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Space habitat

Tim Newbold, Lawrence N Hudson, Sara Contu, Samantha L L Hill, Jan Beck, Yunhui Liu, Carsten Meyer, Helen R P Phillips, Jörn P W Scharlemann, Andy Purvis
Human use of the land (for agriculture and settlements) has a substantial negative effect on biodiversity globally. However, not all species are adversely affected by land use, and indeed, some benefit from the creation of novel habitat. Geographically rare species may be more negatively affected by land use than widespread species, but data limitations have so far prevented global multi-clade assessments of land-use effects on narrow-ranged and widespread species. We analyse a large, global database to show consistent differences in assemblage composition...
December 2018: PLoS Biology
Silvia Zaoli, Andrea Giometto, Jonathan Giezendanner, Amos Maritan, Andrea Rinaldo
The Species-Area Relation (SAR), which describes the increase in the number of species S with increasing area A, is under intense scrutiny in contemporary ecology, in particular to probe its reliability in predicting the number of species going extinct as a direct result of habitat loss. Here, we focus on the island SAR, which is measured across a set of disjoint habitat patches, and we argue that the SAR portrays an average trend around which fluctuations are to be expected due to the stochasticity of community dynamics within the patches, external perturbations, and habitat heterogeneity across different patches...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
A Rosso, L Beuck, A Vertino, R Sanfilippo, A Freiwald
Four cribrilinid bryozoans associated with deep-water corals (578-682 m depth) from the Great Bahama Bank slope, are described, two of them are new. The generic allocation of some species prompted us to raise the subgenera Puellina, Cribrilaria, and Glabrilaria to genus rank. The new combination Cribrilaria saginata (Winston, 2005) n. comb. is proposed. Genus Glabrilaria is reported from the NW Atlantic for the first time based on the description of Glabrilaria hirsuta Rosso n. sp. and Glabrilaria polita Rosso n...
November 23, 2018: Zootaxa
M A Mickens, E J Skoog, L E Reese, P L Barnwell, L E Spencer, G D Massa, R M Wheeler
To optimize crop production/quality in space, we studied various "light recipes" that could be used in the Advanced Plant Habitat currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. 'Outredgeous') plants were grown for 28 days under seven treatments of white (W) LEDs (control), red (635 nm) and blue (460 nm) (RB) LEDs, W + blue (B) LEDs, W + green (520 nm) (G) LEDs, W + red (R) LEDs, W + far red (745 nm) (FR) LEDs, and RGB + FR LEDs with ratios similar to natural sunlight...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Jillian D Wettlaufer, Kevin W Burke, Adam Schizkoske, David V Beresford, Paul R Martin
Closely related species with overlapping geographic ranges encounter a significant challenge: they share many ecological traits and preferences but must partition resources to coexist. In Ontario, potentially eleven species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) live together and require vertebrate carrion for reproduction. Their reliance on an ephemeral and uncommon resource that is unpredictable in space and time is thought to create intense intra- and interspecific competition. Evidence suggests that burying beetle species reduce competition by partitioning carrion for breeding across different habitats, temperatures, and seasons...
2018: PeerJ
Saranjeet Kaur
BACKGROUND: The orchids are one of the beautiful creations of nature which stand apart from any other assemblage of flowering plants. They are highly evolutionary and ecologically significant group of plants that have effectively occupied almost every habitat on the earth. Indiscriminate collections and extermination of their natural habitats have threatened many species of orchids with extinction, resulting into severe reduction of their genetic resources in nature. It is necessary to adopt sound scientific protocols for preservation of orchid species...
November 27, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Arjun Thapa, Ruidong Wu, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Paras B Singh, Janak R Khatiwada, Li Yan, Xiaodong Gu, Fuwen Wei
An upsurge in anthropogenic impacts has hastened the decline of the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ). The red panda is a global conservation icon, but holistic conservation management has been hampered by research being restricted to certain locations and population clusters. Building a comprehensive potential habitat map for the red panda is imperative to advance the conservation effort and ensure coordinated management across international boundaries. Here, we use occurrence records of both subspecies of red pandas from across their entire range to build a habitat model using the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt 3...
