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In situ resource utilization

N I Dzyubenko
N.I. Vavilov was among the first scientists who recognized the high potential value of plant genetic resources (PGR) for humankind. In addition to his fundamental work on the centers of crop origin, he emphasized the importance of collection and ex situ conservation of cultivated plants and their wild relatives, to make them available for breeding programs and for future generations. Vavilov's ideas formed a solid scientific basis for the long-term efforts on securing PGR in ex situ genebanks, both internationally and in Russia...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
David Karl, Franz Kamutzki, Andrea Zocca, Oliver Goerke, Jens Guenster, Aleksander Gurlo
Here we demonstrate that by applying exclusively Martian resources a processing route involving suspensions of mineral particles called slurries or slips can be established for manufacturing ceramics on Mars. We developed water-based slurries without the use of additives that had a 51 wt. % solid load resembling commercial porcelain slurries in respect to the particle size distribution and rheological properties. These slurries were used to slip cast discs, rings and vases that were sintered at temperatures between 1000 and 1130 °C using different sintering schedules, the latter were set-up according the results of hot-stage microscopic characterization...
2018: PloS One
Stefania Marzario, Giuseppina Logozzo, Jacques L David, Pierluigi Spagnoletti Zeuli, Tania Gioia
In South Italy durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) has a long-time tradition of growing and breeding. Accessions collected and now preserved ex situ are a valuable genetic resource, but their effective use in agriculture and breeding programs remains very low. In this study, a small number (44) of simple sequence repeats (SSR) molecular markers were used to detect pattern of diversity for 136 accessions collected in South Italy over time, to identify the genepool of origin, and establish similarities with 28 Italian varieties with known pedigree grown in Italy over the same time-period...
September 20, 2018: Genes
Hongwen Huang, Jingping Liao, Zheng Zhang, Qingqing Zhan
The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens...
December 2017: Plant Diversity
Qi Guo, Xiuyu Li, Shuhong Yang, Zhiheng Yang, Yuhan Sun, Jiangtao Zhang, Sen Cao, Li Dong, Saleem Uddin, Yun Li
Understanding the genetic diversity and differentiation of the genetic resources of a species is important for the effective use and protection of forest tree resources. Ex situ development is a common method for the protection of genetic diversity and an essential resource for users who require ready access to a species' germplasm. In this study, we collected seeds of black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) from 19 provenances, covering most of its natural distribution; we randomly selected 367 tender leaves with well-grown and different maternal strains from this group for further analysis...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ritu Gupta, Gurvinder Kaur, Lalit Kumar, Lata Rani, Nitin Mathur, Atul Sharma, Meetu Dahiya, Varun Shekhar, Sadaf Khan, Anjali Mookerjee, Om Dutt Sharma
The recently introduced Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for multiple myeloma (MM) integrates albumin, β2 microglobulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with high-risk cytogenetic aberrations (CA), i.e., t(4;14) and t(14;16) and del17p using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We evaluated utility of nucleic acid-based tests of multiplex ligation-based probe amplification (MLPA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to define the CA and the R-ISS categories as per this approach were evaluated for their ability to predict outcome in terms of response, progression-free (PFS), and overall survival (OS)...
July 28, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Shrikala Baliga, Christina Murphy, Leesha Sharon, Suchitra Shenoy, Dhanashree Biranthabail, Helena Weltman, Steve Miller, Ranjan Ramasamy, Jyotsna Shah
OBJECTIVE: In resource-limited tuberculosis-endemic countries, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum is mainly detected by acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining and the identification of sputum-derived cultures. PCR techniques are practical only in well-resourced laboratories. This study investigated the application of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to identify and differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in sputum...
October 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Christopher B Dreyer, Angel Abbud-Madrid, Jared Atkinson, Alexander Lampe, Tasha Markley, Hunter Williams, Kara McDonough, Travis Canney, Joseph Haines
Many surfaces found on the Moon, asteroids, Mars, moons, and other planetary bodies are covered in a fine granular material known as regolith. Increased knowledge of the physical properties of extraterrestrial regolith surfaces will help advance the scientific knowledge of these bodies as well as the development of exploration (e.g., instrument and robotic) and in situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems. The Center for Space Resources at the Colorado School of Mines as part of the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute has developed a novel system, called the ISRU Experimental Probe (IEP) that can support studies of dry and icy regolith from -196 to 150 °C and pressure from laboratory ambient pressure to 10-7 Torr...
June 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Maria Y González, Norman Philipp, Albert W Schulthess, Stephan Weise, Yusheng Zhao, Andreas Börner, Markus Oppermann, Andreas Graner, Jochen C Reif
Key message Historical data generated during seed regeneration are valuable to populate a bio-digital resource center for barley (Hordeum sp.). Precise estimates of trait performance of genetic resources are considered as an intellectually challenging, complex, costly and time-consuming step needed to exploit the phenotypic and genetic diversity maintained in genebanks for breeding and research. Using barley (Hordeum sp.) as a model, we examine strategies to tap into historical data available from regeneration trials...
