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Tumor AND imaging

Ezgi Başak Erdoğan, Hacı Mehmet Türk, Ertuğrul Tekçe, Mehmet Aydın
A 43-year-old male patient presented with a mass lesion on the right liver lobe, segment 5, in radiological imaging and elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels (323 ng/mL) compatible with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images showed background level 18 F-FDG uptake in the mass lesion. In addition, a secondary focus of increased 18 F-FDG uptake was detected on the left liver lobe, segment 2, approximately 1,5 cm in diameter. Histopathological examination revealed HCC in the larger mass lesion with a lower 18 F-FDG uptake, and cholangiocellular carcinoma in the smaller mass lesion with a higher 18 F-FDG uptake...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Arzu Cengiz, Sibel Göksel, Yakup Yürekli
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). Methods: One hundred twenty one patients with a diagnosis of CUP who underwent whole body 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging were included in this retrospective study. The final diagnoses were confirmed either histopathologically or by clinical follow-up. Results: The 18 F-FDG-PET/CT successfully detected the primary tumor in 59 out of 121 (49%) patients...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Anastas Krassenov Demirev, Irena Dimitrova Kostadinova, Iliya Rumenov Gabrovski
Objectives: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) can be an adverse complication of radiotherapy (RT) and can limit the application of the already planned radiation dose. It is often associated with RT of lung carcinoma and is occasionally caused by radiation therapy of breast carcinoma and lymphomas located in the mediastinum. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) emerges lately as a prospective modality for early diagnostics of RP. The aim of this study was to summarize the initial data from diagnostic application of PET/CT in patients suspicious of RP and to derive criteria, which can help differentiate RP from early recurrence of the disease and/or residual tumor...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
A Liu, W Xu, H Xu, Y Wang, H L Zhao, J C Sha, Y M Gu
Objective: To explore the clinical value of 3D-DSA technology in the diagnosis and treatment guidance of hepatic artery chemoembolization. Methods: Liver cancer patients in the treatment groups were collected to receive 3D-DSA imaging guidance at the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University between March and May 2017. In addition, routine 2D-DSA imaging was selected for treatment-received group. Intra-operative blood vessels and tumor-like lesions were observed. The total exposure dose (CAK, unit mGy), cumulative irradiation intensity per unit area (DAP, unit mGy...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
S M Li, Z L Gao, X T Lyu, J Jia, P Zhu, Y Chen, Y L Liu, Z X Zhang
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of whole liver CT perfusion imaging in the quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic changes before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: Twenty-six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent TACE therapies were recruited. Whole -liver computed tomographic perfusion imaging (CTPI) was performed 2~3 days before TACE and 1 month after TACE. We measured the following perfusion parameters: hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP), portal venous perfusion (PVP), total liver perfusion (TLP), hepatic arterial perfusion index (HAPI), and time-to-peak (TTP)...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Simona Marzi, Silvia Minosse, Antonello Vidiri, Francesca Piludu, Marco Giannelli
PURPOSE: While previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential usefulness of quantitative non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the brain, more recent research has focused on oncological application of DKI in various body regions such as prostate, breast, and head and neck (HN). Given the need to minimize scan time during most routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of body regions, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with only three orthogonal diffusion weighting directions (x, y, z) is usually performed...
October 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Anna Astashchanka, Thomas M Shroka, Britta M Jacobsen
PURPOSE: Tumors that secrete large volumes of mucus are chemotherapy resistant, however, mechanisms underlying this resistance are unknown. One protein highly expressed in mucin secreting breast cancers is the secreted mucin, Mucin 2 (MUC2). While MUC2 is expressed in some breast cancers it is absent in normal breast tissue, implicating it in breast cancer. However, the effects of MUC2 on breast cancer are largely unknown. This study examined the role of MUC2 in modulating breast cancer proliferation, response to chemotherapy and metastasis...
October 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Shang-Ying Tsai, Ariel G Gildengers, Jung-Lung Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan Chung, Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and aging appear to be associated with inflammatory activation. Inflammatory processes might affect hippocampal function, neurogenesis, and gray matter loss. This study investigated the relationship between BD-specific brain regions and the total gray matter volume, peripheral inflammatory markers, and clinical features in older patients with BD. METHODS: We recruited euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder aged ≥50 years to undergo whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Pan Yuan, Zheng Ruan, Tuanwei Li, Youliang Tian, Quan Cheng, Lifeng Yan
Tumor environmental sensitive polypeptide integrated photosensitizers is a platform for imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the photosensitizer leakage during blood circulation, poor accumulation in tumor tissue and inferior quantum yield of singlet oxygen are still challenges. Herein, NHS-active boron-dipyrromethene derivative with bromine substituted NHS-BODIPY-Br2 was first synthesized, which possessed high singlet oxygen generation efficiency and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence, and then it was conjugated to a sharp pH (6...
October 11, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hideki Ujiie, Lili Ding, Rong Fan, Tatsuya Kato, Daiyoon Lee, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Chang Young Lee, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Brian C Wilson, Gang Zheng, Juan Chen, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We have developed ultra-small porphyrin-lipoprotein nanoparticles (<20nm) called "porphyrinHDL" that have a high density of porphyrin molecules and dissociate rapidly upon tumor cell accumulation to become fluorescent and photoactive. This is introduced as a novel activatable photosensitizer for image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we report the studies of these nanoparticles targeted to scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expressed on lung cancer cells, as a first step towards development of a minimally-invasive treatment for peripheral lung cancer and metastatic lymph nodes of advanced lung cancer...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Milena Čolović, Etienne Rousseau, Zhengxing Zhang, Joseph Lau, Chengcheng Zhang, Hsiou-Ting Kuo, Hua Yang, Paul Schaffer, François Bénard, Kuo-Shyan Lin
In this study, we synthesized 18 F-ASu-BF3 , a close boramino acid analog of 5-[18 F]fluoro-aminosuberic acid (18 F-ASu), via 18 F-19 F isotope exchange reaction and evaluated its potential for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). 18 F-ASu-BF3 was stable in mouse plasma and taken up into PC3 prostate cancer cells via the system xC - amino acid transporter. The continuous use of isoflurane for anesthesia during dynamic imaging acquisition slowed down the excretion of 18 F-ASu-BF3 and enabled visualization of PC3 tumor xenografts in mice...
