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pancreatitis AND insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114722/generation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-ipscs-and-their-potential-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-replacement-therapy-and-modelling
#1
Maria Csobonyeiova, Stefan Polak, Lubos Danisovic
Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recently, transplantation of new pancreatic β-cells into T1D patients has come to be considered one of the most potentially effective treatments for this disease...
August 16, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113217/identification-of-lncrnas-and-their-functional-network-associated-with-chemoresistance-in-sw1990-gz-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-rna-sequencing
#2
Duguang Li, Xiaowei Qian, Peng Xu, Xiaodong Wang, Zhennan Li, Jianjun Qian, Jie Yao
Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC). Long noncoding (lnc)RNAs modulate a variety of cellular processes. This study was carried out to identify lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in drug-resistant PC by next-generation RNA sequencing. We identified 205 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) and 847 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) in a comparison of gemcitabine-resistant and -sensitive SW1990 human PC cells. The expression levels of 12 randomly selected lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR...
August 16, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112574/effect-of-nociceptin-on-insulin-release-in-normal-and-diabetic-rat-pancreas
#3
Ernest Adeghate, Zulqarnain Saeed, Crystal D'Souza, Saeed Tariq, Huba Kalász, Kornélia Tekes, Ernest A Adeghate
Nociceptin (NC), also known as Orphanin FQ, is a brain peptide involved in the regulation of pain, but its role in the endocrine pancreas is poorly understood. The present study examines the pattern of distribution of NC and its effect on insulin and glucagon secretion after the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM). Male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were made diabetic with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Four weeks after the induction of DM, pancreatic tissues were retrieved and processed for immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and insulin and glucagon secretion...
August 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111063/-effects-of-renshenjian-decoction-on-pancreatic-metabonomic-profiles-in-insulin-resistance-rats-based-on-%C3%A2-h-nmr-metabonomics
#4
Hui-Ting Zheng, Ke-Ning Li, Chi Chen, Wei-Dong Lin, Shu-Mei Wang
Pancreas metabonomic profiles of the type 2 diabetic rats' induced by streptozotocin(STZ) and high-sugar, high fat diet on the treatment of Renshenjian decoction(RSJD) after 8 weeks were investigated.In this study, 48 Rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Pathological model (PM), Renshenjian decoction(RSJD 3.76 g·kg⁻¹) and glimepiride control (GC 0.04 mg·kg⁻¹). They are induced insulin resistance model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin(STZ) after 4 weeks' high-sugar, high fat diet except for NC...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110202/direct-comparison-of-the-abilities-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-versus-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-reverse-hyperglycemia-in-diabetic-nod-scid-mice
#5
Edith J Arany, Muhammad Waseem, Brenda J Strutt, Astrid Chamson-Reig, Adam Bernardo, Elizabeth Eng, David J Hill
Both bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve glycemic control in diabetic mice, but their kinetics and associated changes in pancreatic morphology have not been directly compared. Our goal was to examine the time course of improvements in glucose tolerance and associated changes in β-cell mass and proliferation following transplantation of equivalent numbers of HSC or MSC from the same bone marrow into diabetic non-obese diabetic severe combined immune deficiency (NOD...
August 15, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110175/fetal-undernutrition-placental-insufficiency-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-development-programming-in-utero
#6
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109329/microfluidic-enabled-quantitative-measurements-of-insulin-release-dynamics-from-single-islets-of-langerhans-in-response-to-5-palmitic-acid-hydroxy-stearic-acid
#7
Basel Bandak, Lian Yi, Michael G Roper
Proper release of insulin from pancreatic islets of Langerhans is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. For full efficacy, both the pattern and the amount of hormone release are critical. It is therefore important to understand how insulin levels are secreted from single islets in both a quantitative fashion and in a manner that resolves temporal dynamics. In this study, we describe a microfluidic analytical system that can both quantitatively monitor insulin secretion from single islets while simultaneously maintaining high temporal sampling to resolve dynamics of release...
