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Space habitat

Shasank Ongole, Mahesh Sankaran, Krithi K Karanth
Shade coffee has shown great promise in providing crucial habitats for biodiversity outside formal protected areas. Insectivorous bats have been understudied in coffee, although they may provide pest control services. We investigated the influence of local and landscape-level features of coffee farms on aerial insectivorous bats in Chikmagalur district in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. Bats were monitored in 20 farm sites using ultrasound detectors, and the response of bat species richness and activity to changes in tree density, proportion of built-up area in the neighborhood, and distance of farm from forest areas quantified...
2018: PloS One
Jasmijn Hillaert, Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Thomas Hovestadt, Dries Bonte
An individual's body size is central to its behaviour and physiology, and tightly linked to its movement ability. The spatial arrangement of resources and a consumer's capacity to locate them are therefore expected to exert strong selection on consumer body size. We investigated the evolutionary impact of both the fragmentation and loss of habitat on consumer body size and its feedback effects on resource distribution, under varying levels of information used during habitat choice. We developed a mechanistic, individual-based, spatially explicit model, including several allometric rules for key consumer traits...
August 15, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
David B Saakian
We consider the model of asexual evolution with migration, which was proposed by Waclaw et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 268101 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.268101]. This model setting is based on the standard mutation scheme from the quasispecies theory but with replicators moving from one habitat to another. The primary goal is to solve exactly the infinite population-genome length version of the model for the independent random distribution of fitnesses considered in the original paper. Moreover, we propose the analytical solution for the single peak and the symmetric fitness landscape...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
Mark A Ditmer, Ron A Moen, Steve K Windels, James D Forester, Thomas E Ness, Tara R Harris
Populations inhabiting the bioclimatic edges of a species' geographic range face an increasing amount of stress from alterations to their environment associated with climate change. Moose Alces alces are large-bodied ungulates that are sensitive to heat stress and have exhibited population declines and range contractions along their southern geographic extent. Using a hidden Markov model to analyze movement and accelerometer data, we assigned behaviors (rest, forage, or travel) to all locations of global positioning system-collared moose ( n =  13, moose-years = 19) living near the southern edge of the species' range in and around Voyageurs National Park, MN, USA...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Rafe A McBeth, Thomas B Borak
Measurements of the incident fluence of HZE particles, as a function of LET, are used to determine absorbed dose as well as Quality Factors for assigning risk estimates to astronauts during manned space missions. These data are often based on thin solid state detectors that measure energy deposition, dE, and the assumption that the trajectory of the particle, dx, is equivalent to the thickness of the detector. Heavy ions often fragment while penetrating shielding materials in vehicles or habitats. Projectile fragments can be clustered spatially and temporally at the location of the thin detector which are then misclassified as a single particle...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
G Baiocco, M Giraudo, L Bocchini, S Barbieri, I Locantore, E Brussolo, D Giacosa, L Meucci, S Steffenino, A Ballario, B Barresi, R Barresi, M Benassai, L Ravagnolo, L Narici, A Rizzo, E Carrubba, F Carubia, G Neri, M Crisconio, S Piccirillo, G Valentini, S Barbero, M Giacci, C Lobascio, A Ottolenghi
As manned spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit are in the agenda of Space Agencies, the concerns related to space radiation exposure of the crew are still without conclusive solutions. The risk of long-term detrimental health effects needs to be kept below acceptable limits, and emergency countermeasures must be planned to avoid the short-term consequences of exposure to high particle fluxes during hardly predictable solar events. Space habitat shielding cannot be the ultimate solution: the increasing complexity of future missions will require astronauts to protect themselves in low-shielded areas, e...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Marine Levé, Emmanuelle Baudry, Carmen Bessa-Gomes
Urban expansion is correlated to negative biodiversity trends. The amount of impervious surfaces in urban areas is a determinant of pollinator species assemblages. While the increase in urbanization and impervious surfaces negatively impacts pollinators, cities also encompass urban green spaces, which have a significant capacity to support biodiversity. Among them, domestic gardens that represent a non-negligible fraction of green spaces have been shown to benefit pollinators. Domestic gardens may form habitat clusters in residential areas, although their value at a landscape scale is still unknown...