November 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Petra Frýdlová, Kristýna Sedláčková, Barbora Žampachová, Anikó Kurali, Jan Hýbl, David Škoda, Patrik Kutílek, Eva Landová, Rudolf Černý, Daniel Frynta
Head and eye compensatory movements known as vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-cervical reflexes are essential to stay orientated in space while moving. We have used a previously developed methodology focused on the detailed mathematical description of head compensatory movements in frogs without the need for any surgical procedures on the examined specimens. Our comparative study comprising 35 species of frogs from different phylogenetic background revealed species specific head compensatory abilities ensuring gaze stabilization...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
FangYan Liu, ChengJie Gao, Min Chen, Kun Li
The above and below-ground biomass (AGB and BGB) relationship is often used to assess the impact of biotic and abiotic effects on the growth and development of individual plants. The AGB and BGB relationship of the same tree species in different habitats can change significantly because of environmental stress. To investigate how the tree size, the biomass allocation and BGB/AGB ratio of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit varied according to spacing and mixed plant patterns in a valley-type savanna of southwest China, we examined the growth of L...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoquan Su, Gongchao Jing, Daniel McDonald, Honglei Wang, Zengbin Wang, Antonio Gonzalez, Zheng Sun, Shi Huang, Jose Navas, Rob Knight, Jian Xu
With the expansion of microbiome sequencing globally, a key challenge is to relate new microbiome samples to the existing space of microbiome samples. Here, we present Microbiome Search Engine (MSE), which enables the rapid search of query microbiome samples against a large, well-curated reference microbiome database organized by taxonomic similarity at the whole-microbiome level. Tracking the microbiome novelty score (MNS) over 8 years of microbiome depositions based on searching in more than 100,000 global 16S rRNA gene amplicon samples, we detected that the structural novelty of human microbiomes is approaching saturation and likely bounded, whereas that in environmental habitats remains 5 times higher...
November 13, 2018: MBio
Juliette Chausson, Maya Srinivasan, Geoffrey P Jones
The size and structure of social groups of animals can be governed by a range of ecological factors and behavioral interactions. In small, highly site-attached coral reef fishes, group size is often constrained by the size of the habitat patch they are restricted to. However, group size may also be influenced by changes in abundance along important environmental gradients, such as depth or distance offshore. In addition, the body size and sex structure within social groups can be determined by the size of the habitat patch and the dominance relationships among group members...
2018: PeerJ
Vivian Y Y Lam, Milani Chaloupka, Angus Thompson, Christopher Doropoulos, Peter J Mumby
Understanding the dynamics of habitat-forming organisms is fundamental to managing natural ecosystems. Most studies of coral reef dynamics have focused on clear-water systems though corals inhabit many turbid regions. Here, we illustrate the key drivers of an inshore coral reef ecosystem using 10 years of biological, environmental, and disturbance data. Tropical cyclones, crown-of-thorns starfish, and coral bleaching are recognized as the major drivers of coral loss at mid- and offshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef (GBR)...
November 7, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Chancey MacDonald, Geoffrey P Jones, Tom Bridge
Escalating climate-related disturbances and asymmetric habitat losses will increasingly result in species living in more marginal habitats. Marginal habitats may represent important refuges if individuals can acquire adequate resources to survive and reproduce. However, resources at range margins are often distributed more sparsely; therefore, increased effort to acquire resources can result in suboptimal performance and lead to marginal populations becoming non-self-sustaining sink-populations. Shifting resource availability is likely to be particularly problematic for dietary specialists...
