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Space habitat

Ian G Brennan, J Scott Keogh
On deep time scales, changing climatic trends can have a predictable influence on macroevolution. From evidence of mass extinctions, we know that rapid climatic oscillations can indirectly open niche space and precipitate adaptive radiation, changing the course of ecological diversification. These dramatic shifts in the global climate, however, are rare events relative to extended periods of protracted climate change and biome turnover. It remains unclear whether during gradually changing periods, shifting habitats may instead promote non-adaptive speciation by facilitating allopatry and phenotypic conservatism...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Olga Ferlian, Simone Cesarz, Dylan Craven, Jes Hines, Kathryn E Barry, Helge Bruelheide, François Buscot, Sylvia Haider, Heike Heklau, Sylvie Herrmann, Paul Kühn, Ulrich Pruschitzki, Martin Schädler, Cameron Wagg, Alexandra Weigelt, Tesfaye Wubet, Nico Eisenhauer
The widely observed positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning is thought to be substantially driven by complementary resource use of plant species. Recent work suggests that biotic interactions among plants and between plants and soil organisms drive key aspects of resource use complementarity. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for integrating positive biotic interactions across guilds of organisms, more specifically between plants and mycorrhizal types, to explain resource use complementarity in plants and its consequences for plant competition...
May 30, 2018: Ecosphere
Stephen E Greiman, Joseph A Cook, Vasyl V Tkach, Eric P Hoberg, Damian M Menning, Andrew G Hope, Sarah A Sonsthagen, Sandra L Talbot
Natural history collections spanning multiple decades provide fundamental historical baselines to measure and understand changing biodiversity. New technologies such as next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) have considerably increased the potential of museum specimens to address significant questions regarding the impact of environmental changes on host and parasite/pathogen dynamics. We developed a new technique to identify intestinal helminth parasites and applied it to shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) because they are ubiquitous, occupy diverse habitats, and host a diverse and abundant parasite fauna...
October 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Liubomyr Krainer, Andrij Susulovsky, Reyes PeÑa-Santiago
One known (M. romanicus) and two new species of the genus Metaporcelaimus, collected in natural and semi-natural habitats of Ukraine, are described and illustrated. Metaporcelaimus concinnus sp. n. is characterized by its 3.09-4.58 mm long body, lip region 16.5-19.5 µm broad and visibly wider than the adjacent body, odontostyle 17-19 µm long, neck 745-865 µm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 62-66% of total neck length, uterus tripartite and 3.9-5.7 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva longitudinal (V = 49-53%), tail conical (44-54 µm, c = 67-94, c' = 1...
October 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Thi Anh Duong Nguyen, Reyes PeÑa-Santiago
Two new species of the genus Metaxonchium are described from natural habitats of Vietnam. Metaxonchium bonkowskii sp. n. is characterized by its 1.69-2.23 mm long body, lip region offset by weak constriction and 9.5-10.5 µm broad, odontostyle 11-13 µm long, neck 673-868 µm long with the pharyngeal expansion occupying 66-77% of its length, anterior genital branch reduced to a uterine sac 75-135 µm long or 4-7% of body length, posterior uterus tetrapartite and including a Z-like differentiation, V = 51-55, and female tail short and rounded (37-51 µm, c = 66-97, c' = 0...
April 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Jennifer N Ward, Joseph W Hinton, Kristina L Johannsen, Melissa L Karlin, Karl V Miller, Michael J Chamberlain
To ensure reproductive success, Canis species establish contiguous mosaics of territories in suitable habitats to partition space and defend limiting resources. Consequently, Canis species can exert strong effects on prey populations locally because of their year-round maintenance of territories. We assessed prey use by coyotes (Canis latrans) by sampling scats from within known territories in southeastern Alabama and the Savannah River area of Georgia and South Carolina. We accounted for the size and habitat composition of coyote home ranges to investigate the influence of space use, vegetation density, and habitat type on coyote diets...
