, Yang Lei, Yunbing Wang
In recent years, the number of heart valve replacements has multiplied with valve diseases because of aging populations and the surge in rheumatic heart disease in young people. Among them, bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) have become increasingly popular. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) valve as an emerging BHV has been increasingly applied to patients. However, the current commercially used BHVs treated with glutaraldehyde (Glut) still face the problem of durability. BHVs derived from Glut-treated xenogenetic tissues would undergo structural degeneration and calcification sometimes even as short as less than 10 years...
October 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
David Blitzer, Jeremy L Herrmann, John W Brown
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve replacement (MVR) with a pulmonary autograft (Ross II) may be a useful technique for pediatric and young adult patients who wish to avoid anticoagulation. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the Ross II procedure at our institution. METHODS: Patients undergoing the Ross II procedure between June 2002 and April 2008 were included. Preoperative diagnoses included rheumatic disease (n = 5), congenital mitral valve (MV) pathology (partial atrioventricular canal defect [n = 2], complete atrioventricular canal defect [n = 1], Shone's complex [n = 1]), and myocarditis (n = 1)...
November 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jan Tkadlec, Monika Peckova, Lucie Sramkova, Vilem Rohn, David Jahoda, Dominik Raszka, Jan Berousek, Frantisek Mosna, Tomas Vymazal, Milan Kvapil, Pavel Drevinek
OBJECTIVES: Broad-range PCR has the potential to detect virtually any bacterial species via amplification and nucleotide sequencing of a DNA region common to all bacteria. We aimed to evaluate its usefulness and clinical relevance when applied to a wide variety of primary sterile materials. METHODS: A prospective study including 1370 samples (75 heart valves, 151 joint tissue samples, 230 joint aspirates, 848 whole blood samples and 66 culture negative cerebrospinal fluid samples) were studied by using a commercial PCR system for detecting 16S rDNA (Molzym)...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Antonious Ziad Hazim, André Martin Mansoor
Nocardiosis is caused by various species of Nocardia and typically occurs as an opportunistic infection. It frequently disseminates, most often involving the lungs, subcutaneous tissues and central nervous system. It has rarely been reported to affect native heart valves. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with disseminated nocardiosis involving the brain, lungs, muscle and tricuspid valve of a transplanted heart. Following antimicrobial therapy, the patient improved clinically and there was no evidence of residual infection on follow-up imaging...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jamshid H Karimov, Tomislav Mihaljevic, Shengqiang Gao, Gengo Sunagawa, Patrick Grady, Martin Sinkewich, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
OBJECTIVE: With heart disease increasing worldwide, demand for new minimally invasive techniques and transcatheter technologies to treat structural heart disease is rising. Cardioscopy has long been considered desirable, as it allows direct tissue visualization and intervention to deliver therapy via a closed chest, with real-time fiber-optic imaging of intracardiac structures. Herein, the feasibility of the advanced cardioscopic platform, allowing both transapical and fully percutaneous access is reported...
October 9, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Brandon J Tefft, Joshua A Choe, Melissa D Young, Ryan S Hennessy, David W Morse, Jeffery A Bouchard, Herbert J Hedberg, Joseph F Consiglio, Dan Dragomir-Daescu, Robert D Simari, Amir Lerman
PURPOSE: Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) are being investigated to address the limitations of currently available valve prostheses. In order to advance a wide variety of TEHV approaches, the goal of this study was to develop a cardiac valve bioreactor system capable of conditioning living valves with a range of hydrodynamic conditions as well as capable of assessing hydrodynamic performance to ISO 5840 standards. METHODS: A bioreactor system was designed based on the Windkessel approach...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Kazumasa Orihashi
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides real-time information on both morphology and hemodynamics without radiation exposure or contrast media, interruption of surgical procedures, or need for transferring the patient to other division, and thus can be used as intraoperative monitoring as well as diagnostic imaging. TEE is helpful for confirming the adequacy of routine surgical procedures, ruling out an occurrence of unexpected adverse events, or even navigating the manipulations of cannulae and catheters...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Mir S Ali, Nandini Deb, Xinmei Wang, Minhazur Rahman, Gordon F Christopher, Carla M R Lacerda
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) constitute the major cell population in heart valves. Quiescent fibroblastic VICs are seen in adult healthy valves. They become activated myofibroblastic VICs during development, in diseased valves and in vitro. 2D substrate stiffness within a 5-15 kPa range along with high passage numbers promote VIC activation in vitro. In this study, we characterize VIC quiescence and activation across a 1-21 kPa range of substrate stiffness and passages. We define a cell morphology characterization system for VICs as they transform...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Felipe B Soares, Gláucia B Pereira-Neto, Rodrigo C Rabelo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma lactate concentrations and core-peripheral temperature gradients as perfusion parameters in dogs with heart failure caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and to determine whether the above perfusion parameters are correlated with disease stages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: After excluding 129 dogs because of exclusion criteria, 7 dogs with heart failure classified as stage B2 and 10 dogs classified as stage C according to the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) were included in the study...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Ovandir Bazan, Márcia M O Simbara, Jayme P Ortiz, Sonia M Malmonge, Aron Andrade, Jurandir I Yanagihara
Although prosthetic heart valves have saved many lives, the search for a living substitute continues with the aid of tissue engineering. Much progress has been made so far, but the translation of this technology to clinical reality remains a challenge, especially due to the structural complexity of heart valves and the harsh environment they are in. In a joint effort, researchers from Federal University of ABC and Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology have conceived a new bioresorbable scaffold for heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE), whose hydrodynamic performance was first assessed and described in this work...
