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pancreatitis AND insulin

Sharath Belame Shivakumar, Dinesh Bharti, Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao, Ju-Mi Park, Young-Bum Son, Imran Ullah, Yong-Ho Choe, Hyeong-Jeong Lee, Bong-Wook Park, Sung-Lim Lee, Gyu-Jin Rho
Following success of pancreatic islet transplantation in the treatment of Type I diabetes mellitus, there is a growing interest in using cell-based treatment approaches. However, severe shortage of donor islets-pancreas impeded the growth, and made researchers to search for an alternative treatment approaches. In this context, recently, stem cell-based therapy has gained more attention. The current study demonstrated that epigenetic modification improves the in vitro differentiation of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) into pancreatic endocrine-like cells...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Elise Dalmas
Increasing evidence suggests a role for the immune system to finely tune metabolic homeostasis. The possibility that the immune system can likewise regulate islet endocrine function has only commenced drawing attention. Islet beta cells are the main producers of insulin and have to dynamically respond to fluctuating insulin demands of the body. While inflammation has long been considered as an important pathogenic feature of diabetes development, pioneer studies have shown that immune cells reside inside pancreatic islets under steady state and that components of the immune system can promote beta cell insulin production...
October 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
Pancreatic progenitors have been explored for their profound characteristics and unique commitment to generate new functional islets in regenerative medicine. Pancreatic resident endocrine progenitors (PREPs) with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype were purified from BALB/c mice pancreas and characterized. PREPs were differentiated into mature islet clusters in vitro by activin-A and swertisin and functionally characterized. A temporal gene and protein profiling was performed during differentiation. Furthermore, PREPs were labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and transplanted intravenously into streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice while monitoring their homing and differentiation leading to amelioration in the diabetic condition...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xu-Wen Tang, Qing-Xin Qin
Multiple studies have reported different methods in treating gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the relationship between miR-335-5p and GDM still remains unclear. Here, this study explores the effect of miR-335-5p on insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell secretion via activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway by downregulating VASH1 expression in GDM mice. The GDM mouse model was established and mainly treated with miR-335-5p mimic, miR-335-5p inhibitor, si-VASH1, and miR-335-5p inhibitor + si-VASH1...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
B S Ankit, Ritvik Agrawal, Ajeet Gadhwal, Chitresh Chahar, R P Agrawal
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been claimed to be a risk factor for the development of pancreatic carcinoma. CA 19-9 has a great sensitivity in detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Metformin exhibits a strong and consistent antiproliferative action on several cancer cell lines including pancreatic cancer. We aim to determine the influence of metformin on CA 19-9 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: Total 193 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were registered for a single centre, cross-sectional study...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tanja Schallschmidt, Sandra Lebek, Delsi Altenhofen, Mareike Damen, Yvonne Schulte, Birgit Knebel, Ralf Herwig, Axel Rasche, Torben Stermann, Anne Kamitz, Nicole Hallahan, Markus Jähnert, Heike Vogel, Annette Schürmann, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
To identify novel disease genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D) we generated two backcross populations of obese and diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO/HI) with the two lean mouse strains 129P2/OlaHsd and C3HeB/FeJ. Subsequent whole-genome linkage scans revealed 30 novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for T2D-associated traits. The strongest association with blood glucose (12 cM, LOD 13.3) and plasma insulin (17 cM, LOD 4.8) was detected on proximal chromosome 7 (designated Nbg7p , NZO blood glucose on proximal chromosome 7) exclusively in the NZOxC3H crossbreeding, suggesting that the causal gene is contributed by the C3H genome...
October 19, 2018: Genetics
Elham Hoveizi, Shima Tavakol, Sadegh Shirian, Khadije Sanamiri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune disease causing progressive destruction of pancreatic β cells, ultimately resulting in loss of insulin secretion producing which leads to hyperglycemia. Replacement of pancreatic β cells would represent an ideal treatment for DM that could overcome the therapeutic hurdles. Principals of cell therapy for diabetes are reviewed in the first part of this article. Moreover, the usability of tissue engineering (TE) as a new approach for DM treatment is discussed in the second part...
