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Tumor AND imaging

Ke Chen, Wenming Zhang, Zhaozhen Zhang, Yiping He, Yuan Liu, Xiujiang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vascularity is a critical feature in the evaluation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). When done by EUS, contrast agents are recommended. However, vascular architecture (VA) can also be evaluated by routine Doppler flow in EUS without contrast agents. Our aim was to provide a simple VA classification in EUS for PNET grade and prognosis. METHODS: All pathologically proven PNET cases with EUS between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed...
August 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Wei Zhu, Gang Mai, Xiang Zhou, Bin Song
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to review our initial experience of Double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCEUS) in the preoperative detection of pancreatic tail occult tumors. METHODS: Thirty-five patients were recruited to undergo DCEUS of the pancreas suspected by occult lesions of pancreatic with MRI or clinical evidence. The radiologists assessed the images (conventional US, DCEUS, and MRI) for enhancement phases, tumor presence, location, enhancement characteristics, and tumor conspicuity...
August 18, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Christina Schug, Sarah Urnauer, Carsten Jäckel, Kathrin Alexandra Schmohl, Mariella Tutter, Katja Steiger, Nathalie Schwenk, Markus Schwaiger, Ernst Wagner, Peter Jon Nelson, Christine Spitzweg
Based on their excellent tumor-homing capacity, genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are under investigation as tumor-selective gene delivery vehicles. Transgenic expression of the sodium iodide symporter ( NIS ) in genetically engineered MSCs allows noninvasive tracking of MSC homing by imaging of functional NIS expression as well as therapeutic application of 131 I. The use of tumor-stroma activated promoters can improve tumor-specific MSC-mediated transgene delivery. The essential role of transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB1) and the SMAD downstream target in the signaling between tumor and the surrounding stroma makes the biology of this pathway a potential option to better control NIS expression within the tumor milieu...
August 18, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Jiye Lin, Zhenjun Zhou, Jianwei Guan, Yubo Zhu, Yang Liu, Zhilin Yang, Bomiao Lin, Yongyan Jiang, Xianyue Quan, Yiquan Ke, Tao Xu
OBJECTIVE: Using 3D printing to create individualized patient models of the skull base, the optic chiasm and facial nerve can be previsualized to help identify and protect these structures during tumor removal surgery. METHODS: Preoperative imaging information for 2 sellar tumor cases and 1 case of acoustic neuroma were first obtained. Based on these data, the cranial nerves were visualized using three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo field echo (3D T1-TFE)sequence and diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking (DTI-FT)...
August 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kaled Diab, Suhas Kochat, James McClintic, Heather L Stevenson, Steven C Agle, Kelly Olino, Douglas S Tyler, Kimberly M Brown
BACKGROUND: Image-guided microwave ablation (MWA) is a technically demanding procedure, involving advanced visual-spatial perception skills. This study sought to create and evaluate a low-cost model and training curriculum for open ultrasound-guided liver tumor MWA. METHODS: Simulated tumors were created, implanted into bovine livers, and visualized by ultrasound. A high-fidelity abdominal model was constructed, with a total cost of $30. Experienced physicians in MWA performed simulated ablations and evaluated the model...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Chang Young Lee, Harley Chan, Hideki Ujiie, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Jonathan C Irish, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We developed thoracoscopic surgical navigation system with real-time augmented image guidance to assess the potential benefits for minimally invasive resection of chest wall tumors. The accuracy of localization of tumor and resection margin, and the effect on task workload and confidence were evaluated in a chest wall tumor phantom. METHODS: After scanning a realistic tumor phantom by cone beam computed tomography and registering CT data into the system, three-dimensional contoured tumor and resection margin was displayed...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yukako Nakanishi, Kazuhiro Kitajima, Yusuke Yamada, Takahiko Hashimoto, Toru Suzuki, Shuken Go, Akihiro Kanematsu, Michio Nojima, Koichiro Yamakado, Shingo Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To compare findings obtained with 11 C-choline and FDG PET/CT scanning for renal cell carcinoma staging and restaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight renal cell carcinoma patients whose histological subtype was clear cell type in 26 and papillary type in 2, while Fuhrman nuclear grade was G1,2 in 16 and G3,4 in 12, underwent both 11 C-choline and FDG PET/CT examinations before (n = 10) and/or after (n = 18) treatment, then those scanning modalities were compared in regard to patient- and lesion-based diagnostic performance using 5 grading scores...
August 17, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Ronette Goodluck Tyndall, Oana-Eugenia Popescu, Prevost Derek, Paul Steinbok
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic sarcoma of the skull is uncommon and long-term outcome is not well defined. We review the literature and present a pediatric case of calvarial osteogenic sarcoma with good long-term oncological and cosmetic outcome and excellent quality of life. This case presented major surgical challenges, which are detailed. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy presented with a painless 5 cm × 5 cm lump over the vertex region. He was neurologically normal...
August 17, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Laura Evangelista, Umberto Basso, Marco Maruzzo, Giacomo Novara
CONTEXT: Preliminary results have demonstrated that prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on the cell surface of the microvasculature of several solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in RCC patients and to discuss its possible inclusion in the clinical management of these patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search was performed for studies on PET/CT in patients with RCC up to April 2018...
August 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
Rabha W Ibrahim, Ali M Hasan, Hamid A Jalab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The MRI brain tumors segmentation is challenging due to variations in terms of size, shape, location and features' intensity of the tumor. Active contour has been applied in MRI scan image segmentation due to its ability to produce regions with boundaries. The main difficulty that encounters the active contour segmentation is the boundary tracking which is controlled by minimization of energy function for segmentation. Hence, this study proposes a novel fractional Wright function (FWF) as a minimization of energy technique to improve the performance of active contour without edge method...