July 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ke Li, Cory O Brant, Mar Huertas, Edward J Hessler, Gellert Mezei, Anne M Scott, Thomas R Hoye, Weiming Li
Olfactory cues provide critical information for spatial orientation of fish, especially in the context of anadromous migrations. Born in freshwater, juveniles of anadromous fish descend to the ocean where they grow into adults before migrating back into freshwater to spawn. The reproductive migrants, therefore, are under selective pressures to locate streams optimal for offspring survival. Many anadromous fish use olfactory cues to orient toward suitable streams. However, no behaviorally active compounds have been identified as migratory cues...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adrián Regos, Louis Imbeau, Mélanie Desrochers, Alain Leduc, Michel Robert, Benoît Jobin, Lluís Brotons, Pierre Drapeau
Habitat loss and degradation induced by human development are among the major threats to biodiversity worldwide. In this study, we tested our ability to predict the response of bird communities (128 species) to land-use changes in southern Québec (c. 483,100 km2 ) over the last 30 years (between '1984-89' and '2010-2014') by using species distribution models (299 302 occurrences in 30 408 locations) from a hindcasting perspective. Results were grouped by functional guilds to infer potential impacts on ecosystem services, and to relate model transferability (i...
July 28, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Peter Maenhout, Jan Van den Bulcke, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Veerle Cnudde, Stefaan De Neve, Steven Sleutel
Mineral nitrogen (N) availability to heterotrophic micro-organisms is known to impact organic matter (OM) decomposition. Different pathways determining the N accessibility depend to a large extent on soil structure. Contact between soil mineral and OM substrate particles can facilitate N transport toward decomposition hot spots. However, the impact of soil structure on N availability to microbes and thus heterotrophic microbial activity and community structure is not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that carbon mineralization (Cmin) from low-N substrate would be stimulated by increased N availability caused by closer contact with soil particles or by a higher moisture level, enhancing potential for N-diffusion...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kelsey E Paolini, Bronson K Strickland, Jessica L Tegt, Kurt C VerCauteren, Garrett M Street
BACKGROUND: The spatiotemporal distribution of resources is a critical component of realized animal distributions. In agricultural landscapes, space use by generalist consumers is influenced by ephemeral resource availability that may produce behavioral differences across agricultural seasons, resulting in economic and production consequences and increased human-wildlife conflict. Our objective was to assess changes in habitat selection across seasons in an invasive generalist omnivore (feral pigs, Sus scrofa)...
2018: PloS One
Kylie Soanes, Michael Sievers, Yung En Chee, Nicholas S G Williams, Manisha Bhardwaj, Adrian J Marshall, Kirsten M Parris
Despite repeated calls to action, proposals for urban conservation are often met with surprise or scepticism. It seems there remains a pervasive narrative in policy, practice and the public psyche that urban environments, while useful for engaging people with nature or providing ecosystem services, are of little conservation value. We argue that the tendency to overlook the conservation value of urban environments stems from misconceptions about the ability of native species to persist within cities and towns, and that this, in turn, hinders effective conservation action...
July 18, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Roberto Sáyago, Mauricio Quesada, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth, Martha Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Silvana Martén-Rodríguez
Fragmentation of natural habitats generally has negative effects on the reproductive success of many plant species; however, little is known about epiphytic plants. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation on plant-pollinator interactions and female reproductive success in two epiphytic Tillandsia species with contrasting life history strategies (polycarpic and monocarpic) in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, over three consecutive years. Hummingbirds were the major pollinators of both species and pollinator visitation rates were similar between habitat conditions...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Maria Paola Maurelli, Paola Pepe, Liliana Colombo, Rob Armstrong, Elena Battisti, Maria Elena Morgoglione, Dimitris Counturis, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Ezio Ferroglio, Stefania Zanet
BACKGROUND: The geographical distribution of ticks on companion animals needs to be monitored to develop and plan effective control measures, as suggested by the European Scientific Counsel on Companion Animal Parasites. The aim of this study was to conduct the first Italian national survey of tick distribution on privately owned dogs. METHODS: The study was performed over 20 months (February 2016 - September 2017) and involved 153 veterinary practices in 64 different provinces covering 17/20 (85%) Italian regions...