October 18, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiao-Lu Yin, Bing-Qing Xu, Yu-Qing Zhang
Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases that accompanied by severe complications. Gynura divaricata (GD), a medicinal and edible plant that is usually used for the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical components of GD with hypoglycemic effect and the possible mechanism lowering blood sugar in T2D diabetic mice. Methods: The methanol extract of GD was analysed by HPLC-DAD. And then mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin feed the diet containing lyophilized GD powder for 4 weeks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Roberta Azzarelli, Steffen Rulands, Sonia Nestorowa, John Davies, Sara Campinoti, Sébastien Gillotin, Paola Bonfanti, Berthold Göttgens, Meritxell Huch, Benjamin Simons, Anna Philpott
β-cell replacement has been proposed as an effective treatment for some forms of diabetes, and in vitro methods for β-cell generation are being extensively explored. A potential source of β-cells comes from fate conversion of exocrine pancreatic cells into the endocrine lineage, by overexpression of three regulators of pancreatic endocrine formation and β-cell identity, Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA. Pancreatic ductal organoid cultures have recently been developed that can be expanded indefinitely, while maintaining the potential to differentiate into the endocrine lineage...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katarzyna E Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Jolanta Patro-Małysza, Agnieszka Stenzel-Bembenek, Jan Oleszczuk, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex condition that involves a variety of pathological mechanisms, including pancreatic β-cell failure, insulin resistance, and inflammation. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that these interrelated phenomena may arise from the common mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Both obesity-associated nutrient excess and hyperglycemia disturb ER function in protein folding and transport. This results in the accumulation of polypeptides in the ER lumen and impairs insulin secretion and signaling...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Madhusmita Rout, Sajitha Lulu S
Discerning the relationship between molecules involved in diseases based on their underlying biological mechanisms is one of the greatest challenges in therapeutic development today. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, which adversely affects both mothers and offspring during and after pregnancy. We have constructed two datasets of (GDM associated genes from affected mother and placenta to systematically analyze and evaluate their interactions like gene-gene, gene-protein, gene-microRNA (miRNA), gene-transcription factors, and gene-associated diseases to enhance our current knowledge, which may lead to further advancements in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Iwona Belczacka, Martin Pejchinovski, Magdalena Krochmal, Pedro Magalhães, Maria Frantzi, William Mullen, Antonia Vlahou, Harald Mischak, Vera Jankowski
PURPOSE: Urine is a rich source of potential biomarkers, including glycoproteins. Glycoproteomic analysis remains difficult due to the high heterogeneity of glycans. Nevertheless, recent advances in glycoproteomics software solutions facilitate glycopeptide identification and characterization. The aim is to investigate intact glycopeptides in the urinary peptide profiles of normal subjects using a novel PTM-centric software-Byonic. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The urinary peptide profiles of 238 normal subjects, previously analyzed using CE-MS and CE-MS/MS and/or LC-MS/MS, are subjected to glycopeptide analysis...
October 18, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
James Cantley, Aimee Davenport, Laurène Vetterli, Nandor J Nemes, P Tess Whitworth, Ebru Boslem, Le May Thai, Natalie Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Kyle L Hoehn, David E James, Trevor J Biden
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis, and beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Glucose triggers insulin secretion in beta cells via oxidative mitochondrial pathways. However, it also feeds mitochondrial anaplerotic pathways, driving citrate export and cytosolic malonyl-CoA production by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) enzyme. This pathway has been proposed as an alternative glucose-sensing mechanism, supported mainly by in vitro data...