2018: PloS One
Matthew K Pine, David E Hannay, Stephen J Insley, William D Halliday, Francis Juanes
Vessel slowdown may be an alternative mitigation option in regions where re-routing shipping corridors to avoid important marine mammal habitat is not possible. We investigated the potential relief in masking in marine mammals and fish from a 10 knot speed reduction of container and cruise ships. The mitigation effect from slower vessels was not equal between ambient sound conditions, species or vessel-type. Under quiet ambient conditions, a speed reduction from 25 to 15 knots resulted in smaller listening space reductions by 16-23%, 10-18%, 1-2%, 5-8% and 8% respectively for belugas, bowheads, bearded seals, ringed seals, and fish, depending on vessel-type...
October 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Andrey L D Augustynczik, Rasoul Yousefpour, Marc Hanewinkel
In Europe, intensive forest management has severely compromised the habitat of forest insects, especially saproxylic beetles, due to the removal of deadwood and veteran trees. The loss of insect diversity may disrupt ecosystem functioning and affect the provision of important ecosystem goods and services in the future. Here we propose a novel approach for the implementation of conservation policies, by optimally allocating forest reserves and deadwood islands under multiple sources of uncertainty and minimizing economic risk...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
María I Pozo, Jacek Bartlewicz, Annette van Oystaeyen, Alfredo Benavente, Gaby van Kemenade, Felix Wäckers, Hans Jacquemyn
Floral nectar represents an ephemeral habitat that is restricted in time and space to zoophilous flowering vegetation. To survive in these habitats, nectar-inhabiting microorganisms rely on animal vectors to disperse from one flower to the next. However, it remains unclear how nectar yeasts persist when flowers and nectar cease to be present. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hibernating bumblebee queens function as a reservoir for nectar yeasts in the absence of plants or pollinators during winter. Our results show that the nectar yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii, was present in the gastrointestinal tract of wild bumblebee queens that emerged from hibernation and that it could persist inside the gut of hibernating queens under experimental conditions...
October 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anne K Scharf, Jerrold L Belant, Dean E Beyer, Martin Wikelski, Kamran Safi
Background: Increases in landscape connectivity can improve a species' ability to cope with habitat fragmentation and degradation. Wildlife corridors increase landscape connectivity and it is therefore important to identify and maintain them. Currently, corridors are mostly identified using methods that rely on generic habitat suitability measures. One important and widely held assumption is that corridors represent swaths of suitable habitat connecting larger patches of suitable habitat in an otherwise unsuitable environment...
2018: Movement Ecology
Álvaro Laborda, Laura Montes de Oca, Fernando Pérez-Miles, Gonzalo Useta, Miguel Simó
Biological corridors are connections which link habitats in a regional scale, allowing the gene flow between populations. The Uruguay River comprises riverside and insular riparian forests along subtropical to temperate zones passing through different biogeographic provinces. The aim of this study was to characterise the spider fauna from the Uruguay River islands highlighting their connection role for the spider community of riparian forest. Spiders were studied from surveys in a fluvial island of the southern course of the river with nine campaigns being carried out from September 2007 to September 2009...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Silviya Korpilo, Joel Jalkanen, Tarmo Virtanen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Cities and urban green areas therein can be considered as complex social-ecological systems that provide various ecosystem services with different synergies and trade-offs among them. In this article, we show that multiple stakeholder perspectives and data sources should be used to capture key values for sustainable planning and management of urban green spaces. Using an urban forest in Helsinki, Finland as a case study, we incorporated data collected using public participation GIS, expert elicitation and forest inventories in order to investigate the guidance that the different types of data, and their integration, can provide for landscape planning...