September 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Nuttiiya Seekhao, Caroline Shung, Joseph JaJa, Luc Mongeau, Nicole Y K Li-Jessen
Fast and accurate computational biology models offer the prospect of accelerating the development of personalized medicine. A tool capable of estimating treatment success can help prevent unnecessary and costly treatments and potential harmful side effects. A novel high-performance Agent-Based Model (ABM) was adopted to simulate and visualize multi-scale complex biological processes arising in vocal fold inflammation and repair. The computational scheme was designed to organize the 3D ABM sub-tasks to fully utilize the resources available on current heterogeneous platforms consisting of multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ling Que, Xiu-Lian Chi, Chun-Xin Zang, Yu Zhang, Min Chen, Guang Yang, An-Qi Jin
Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mahmoud A Hussein, Reda M El-Shishtawy, Khalid A Alamry, Abdullah M Asiri, Saleh A Mohamed
Pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), contaminate water resources and are the main causes of diseases, not just waterborne diseases. The present study aims to fabricate hybrid materials composed of polyaniline (PANI), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and utilize the materials for water disinfection. Thus, a new class of hybrid nanocomposites (PANI/GN/CNTsa-e ) was fabricated under ultrasonic conditions following a well-known in situ oxidative polymerization technique in an aqueous acidic solution...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Technology
Bonny Parkinson, Kerry A Sherman, Paul Brown, Laura-Kate E Shaw, John Boyages, Linda D Cameron, Elisabeth Elder, Thomas Lam
OBJECTIVE: To report on the cost-effectiveness of BRECONDA (Breast RECONstruction Decision Aid), a web-based decision aid to facilitate decisions regarding breast reconstruction surgery, with usual care for women with breast cancer. METHODS: The economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial. Women diagnosed with breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ and eligible for breast reconstruction following mastectomy were randomized to access BRECONDA for 6 months + usual care (n = 106) or usual care (n = 116) and were assessed at baseline preintervention, and then 1-month and 6-months post-randomization...
June 2018: Psycho-oncology
Hao Yu, Mingyue Liu, Baojia Du, Zongming Wang, Liangjun Hu, Bai Zhang
Soil salinity and sodicity can significantly reduce the value and the productivity of affected lands, posing degradation, and threats to sustainable development of natural resources on earth. This research attempted to map soil salinity/sodicity via disentangling the relationships between Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery and in-situ measurements (EC, pH) over the west Jilin of China. We established the retrieval models for soil salinity and sodicity using Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR)...
March 31, 2018: Sensors
S K Seo, Z Gedrimaite, A Paskovaty, K Seier, S Morjaria, N Cohen, E Riedel, Y W Tang, N E Babady
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of rapidly identifying coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from positive blood cultures combined with an established antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programme at a tertiary cancer centre. METHODS: We compared cancer patients ≥18 years old who between 01/1/13 and 12/31/13 had one or more positive CoNS blood culture(s) identified by Staphylococcus QuickFISH® (a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assay) with cancer patients ≥18 years old who had CoNS identified by standard microbiological techniques between 01/01/11 and 12/31/11 (baseline)...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jia Wang, Mohit Bibra, Kasthuri Venkateswaran, David R Salem, Navanietha Krishnaraj Rathinam, Venkataraman Gadhamshetty, Rajesh K Sani
Human waste simulants were for the first time converted into biohydrogen by a newly developed anaerobic microbial consortium via thermophilic consolidated bioprocessing. Four different BioH2 -producing consortia (denoted as C1, C2, C3 and C4) were isolated, and developed using human waste simulants as substrate. The thermophilic consortium C3, which contained Thermoanaerobacterium, Caloribacterium, and Caldanaerobius species as the main constituents, showed the highest BioH2 production (3.999 mmol/g) from human waste simulants under optimized conditions (pH 7...
May 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sijie Li, Honghu Tang, Peng Ge, Feng Jiang, Jiahui Zhou, Chenyang Zhang, Hongshuai Hou, Wei Sun, Xiaobo Ji
Considering serious pollution from the traditional chemical synthesis process, the resource-rich, clean, and first-hand electrode materials are greatly desired. Natural ore molybdenite (MoS2 ), as the low-cost, high-yield, and environmental-friendly natural source, is investigated as a first-hand anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with chemosynthetic pure MoS2 , natural molybdenite provides an ordered ion diffusion channel more effectively owing to its excellent characteristics, containing well-crystalline, large lattice distance, and trance dopants...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michelle Davison, Frances B Kinnear, Paul Fulbrook
Aim: To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. Methods: A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems)...
October 2017: BMJ simulation & technology enhanced learning
Karin Nordström, Josefin Dahlbom, V S Pragadheesh, Suhrid Ghosh, Amadeus Olsson, Olga Dyakova, Shravanti Krishna Suresh, Shannon B Olsson
With more than 80% of flowering plant species specialized for animal pollination, understanding how wild pollinators utilize resources across environments can encourage efficient planting and maintenance strategies to maximize pollination and establish resilience in the face of environmental change. A fundamental question is how generalist pollinators recognize "flower objects" in vastly different ecologies and environments. On one hand, pollinators could employ a specific set of floral cues regardless of environment...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nuttiiya Seekhao, Joseph JaJa, Luc Mongeau, Nicole Y K Li-Jessen
A fast and insightful visualization is essential in modeling biological system behaviors and understanding underlying inter-cellular mechanisms. High fidelity models produce billions of data points per time step, making in situ visualization techniques extremely desirable as they mitigate I/O bottlenecks and provide computational steering capability. In this work, we present a novel high-performance scheme to couple in situ visualization with the simulation of the vocal fold inflammation and repair using little to no extra cost in execution time or computing resources...
July 2017: Supercomputing Frontiers and Innovations
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