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Tissue Heart Valve

Barbora Mališová, Petr Šantavý, Yvona Lovečková, Bořivoj Hladký, Iva Kotásková, Jiří Pol, Vladimír Lonský, Petr Němec, Tomáš Freiberger
We report a very rare case of Streptococcus canis native infective endocarditis in a 73-year-old woman living in close contact with her dog. Her echocardiography showed large calcifications in the mitral annulus, massive regurgitation below the posterior leaflet, and adjacent vegetation. Blood culture was positive for Streptococcus Lancefield group G. A coronary artery bypass and mitral valve replacement had to be done. Streptococcus canis was detected in a heart valve using a broad range PCR followed by 16S rRNA and confirmed by tuf gene sequencing, while tissue culture remained negative...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Shigeru Miyagawa, Keitaro Domae, Satoshi Kainuma, Ryouhei Matsuura, Daisuke Yoshioka, Hiroki Hata, Yasushi Yoshikawa, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a life-threatening heart muscle disease characterized by progressive heart failure, which often requires left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation or heart transplantation (HTx). A tissue engineering strategy using cell sheets for end-stage heart failure has emerged in recent years. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe a 50-year-old DCM patient with severe symptoms of heart failure with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who was not a candidate for LVAD or HTx...
December 13, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Doris A Taylor, Luiz C Sampaio, Rafael Cabello, Abdelmotagaly Elgalad, Rohan Parikh, R Patrick Wood, Kevin A Myer, Alvin T Yeh, Po-Feng Lee
The ultimate solution for patients with end-stage heart failure is organ transplant. But donor hearts are limited, immunosuppression is required, and ultimately rejection can occur. Creating a functional, autologous bio-artificial heart could solve these challenges. Biofabrication of a heart comprised of scaffold and cells is one option. A natural scaffold with tissue-specific composition as well as micro- and macro-architecture can be obtained by decellularizing hearts from humans or large animals such as pigs...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Soumen Jana, Amir Lerman
Heart valve tissue engineering could be an alternative to the current bioprosthetic heart valves and their limitations, especially for pediatric patients. However, heart valve tissue engineering remains challenging because leaflets - the primary component of a heart valve - have three diversely oriented layers - circumferential, random and radial. In order to mimic the orientations, we first designed three novel collectors to fabricate three nanofibrous layers with those orientations from a polymeric biomaterial in an electrospinning system...
December 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
William R Miranda, Carole A Warnes, Heidi M Connolly, Nathaniel W Taggart, Patrick W O'Leary, Jae K Oh, Alexander C Egbe
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is felt to be part of the natural history of patients with prior Fontan operation. Despite that, data on noninvasive assessment of diastolic function and ventricular filling pressures in Fontan patients are limited. METHODS: We included 45 adult Fontan patients who underwent right heart catheterization with pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) measurement and transthoracic echo-Doppler assessment within 7 days. Offline measurement of systemic atrioventricular valve pulsed-wave (PW) and medial/lateral atrioventricular annular tissue Doppler velocities was performed and correlated to PAWP...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Simone A Huygens, Jonathan R G Etnel, Milad Hanif, Jos A Bekkers, Ad J J C Bogers, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken, Johanna J M Takkenberg
OBJECTIVE: To support decision-making in aortic valve replacement (AVR) in elderly patients, we provide a comprehensive overview of outcome after AVR with bioprostheses. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of studies reporting clinical outcome after AVR with bioprostheses in elderly patients (mean age ≥70 years; minimum age ≥65 years) published between January 1, 2000, to January 9, 2016. Reported event rates and time-to-event data were pooled and entered into a microsimulation model to calculate life expectancy and lifetime event risks...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Devin Laurence, Colton Ross, Samuel Jett, Cortland Johns, Allyson Echols, Ryan Baumwart, Rheal Towner, Jun Liao, Pietro Bajona, Yi Wu, Chung-Hao Lee
The facilitation of proper blood flow through the heart depends on proper function of heart valve components, and alterations to any component can lead to heart disease or failure. Comprehension of these valvular diseases is reliant on thorough characterization of healthy heart valve structures for use in computational models. Previously, computational models have treated these leaflet structures as a structurally and mechanically homogenous material, which may not be an accurate description of leaflet mechanical response...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Seyho Cem Yucetas, Necati Ucler
Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease caused by deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase and characterized by bluish-black discoloration of cartilages and skin (ochronosis). Defective production of this enzyme results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA), a tyrosine degradation product, in the bloodstream. Accumulation of HGA and its metabolites in tissues causes ochronosis. The word ochronosis refers to the dark bluish-black discoloration of connective tissues including the sclera, cornea, auricular cartilage, heart valves, articular cartilage, tendons, and ligaments...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Eva Jover, Marco Fagnano, Gianni Angelini, Paolo Madeddu
Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor and an established predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Despite concomitant factors leading to atherosclerosis and heart valve disease (VHD), the latter has been identified as an independent pathological entity. Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common form of VDH resulting of either congenital malformations or senile "degeneration." About 2% of the population over 65 years is affected by aortic valve stenosis which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Stephanie L Sellers, Christopher T Turner, Janarthanan Sathananthan, Timothy R G Cartlidge, Frances Sin, Rihab Bouchareb, John Mooney, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Jeroen J Bax, Pascal N Bernatchez, Marc R Dweck, David J Granville, David E Newby, Sandra Lauck, John G Webb, Geoffrey W Payne, Philippe Pibarot, Philipp Blanke, Michael A Seidman, Jonathon A Leipsic
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated processes causing leaflet thickening and structural valve degeneration (SVD). BACKGROUND: Although transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has changed the treatment of aortic stenosis, concerns remain regarding SVD, potentially related to valve thrombosis and thickening, based on studies using computed tomography (CT). Detailed histological analyses are provided to help attain insights into these processes. METHODS: Explanted transcatheter heart valves (THVs) were evaluated for thrombosis, fibrosis, and calcification for quantification of leaflet thickness...