2018: PloS One
J David Van Dyken, Bo Zhang
Carrying capacity, K, is a fundamental quantity in theoretical and applied ecology. When populations are distributed over space, carrying capacity becomes a complicated function of local, global and nearby environments, dispersal rate, and the relationship between population growth parameters, e.g., r and K. Expressions for the total carrying capacity, Ktotal , in an n-patch model that explicitly disentangle all of these factors are currently lacking. Therefore, here we derive Ktotal for a linear spatial array of n habitat patches with logistic growth and strong or weak random dispersal of individuals between adjacent patches...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Caitlin Black, Ben Collen, Daniel Lunn, Dick Filby, Stephanie Winnard, Tom Hart
Variation in the phenology of avian taxa has long been studied to understand how a species reacts to environmental changes over both space and time. Penguins ( Sphenicidae ) serve as an important example of how biotic and abiotic factors influence certain stages of seabird phenology because of their large ranges and the extreme, dynamic conditions present in their Southern Ocean habitats. Here, we examined the phenology of gentoo ( Pygoscelis papua ) and chinstrap penguins ( Pygoscelis antarctica ) at 17 sites across the Scotia arc, including the first documented monitoring of phenology on the South Sandwich Islands, to determine which breeding phases are intrinsic, or rather vary across a species range and between years...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Erin E Wilson Rankin, Jessie L Knowlton, Daniel S Gruner, David J Flaspohler, Christian P Giardina, Devin R Leopold, Anna Buckardt, William C Pitt, Tadashi Fukami
Worldwide, native species increasingly contend with the interacting stressors of habitat fragmentation and invasive species, yet their combined effects have rarely been examined. Direct negative effects of invasive omnivores are well documented, but the indirect effects of resource competition or those caused by predator avoidance are unknown. Here we isolated and examined the independent and interactive effects of invasive omnivorous Black rats (Rattus rattus) and forest fragment size on the interactions between avian predators and their arthropod prey...
2018: PloS One
Jillian Romsdahl, Adriana Blachowicz, Abby J Chiang, Nitin Singh, Jason E Stajich, Markus Kalkum, Kasthuri Venkateswaran, Clay C C Wang
The initial characterization of the Aspergillus niger isolate JSC-093350089, collected from U.S. segment surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS), is reported, along with a comparison to the extensively studied strain ATCC 1015. Whole-genome sequencing of the ISS isolate enabled its phylogenetic placement within the A. niger/ welwitschiae / lacticoffeatus clade and revealed that the genome of JSC-093350089 is within the observed genetic variance of other sequenced A. niger strains. The ISS isolate exhibited an increased rate of growth and pigment distribution compared to a terrestrial strain...
September 2018: MSystems
Kexin Ren, Yuanyuan Xue, Regin Rønn, Lemian Liu, Huihuang Chen, Christopher Rensing, Jun Yang
Free-living amoebae are widespread in freshwater ecosystems. Although many studies have investigated changes in their communities across space, the temporal variability and the drivers of community changes across different habitat types are poorly understood. A total of 108 surface water samples were collected on a seasonal basis from four reservoirs and two rivers in Xiamen city, subtropical China. We used high throughput sequencing and qPCR methods to explore the occurrence and abundance of free-living amoebae...
September 5, 2018: Water Research
Michelle L Gaynor, D Blaine Marchant, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Autopolyploidy, or whole-genome duplication within a species, leads to closely related cytotypes in one geographic location. One hypothesized mechanism by which autopolyploids become established is climatic niche divergence from their diploid progenitor. Here we tested this hypothesis in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae) and predicted the effects of climate change on the relative distributions of these cytotypes. METHODS: We investigated whether climatic niche divergence has shaped the current distributions of Galax urceolata cytotypes in eastern North America using climatic niche modeling, multivariate analyses of environmental space, and geographic range analyses...
September 21, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Jonas Eberle, Dimitar Dimitrov, Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón, Bernhard A Huber
BACKGROUND: Microhabitat changes are thought to be among the main drivers of diversification. However, this conclusion is mostly based on studies on vertebrates. Here, we investigate the influence of microhabitat on diversification rates in pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae). Diversification analyses were conducted in the framework of the largest molecular phylogeny of pholcid spiders to date based on three nuclear and three mitochondrial loci from 600 species representing more than 85% of the currently described pholcid genera...
September 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Inês Silva, Matthew Crane, Pongthep Suwanwaree, Colin Strine, Matt Goode
Home range estimators are a critical component for understanding animal spatial ecology. The choice of home range estimator in spatial ecology studies can significantly influence management and conservation actions, as different methods lead to vastly different interpretations of movement patterns, habitat selection, as well as home range requirements. Reptile studies in particular have struggled to reach a consensus on the appropriate home range estimators to use, and species with cryptic behavior make home range assessment difficult...
2018: PloS One
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