October 5, 2018: Artificial Organs
Immanuel David Madukauwa-David, Eric L Pierce, Fatiesa Sulejmani, Joshua Pataky, Wei Sun, Ajit P Yoganathan
Postoperative suture dehiscence is an important mode of short-term mitral and tricuspid valve (MV, TV) repair failure. We sought to evaluate suture pullout forces and collagen density in human atrioventricular valves for a better understanding of the comparative physiology between the valves and the underlying mechanobiological basis for suture retention. Mitral and tricuspid annuli were each excised from hearts from human donors age 60-79 with no history of heart disease (n = 6). Anchor sutures were vertically pulled until tearing through the tissue...
October 4, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Donal MacGrogan, Juliane Münch, José Luis de la Pompa
Cardiogenesis is a complex developmental process involving multiple overlapping stages of cell fate specification, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Precise spatiotemporal coordination between the different cardiogenic processes is ensured by intercellular signalling crosstalk and tissue-tissue interactions. Notch is an intercellular signalling pathway crucial for cell fate decisions during multicellular organismal development and is aptly positioned to coordinate the complex signalling crosstalk required for progressive cell lineage restriction during cardiogenesis...
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Will Zhang, Rana Zakerzadeh, Wenbo Zhang, Michael S Sacks
One of the most crucial aspects of biomechanical simulations of physiological systems that seek to predict the outcomes of disease, injury, and surgical interventions is the underlying soft tissue constitutive model. Soft tissue constitutive modeling approaches have become increasingly complex, often utilizing meso- and multi-scale methods for greater predictive capability and linking to the underlying biological mechanisms. However, such modeling approaches are associated with substantial computational costs...
September 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Hassane Abdallah, Justin Michetti, Philippe Demers
Pannus formation is a known complication of valve replacement surgery. However, few cases describe pannus formation in the mitral position, and they are mostly associated with prosthetic valves rather than only annuloplasty. We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who first underwent reductive annuloplasty using a Carpentier-Edwards 28 mm ring prosthesis in 2009 that performed well on regular follow-up for 5 years. In 2014, the patient presented with significant weight gain, shortness of breath (New York Heart Association functional class III) and signs of severe mitral stenosis...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiology Cases
Yuichiro Toma, Masashi Iwabuchi, Haruno Nagata, Kaoru Goya, Tomohiro Shiohira, Shoichiro Yamazato, Hidekazu Ikemiyagi, Katsuhiko Ohshiro, Tomoko Shinzato, Yusuke Ohya
A 71-year-old man suffered from congestive heart failure due to severe aortic stenosis. We performed balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as a bridge to transcatheter aortic valve replacement using transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) by the retrograde approach. Balloon dilatation was carefully performed using an 18 mm balloon. After balloon dilation, TEE showed right coronary cusp (RCC) laceration and severe aortic regurgitation. We discontinued the procedure despite the incomplete result. Aortic valve laceration is a rare complication considered to be mainly caused by the use of large balloon or by balloon slipping...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiology Cases
Sridhar Sraeyes, Duc H Pham, Terence W Gee, Joanna Hua, Jonathan T Butcher
Monocytes and macrophages are critical components of the myeloid niche of the innate immune system. In addition to traditional roles as phagocytes, this subsection of innate immunity has been implicated in its ability to regulate tissue homeostasis and inflammation across diverse physiological systems. Recent emergence of discriminatory features within the monocyte/macrophage niche within the last 5 years has helped to clarify specific function(s) of the subpopulations of these cells. It is becoming increasingly aware that these cells are likely implicated in valve development and disease...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
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