August 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108655/-in-vitro-antidiabetic-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-of-brachylaena-elliptica-thunb-dc
#8
Idowu Jonas Sagbo, Maryna van de Venter, Trevor Koekemoer, Graeme Bradley
In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily and the current antidiabetic therapies are frequently reported to have adverse side effects. Ethnomedicinal plant use has shown promise for the development of cheaper, cost-effective antidiabetic agents with fewer side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity and mechanism of action of aqueous leaf extract prepared from Brachylaena elliptica . The potential of the extract for cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay in HepG2 cells...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108548/involvement-of-trpv1-channels-in-energy-homeostasis
#9
REVIEW
Stewart Christie, Gary A Wittert, Hui Li, Amanda J Page
The ion channel TRPV1 is involved in a wide range of processes including nociception, thermosensation and, more recently discovered, energy homeostasis. Tightly controlling energy homeostasis is important to maintain a healthy body weight, or to aid in weight loss by expending more energy than energy intake. TRPV1 may be involved in energy homeostasis, both in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. In the periphery, it is possible that TRPV1 can impact on appetite through control of appetite hormone levels or via modulation of gastrointestinal vagal afferent signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108153/angiotensin-ii-induces-cholesterol-accumulation-and-impairs-insulin-secretion-by-regulating-abca1-in-beta-cells
#10
Jingya Lyu, Hitomi Imachi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Tao Dong, Takuo Yoshimoto, Kazuko Yonezaki, Hiromi Nagata, Hisakazu Iwama, Koji Murao
In pancreatic beta cells, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a 254-kDa membrane protein, affects cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion. Angiotensin II, as the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We examined the effect of angiotensin II on ABCA1 expression in primary pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells. Angiotensin II decreased ABCA1 protein and mRNA; angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockade rescued this ABCA1 repression...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106624/increases-in-bioactive-lipids-accompany-early-metabolic-changes-associated-with-%C3%AE-cell-expansion-in-response-to-short-term-high-fat-diet
#11
Maxim D Seferovic, Christine A Beamish, Rockann E Mosser, Shannon E Townsend, Kirk Pappan, Vincent Poitout, Kjersti Aagaard, Maureen Gannon
Pancreatic β-cell expansion is a highly regulated metabolic adaptation to increased somatic demands, including obesity and pregnancy; adult β-cells otherwise rarely proliferate. We previously showed that high fat diet (HFD) feeding induces mouse β-cell proliferation in less than one week in the absence of insulin resistance. Here we metabolically profiled tissues from a short-term HFD β-cell expansion mouse model to identify pathways and metabolite changes associated with β-cell proliferation. Mice fed HFD vs CD showed a 14...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106594/multiple-condition-analysis-in-a-retrievable-subcutaneous-animal-model-for-drug-screening-on-full-pancreatic-tissue-digest
#12
Tim W G M Spitters, Parker L Andersen, Chloé Martel, Patrick Vermette
The lack of understanding on how to treat pancreas-related diseases and develop new therapeutics is partly due to the unavailability of appropriate models. In vitro models fail to provide a physiological environment. Testing new drug targets in these models can give rise to bias and misleading results. Therefore, we developed an in vivo model for drug testing on full pancreatic digests, which maintains the interactions between endo- and exocrine tissues and allows retrieving the samples for further analyses...
August 14, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106118/microrna%C3%A2-152-regulates-insulin-secretion-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-by-targeting-pi3k%C3%AE
#13
Li Chen, Haiyun Qian, Junli Xue, Juan Zhang, Hao Chen
An increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are reported to have important roles in diabetes. Glucose‑stimulated insulin secretion and pancreatic β cell proliferation are essential in the control of metabolic disorder, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated the function of miR‑152 in diabetes. The results of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that miR‑152 levels in the blood were markedly reduced in patients with diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls...
August 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105882/influence-of-food-texture-on-energy-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-male-rats
#14
Wanxin Han, Maiko Utoyoma, Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Ayano Hidaka, Chihiro Yamada, Kazuya Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Nunoi, Yukari Date
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this manuscript? What is the effect of food texture on fat accumulation, lipogenesis and proinflammatory factors in the adipose tissue and on energy balance in male rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Calorie intake and fat accumulation in rats fed soft pellets ad libitum increased, but their body weight did not. The data suggest that, even when BMI is normal, frequent consumption of soft food may contribute to the development of lifestyle-related diseases...