September 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Suhas G Sapate, Abhishek Mahajan, Sanjay N Talbar, Nilesh Sable, Subhash Desai, Meenakshi Thakur
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early detection is the important key to reduce breast cancer mortality rate. Detecting the mammographic abnormality as a subtle sign of breast cancer is essential for the proper diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this preliminary study is to develop algorithms which detect suspicious lesions and characterize them to reduce the diagnostic errors regarding false positives and false negatives. METHODS: The proposed hybrid mechanism detects suspicious lesions automatically using connected component labeling and adaptive fuzzy region growing algorithm...
September 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Benjamin M Yeh, Markus M Obmann, Antonio C Westphalen, Michael A Ohliger, Judy Yee, Yuxin Sun, Zhen J Wang
Current computed tomography bowel imaging is challenging given the variable distension, content, and location of the bowel, the different appearance of tumors within and adjacent to bowel, and peristaltic artifacts. Published data remain sparse. Derangements in enhancement may be highlighted, image artifacts reduced, and radiation dose from multiphase scans minimized. This modality is suited for imaging bowel tumor detection and characterization, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bowel inflammation, and ischemia...
September 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Shuailing Huang, Yinglong Wu, Fang Zeng, Junjie Chen, Shuizhu Wu
Abnormally-expressed leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is associated with diverse physiological and pathological disorders; hence developing a highly selective and sensitive detection system for LAP is of great significance. Herein, a fluorescent light-up system with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic, (DPA-TPE-Leu) has been developed for detecting LAP, in which the recognition unit l-leucine amide group also acts as the hydrophilic moiety. Upon LAP-triggered enzymatic reaction, l-leucine amide moiety is cleaved from the probe molecule, resulting in the formation and aggregation of the hydrophobic reaction product (DPE-TPE-OH) with AIE effect and thus giving out the turn-on green fluorescence...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Masateru Yamamoto, Akihiko Oshita, Takashi Nishisaka, Hideki Nakahara, Toshiyuki Itamoto
BACKGROUND: The incidence of synchronous double primary hepatic cancers is extremely low. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma is also a rare disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of multiple liver tumors revealed on computed tomography scans. He was hepatitis B and C positive and had undergone hemodialysis for 9 years due to chronic renal failure. Computed tomography scans revealed two hepatic tumors (each ≤ 1...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Antonio Romero, Arantza Vitoria, Jorge Albareda, Marta Prades, Mercedes Roca, Pilar Zaragoza, Francisco José Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness and safety of repeated administrations of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) primed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ in an equine model of chemically-induced osteoarthritis. Arthritis was induced in both radio-carpal (RC)-joints by amphotericin-B in 18 ponies, divided into three groups depending on the treatment injected: MSC-naïve (n = 7), MSC-primed (n = 7) and control (n = 4)...
August 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bala Prabhakar, Pravin Shende, Steffi Augustine
Cancer is one of most fatal forms of disease with rapid, abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells which spreads into different organs in the body. The primary aim of this review is to showcase the current and emerging diagnostic techniques that are used in lung cancer detection. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death among smokers and it has been emerging in non-smokers due to passive smoke inhalation by non-smokers. The mortality rate of patients with lung cancer is very high due to the change in lifestyle and environmental factors...
July 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Christopher D Jones, Weiguang Ho, Bernard F Robertson, Eilidh Gunn, Stephen Morley
INTRODUCTION: Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a superficial benign skin tumor that arises from hair follicle matrix cells. Although pilomatrixomas are well-recognized lesions, clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as other skin conditions. By reviewing all the literature over the past 10 years, the aims of this article are to analyze the cause, clinical presentation, management, and outcome of pilomatrixoma among children and adults to gain a more complete understanding of this lesion in today's clinical context...
September 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ken C L Wong, Tanveer Syeda-Mahmood, Mehdi Moradi
Deep learning has shown promising results in medical image analysis, however, the lack of very large annotated datasets confines its full potential. Although transfer learning with ImageNet pre-trained classification models can alleviate the problem, constrained image sizes and model complexities can lead to unnecessary increase in computational cost and decrease in performance. As many common morphological features are usually shared by different classification tasks of an organ, it is greatly beneficial if we can extract such features to improve classification with limited samples...
August 4, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Abhilash Samykutty, William E Grizzle, Benjamin L Fouts, Molly W McNally, Phillip Chuong, Alexandra Thomas, Akiko Chiba, Dennis Otali, Anna Woloszynska, Neveen Said, Peter J Frederick, Jacek Jasinski, Jie Liu, Lacey R McNally
At the intersection of the newly emerging fields of optoacoustic imaging and theranostic nanomedicine, promising clinical progress can be made in dismal prognosis of ovarian cancer. An acidic pH targeted wormhole mesoporous silica nanoparticle (V7-RUBY) was developed to serve as a novel tumor specific theranostic nanoparticle detectable using multispectral optoacoustic tomographic (MSOT) imaging. We report the synthesis of a small, < 40 nm, biocompatible asymmetric wormhole pore mesoporous silica core particle that has both large loading capacity and favorable release kinetics combined with tumor-specific targeting and gatekeeping...
August 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Yeela Ben Naftali, Ori Samuel Duek, Ram Kalus, Marc Berns, Yaniv Zohar, Yehuda Ullmann
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer, second in incidence only to basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The incidence of SCC increases significantly with age; thus, it is rarely diagnosed in young patients. In this paper, we present two cases of young patients who presented clinically with purulent lesions that were later diagnosed as large primary SCCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the medical records of two patients who were admitted to the department of plastic surgery with a final clinical diagnosis of cutaneous SCC was conducted...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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