June 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Nicholas C Cleveland, Don N Nguyen, Kanika Goel, Cassie D Tran, Jeffrey S Mueller
Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors that are derived from neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. The rare disease has a variable presentation depending upon its anatomic location and functionality. We describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient who had an incidental mass found on imaging. The patient underwent biochemical testing and a mediastinal biopsy due to the nonspecific imaging findings. The mediastinal mass was resected through hemisternotomy and found to be a functional paraganglioma. This case highlights the importance of radiologists to consider the prospect of paragangliomas in the differential diagnosis of an intra-thoracic mass...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Pedro Henrique Martins, Flávia Martins Costa, Flávia Paiva Proença Lobo Lopes, Clarissa Canella
Neoplastic musculoskeletal lesions are heterogeneous tumors with variable outcomes that require a precise diagnosis and delivery of optimal, specific treatment. Advanced MR imaging techniques can help differentiate and characterize musculoskeletal soft tissue tumors and are the method of choice for detection, evaluation, local staging, and surgical planning. MR imaging-ultrasound fusion is the process of combining relevant information from 2 methods into a single image that is more informative than the images obtained separately...
November 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Huasong Tang, Shivani Ahlawat, Laura M Fayad
Although radiography is a first-line test for the assessment of bone lesions, MR imaging is needed for defining the extent of a bone tumor. In addition, MR imaging provides features and metrics for the characterization of bone lesions as well as for the evaluation a tumor following treatment. There are several noncontrast and contrast-enhanced sequences available for clinical use that collectively provide valuable information for tumor evaluation, and include conventional T1-weighted imaging, fluid-sensitive sequences, chemical shift imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging with ADC mapping, as well as postcontrast sequences, including static postcontrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging...
November 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Flávia Martins Costa, Pedro Henrique Martins, Clarissa Canella, Flávia Paiva Proença Lobo Lopes
This article discusses the features of multiparametric MR imaging as an accurate method to evaluate soft tissue tumors and pseudotumors. The discussion also considers conventional and advanced sequences providing both functional tissue and anatomic information to improve the diagnostic accuracy of this method and assess pretreatment staging, treatment response focused on the extent of necrosis, and recurrence.
November 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Ricardo Donners, Matthew Blackledge, Nina Tunariu, Christina Messiou, Elmar M Merkle, Dow-Mu Koh
Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool for disease detection and staging mainly used in systemic bone disease. The large field-of-view functional imaging technique highlights cellular tumor and suppresses normal tissue signal, allowing quantification of an estimate of total disease burden, summarized as the total diffusion volume (tDV), as well as global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC) measurements. Both tDV and gADC have been shown to be repeatable quantitative parameters that indicate tumor heterogeneity and treatment effects, thus potential, noninvasive, imaging biomarkers informing on disease prognosis and therapy response...
November 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Muhammad Raisul Abedin, Siddesh Umapathi, Harika Mahendrakar, Tunyaboon Laemthong, Holly Coleman, Denise Muchangi, Santimukul Santra, Manashi Nath, Sutapa Barua
BACKGROUND: Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are essential components in the development of nanotechnologies. For applications in nanomedicine, particles need to be functionalized to ensure a good dispersibility in biological fluids. In many cases however, functionalization is not sufficient: the particles become either coated by a corona of serum proteins or precipitate out of the solvent. We show that by changing the coating of magnetic iron oxide NPs using poly-L-lysine (PLL) polymer the colloidal stability of the dispersion is improved in aqueous solutions including water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and cell culture medium, and the internalization of the NPs toward living mammalian cells is profoundly affected...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Kaleigh Lindholm, Cesar A Moran
Mediastinal neurogenic tumors are unusual and more so is the presence of melanotic neurogenic tumors. We present five cases of mediastinal melanotic neurogenic tumors. The patients are five men between the ages of 34 and 43 years (average: 38.5 years). All patients presented with non-specific symptoms that included back pain and cough. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of a posterior mediastinal mass without connection to the spinal canal, and surgical resection was accomplished in all of the patients...
October 3, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Putu Angga Risky Raharja, Agus Rizal A H Hamid, Chaidir A Mochtar, Rainy Umbas
White-light cystoscopy (WLC) is the diagnostic standard for the detection of bladder cancer (BC). However, the detection of small papillary and subtle flat carcinoma in situ lesions is not always possible with WLC. Several adjunctive optical imaging technologies have been developed to improve BC detection and resection. Photodynamic diagnosis, which requires the administering of a photoactive substance, has a higher detection rate than WLC for the detection of BC. Narrow-band imaging provides better visualization of tumors by contrast enhancement between normal mucosa and well-vascularized lesions...
October 10, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Youyong Kong, Jiasong Wu, Guanyu Yang, Yulin Zuo, Yang Chen, Huazhong Shu, Jean Louis Coatrieux
BACKGROUND: Although supervoxel segmentation methods have been employed for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) processing and analysis, due to the specific features of the brain, including complex-shaped internal structures and partial volume effect, their performance remains unsatisfactory. NEW METHODS: To address these issues, this paper presents a novel iterative spatial fuzzy clustering (ISFC) algorithm to generate 3D supervoxels for brain MRI volume based on prior knowledge...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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