August 13, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105186/adncd-a-compendious-database-on-anti-diabetic-natural-compounds-focusing-on-mechanism-of-action
#15
Aisha Khatoon, Iliyas Rashid, Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Shazi Shakil, Neelam Pathak, Snober S Mir, Khurshid Ahmad, Talib Hussain, Prachi Srivastava
Diabetes is a deteriorating metabolic ailment which negatively affects different organs; however, its prime target is insulin secreting pancreatic β-cells. Although, different medications have been affirmed for diabetes management and numerous drugs are undergoing clinical trials, no significant breakthrough has yet been achieved. Available drugs either show some side effects or provide only short-term alleviation. The rationales behind the failure of current anti-diabetic treatment strategy are association of complex patho-physiologies and participation of various organs...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103453/melatonin-uptake-by-cells-an-answer-to-its-relationship-with-glucose
#16
REVIEW
Juan C Mayo, Arturo Aguado, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda, Alejandro Álvarez-Artime, Vanesa Cepas, Isabel Quirós-González, David Hevia, Rosa M Sáinz
Melatonin, N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is an indole mainly synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and secreted exclusively during the night in all the animals reported to date. While the pineal gland is the major source responsible for this night rise, it is not at all the exclusive production site and many other tissues and organs produce melatonin as well. Likewise, melatonin is not restricted to vertebrates, as its presence has been reported in almost all the phyla from protozoa to mammals. Melatonin displays a large set of functions including adaptation to light: dark cycles, free radical scavenging ability, antioxidant enzyme modulation, immunomodulatory actions or differentiation⁻proliferation regulatory effects, among others...
August 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098549/chronic-hyperglycemia-mediated-physiological-alteration-and-metabolic-distortion-leads-to-organ-dysfunction-infection-cancer-progression-and-other-pathophysiological-consequences-an-update-on-glucose-toxicity
#17
REVIEW
Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey, Tanaya Das, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Jhimli Banerjee, Sandeep Kumar Dash
Chronic exposure of glucose rich environment creates several physiological and pathophysiological changes. There are several pathways by which hyperglycemia exacerbate its toxic effect on cells, tissues and organ systems. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress, upsurge polyol pathway, activate protein kinase C (PKC), enhance hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promote the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and finally alters gene expressions. Prolonged hyperglycemic condition leads to severe diabetic condition by damaging the pancreatic β-cell and inducing insulin resistance...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098330/sirtuin-5-overexpression-attenuates-glucolipotoxicity-induced-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-apoptosis-and-dysfunction
#18
Yue Wang, Quan Liu, Yi Huan, Rongcui Li, Caina Li, Sujuan Sun, Nan Guo, Miaomiao Yang, Shuainan Liu, Zhufang Shen
Recently, SIRT5 was reported to be a predominant desuccinylase and demalonylase in mitochondria. Ablation of SIRT5 enhances the systemic succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including various metabolic enzymes; however, its function in pancreatic β cells has not yet been clarified. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SIRT5 overexpression on glucolipotoxicity-induced apoptosis in β cell lines. Full-length SIRT5, which preferentially targeted to mitochondria and partially to the nucleus and cytoplasm, was overexpressed in NIT-1 cells...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095738/oxygen-perfusion-persufflation-of-human-pancreata-enhances-insulin-secretion-and-attenuates-islet-proinflammatory-signaling
#19
Amy C Kelly, Kate E Smith, William G Purvis, Catherine G Min, Craig S Weber, Amanda M Cooksey, Craig Hasilo, Steven Paraskevas, Thomas M Suszynski, Bradley P Weegman, Miranda J Anderson, Leticia E Camacho, Robert C Harland, Tom Loudovaris, Jana Jandova, Diana S Molano, Nicholas D Price, Ivan G Georgiev, William E Scott, Derek Manas, James Shaw, Doug O'Gorman, Tatsuya Kin, Fiona M McCarthy, Gregory L Szot, Andrew M Posselt, Peter G Stock, Theodore Karatzas, William J Shapiro, Ronald M Lynch, Sean W Limesand, Klearchos K Papas
BACKGROUND: All human islets used in research and for the clinical treatment of diabetes are subject to ischemic damage during pancreas procurement, preservation, and islet isolation. A major factor influencing islet function is exposure of pancreata to cold ischemia during unavoidable windows of preservation by static cold storage (SCS). Improved preservation methods may prevent this functional deterioration. In the present study, we investigated whether pancreas preservation by gaseous oxygen perfusion (persufflation) better preserved islet function versus SCS...
August 8, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094467/toll-like-receptor-9-negatively-regulates-pancreatic-islet-beta-cell-growth-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#20
Mengju Liu, Jian Peng, Ningwen Tai, James A Pearson, Changyun Hu, Junhua Guo, Lin Hou, Hongyu Zhao, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Innate immune effectors interact with the environment to contribute to the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes. Although recent studies have suggested that innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in tissue development, little is known about the role of TLRs in tissue development, compared with autoimmunity. We aimed to fill the knowledge gap by investigating the role of TLR9 in the development and function of islet beta cells in type 1 diabetes, using NOD mice...
August 9, 2018: Diabetologia
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