July 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jennifer R B Miller, Ross T Pitman, Gareth K H Mann, Angela K Fuller, Guy A Balme
1.Although interspecific competition plays a principle role in shaping species behaviour and demography, little is known about the population-level outcomes of competition between large carnivores, and the mechanisms that facilitate coexistence. 2.We conducted a multi-landscape analysis of two widely distributed, threatened large carnivore competitors to offer insight into coexistence strategies and assist with species-level conservation. 3.We evaluated how interference competition affects occupancy, temporal activity and population density of a dominant competitor, the lion (Panthera leo), and its subordinate competitor, the leopard (Panthera pardus)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Alfonso Garmendia, Hugo Merle, Pablo Ruiz, Maria Ferriol
Although polyploidy is considered a ubiquitous process in plants, the establishment of new polyploid species may be hindered by ecological competition with parental diploid taxa. In such cases, the adaptive processes that result in the ecological divergence of diploids and polyploids can lead to their co-existence. In contrast, non-adaptive processes can lead to the co-existence of diploids and polyploids or to differentiated distributions, particularly when the minority cytotype disadvantage effect comes into play...
2018: PeerJ
Briardo Llorente, Thomas C Williams, Hugh D Goold
The interest in human space journeys to distant planets and moons has been re-ignited in recent times and there are ongoing plans for sending the first manned missions to Mars in the near future. In addition to generating oxygen, fixing carbon, and recycling waste and water, plants could play a critical role in producing food and biomass feedstock for the microbial manufacture of materials, chemicals, and medicines in long-term interplanetary outposts. However, because life on Earth evolved under the conditions of the terrestrial biosphere, plants will not perform optimally in different planetary habitats...
July 10, 2018: Genes
Mark E Grismer
Creating or recruiting new riparian forests to improve Lower Putah Creek (LPC) ecosystem functions is challenging under the modified stream flow regime developed after historic gravel mining and installation of Monticello Dam upstream. Hydrologic connectivity between riparian trees, shallow groundwater, and the low flow channel is essential towards maintaining these forests and related habitats through the annual summer and multi-year drought periods typical in this Sacramento Valley region of California. Despite increased average summer flows, significant mature cottonwood and willow tree mortality along the LPC riparian areas below the Putah Creek diversion dam in 2014 raised concerns over the soil and hydrologic factors affecting riparian vegetation survival...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Didier Pont, Mathieu Rocle, Alice Valentini, Raphaël Civade, Pauline Jean, Anthony Maire, Nicolas Roset, Michael Schabuss, Horst Zornig, Tony Dejean
Despite the ecological and societal importance of large rivers, fish sampling remains costly and limited to specific habitats (e.g., river banks). Using an eDNA metabarcoding approach, we regularly sampled 500 km of a large river (Rhône River). Comparisons with long-term electrofishing surveys demonstrated the ability of eDNA metabarcoding to qualitatively and quantitatively reveal fish assemblage structures (relative species abundance) but eDNA integrated a larger space than the classical sampling location...
July 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scott Bennett, Andrew R Halford, J Howard Choat, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Julia Santana-Garcon, Anthony M Ayling, Euan S Harvey, Stephen J Newman
We quantify the relative importance of multi-scale drivers of reef fish assemblage structure on isolated coral reefs at the intersection of the Indian and Indo-Pacific biogeographical provinces. Large (>30 cm), functionally-important and commonly targeted species of fish, were surveyed on the outer reef crest/front at 38 coral reef sites spread across three oceanic coral reef systems (i.e. Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the Rowley Shoals), in the tropical Indian Ocean ( c . 1.126 x 106 km2 )...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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