November 7, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jan Divíšek, Milan Chytrý, Brian Beckage, Nicholas J Gotelli, Zdeňka Lososová, Petr Pyšek, David M Richardson, Jane Molofsky
The search for traits associated with plant invasiveness has yielded contradictory results, in part because most previous studies have failed to recognize that different traits are important at different stages along the introduction-naturalization-invasion continuum. Here we show that across six different habitat types in temperate Central Europe, naturalized non-invasive species are functionally similar to native species occurring in the same habitat type, but invasive species are different as they occupy the edge of the plant functional trait space represented in each habitat...
November 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Sarah-Jo Paquette, Rahat Zaheer, Kim Stanford, James Thomas, Tim Reuter
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subgroup of E. coli causing human diseases. Methods to control STEC in livestock and humans are limited. These and other emerging pathogens are a global concern and novel mitigation strategies are required. Habitats populated by bacteria are subjected to competition pressures due to limited space and resources but they use various strategies to compete in natural environments. Our objective was to evaluate non-pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from cattle feces for their ability to out-compete STEC...
November 2, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Beth Gardner, Rahel Sollmann, N Samba Kumar, Devcharan Jathanna, K Ullas Karanth
With continued global changes, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and habitat fragmentation, the need for assessment of long-term population dynamics and population monitoring of threatened species is growing. One powerful way to estimate population size and dynamics is through capture-recapture methods. Spatial capture (SCR) models for open populations make efficient use of capture-recapture data, while being robust to design changes. Relatively few studies have implemented open SCR models, and to date, very few have explored potential issues in defining these models...
October 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jade Vacquié-Garcia, Christian Lydersen, Rolf A Ims, Kit M Kovacs
Background: The Arctic is experiencing rapid reductions in sea ice and in some areas tidal glaciers are melting and retracting onto land. These changes are occurring at extremely rapid rates in the Northeast Atlantic Arctic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of these environmental changes on space use by white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) in Svalbard, Norway. Using a unique biotelemetry data set involving 34 animals, spanning two decades, habitat use and movement patterns were compared before (1995-2001) and after (2013-2016) a dramatic change in the regional sea ice regime that began in 2006...
2018: Movement Ecology
Tadhg Carroll, Phillipa K Gillingham, Richard Stafford, James M Bullock, Anita Diaz
Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs) are a widely used metric in plant ecology comprising a semi-quantitative description of species' ecological requirements. Typically, point estimates of mean EIV scores are compared over space or time to infer differences in the environmental conditions structuring plant communities-particularly in resurvey studies where no historical environmental data are available. However, the use of point estimates as a basis for inference does not take into account variance among species EIVs within sampled plots and gives equal weighting to means calculated from plots with differing numbers of species...
October 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Aline B M Vaz, Paula L C Fonseca, Fernanda Badotti, Demetra Skaltsas, Luiz M R Tomé, Allefi C Silva, Mayara C Cunha, Marco A Soares, Vera L Santos, Guilherme Oliveira, Priscilla Chaverri, Aristóteles Góes-Neto
Hevea brasiliensis is a native hyperdiverse tree species in the Amazon basin with great economic importance since it produces the highest quality natural rubber. H. brasiliensis, in its natural habitat, may harbor fungal endophytes that help defend against phytopathogenic fungi. In this work, we investigated the fungal endophytic communities in two pristine areas in Eastern Amazon (Anavilhanas National Park - ANP and Caxiuanã National Forest - CNF) at different spatial scales: regional, local, individual (tree), and intra-individual (leaflet)...
November 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Max C N Castorani, Daniel C Reed, Robert J Miller
Disturbances often cause the disproportionate loss of foundation species but understanding how the frequency and severity of disturbance to such organisms influence biological communities remains unresolved. This gap in knowledge exists in part because of the rarity of ecologically meaningful studies capable of disentangling different elements of disturbance. Hence, we carried out a long-term (9 yr), large-scale (2,000 m2 plots), spatially replicated (4 sites) field experiment in which we manipulated disturbance to a globally distributed marine foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and tracked community responses over time...
November 2018: Ecology
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