November 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Matthew J O'Connor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory and/or infectious conditions affecting the heart and pericardium in children are primarily diagnosed via noninvasive imaging modalities. In addition, the use of multiple imaging modalities (multimodality imaging) is becoming increasingly common to assist in diagnosis, management, and prognosis. This review focuses on the use of noninvasive imaging in endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis, with emphasis placed on the use of echocardiography and cardiac MRI in these conditions...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Pedro Santos, Aniela Petrescu, Joao Pedrosa, Marta Orlowska, Vangjush Komini, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Jan D'hooge
Left ventricular myocardial stiffness could offer superior quantification of cardiac systolic and diastolic function when compared to the current diagnostic tools. Shear wave elastography in combination with acoustic radiation force has been widely proposed to non-invasively assess tissue stiffness. Interestingly, shear waves can also result from intrinsic cardiac mechanical events (e.g., closure of valves) without the need for external excitation. However, it remains unknown whether these natural shear waves always occur, how reproducible they can be detected and what the normal range of shear wave propagation speed is...
November 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Lucia Boffi, Pierluigi Russo, Giuseppe Limongelli
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of hereditary disorders caused by lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and characterized by a wide variability of phenotypes from severe fetal-neonatal forms to attenuated diseases diagnosed in adult individuals. The clinical picture generally worsens with age due to progressive storage involving mucosal tissue, upper airways and lungs, bones and joints, central and peripheral nervous system, heart, liver, eye, and ear. Cardiac storage of GAGs involves valves, heart muscle, and vessels (particularly the coronary arteries), and can be specific in relation to different MPS types and enzyme defects...
November 16, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Wei-Ling Chen, Chung-Dann Kan
Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is a technique to treat narrowed pulmonary valves or leaky pulmonary valves in congenital heart disease. This technique provides a promising strategy to reduce surgical risk. In clinical cases, due to stent size restrictions, commercial valve stents are sometimes unsuitable for children or certain patients. Hence, handmade pulmonary valved conduits prove useful because a customized size can be obtained for valve replacement. We propose a meta-learning-based intelligent model to train an estimator (including two sub-estimators) to determine optimal trileaflet parameters for customized trileaflet valve reconstruction...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
M A J van Kelle, P J A Oomen, W J T Janssen-van den Broek, R G P Lopata, S Loerakker, C V C Bouten
In situ cardiovascular tissue-engineering can potentially address the shortcomings of the current replacement therapies, in particular, their inability to grow and remodel. In native tissues, it is widely accepted that physiological growth and remodelling occur to maintain a homeostatic mechanical state to conserve its function, regardless of changes in the mechanical environment. A similar homeostatic state should be reached for tissue-engineered (TE) prostheses to ensure proper functioning. For in situ tissue-engineering approaches obtaining such a state greatly relies on the initial scaffold design parameters...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Leon Bruder, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Kerstin Brakmann, Valentin Stegner, Matthias Sigler, Felix Berger, Boris Schmitt
Many congenital heart defects and degenerative valve diseases require replacement of heart valves in children and young adults. Transcatheter xenografts degenerate over time. Tissue engineering might help to overcome this limitation by providing valves with ability for self-repair. A transcatheter decellularized tissue-engineered heart valve (dTEHV) was developed using a polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold. A first prototype showed progressive regurgitation after 6 months in-vivo due to a suboptimal design and misguided remodeling process...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Nargis Sabir, Aamer Ikram, Adeel Gardezi, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Abeera Ahmed, Tahir Khadim
Introduction: Infective endocarditis (IE) is an important clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality among the affected population. A single etiological agent is identifiable in more than 90 % of the cases, however, polymicrobial endocarditis (PE) is a rare find, with a poor clinical outcome. Here we report a case of native valve dual pathogen endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia and Aspergillus flavus in an immunocompetent individual. It is among unique occurrences of simultaneous bacterial and fungal etiology in IE...
September 2018: JMM Case Reports
Jinglei Wu, Bryn Brazile, Sara R McMahan, Jun Liao, Yi Hong
Heart valve (HV) diseases are among the leading causes of death and continue to threaten public health worldwide. The current clinical options for HV replacement include mechanical and biological prostheses. However, an ongoing problem with current HV prostheses is their failure to integrate with the host tissue and their inability grow and remodel within the body. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) are a promising solution to these problems, as they are able to grow and remodel somatically with the rest of the body...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Simona Walker, Jessy Schönfelder, Sems-Malte Tugtekin, Christiane Wetzel, Michael C Hacker, Michaela Barbara Schulz-Siegmund
Pericardial scaffolds have a wide spectrum of clinical applications ranging from patches for vascular reconstruction and abdominal wall defects to bioprosthetic heart valves. The current gold standard of tissue preparation involves disinfection and crosslinking using glutaraldehyde. However, glutaraldehyde-associated toxicity as well as rapid calcification and premature graft failure represent the major modes of failure <sup>1</sup>. Therefore, a variety of alternative strategies for tissue conservation have been pursued...
November 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Rico Osteresch, Kathrin Diehl, Matthias Kühl, Eduard Fiehn, Johannes Schmucker, Tina Backhaus, Andreas Fach, Harm Wienbergen, Rainer Hambrecht
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) on outcome after transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and severe functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred thirty patients (median age 72.7 ± 10.7 years; 63.8% male) at high operative risk (LogEuroSCORE 23.8 ± 13.9%) with FMR and CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction 32 ± 7%) were enrolled and separated into two groups according to the RVD...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
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