October 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Pedro Henrique de A Miranda, Kissyla Christine Duarte Lacerda, Carolina Morais Araújo, José Mario Barichello, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Daniela Caldeira Costa
This study aimed to investigate the potential of an oral formulation (QV formulation) containing Quercetin and a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor (DPP-4 inhibitor), Vildagliptin, in improving metabolic homeostasis in type 1 diabetes model. Female albino Fischer rats were divided into four groups: untreated control animals (C), untreated diabetic animals (D), diabetic animals treated with QV formulation (DQV), and diabetic animals treated with insulin (DI). Diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (135 mg kg body mass)-1 and confirmed by glycemic test...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenji Kohara, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Masashi Shimoda, Saeko Moriuchi, Seizo Okauchi, Hidenori Hirukawa, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku, Hideaki Kaneto
It is known that long-chain fatty acids bind to free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells and that Ffar1 agonists facilitates insulin secretion and ameliorates glycemic control. On the other hands, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (Pdx1) is an important transcription factor for various β-cell-related genes including insulin gene and thereby contributes to the maintenance of mature β-cell function...
October 17, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Wardhana Wardhana, Achmad Rudijanto
Uric acid as the final result of purine bases metabolism. In high level condition, uric acid enters the cell and act as oxidant, and acts as independent risk factor and predicts the incident of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It may directly inactivate or through oxidative reaction that lower the nitric oxide (NO) level. Lower NO level will reduce insulin uptake in tissues and reduce in GLUT4 translocation in cell that will effect the blood glucose level. The High level of uric acid or hyperuricemia makes oxidative stress by inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which interferes the insulin signalling pathway,creates inflammatory  state that reduced the insulin sensitivity,blood glucose uptake and metabolism, also reducing the insulin production from pancreatic islet cells...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Dailiany Orechio, Paula Fratini, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Patricia Castelucci, Maria Angelica Miglino
The incidence of diabetes mellitus in dogs is increasing in recent years, mainly because of genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disorders (like in humans); failure of suitable control of blood sugar levels, which triggers hyperglycemia; glycosuria and weight loss, which demands the development of innovative treatments to cure or treat this complex disease in dogs. The present study established for the first time a protocol to obtain and characterize cells derived from pancreas of canine fetuses...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Soheila Maghami, Homeira Zardooz, Fariba Khodagholi, Fatemeh Binayi, Roya Ranjbar Saber, Mehdi Hedayati, Hedayat Sahraei, Mohammad Ali Ansari
This study explores the effects of maternal separation as a chronic early life stress (ELS) on pancreatic islets insulin content and secretion, and their potential relationship with the hippocampus insulin content and spatial memory in young adulthood. Male rat offspring were divided into two groups: stress (STR) and non-stress (non-STR) groups. The animals of the STR group were separated from their mothers during postnatal days (PND) 1 to 21. During the weaning time, that is, PND-0 to PND-21, the body weight and length of the pups were measured...
2018: PloS One
Donald A Williamson
Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is important to reduce suffering and health care costs. A precursor to T2D is impaired glucose regulation (IGR), a condition of elevated plasma glucose that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Prevention of T2D is determined by preservation of pancreatic β cell function which can be achieved by the use of anti-hyperglycemic medications or intensive lifestyle interventions (ILIs) to modify dietary and physical activity habits that induce modest weight loss (≥5%)...
October 12, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Emilie Courty, Adrien Besseiche, Thi Thu Huong Do, Alexandrine Liboz, Fatima Mohamed Aguid, Evans Quilichini, Melissa Buscato, Pierre Gourdy, Jean-François Gautier, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Cécile Haumaitre, Marion Buyse, Bruno Fève, Ghislaine Guillemain, Bertrand Blondeau
Both type 1 and 2 diabetes are characterized by deficient insulin secretion and decreased beta-cell mass. Thus, regenerative strategies to increase beta-cell mass need to be developed. To characterize mechanisms of beta-cell plasticity, we studied a model of severe insulin resistance in the adult mouse and defined how beta cells adapt. Chronic corticosterone (CORT) treatment was given to adult mice and led to rapid insulin resistance and adaptive increased insulin secretion. Adaptive and massive increase of beta-cell mass was observed during treatment up to 8 weeks...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes
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