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Evidenced based

Diptiman Chanda, Eva Otoupalova, Kenneth P Hough, Morgan L Locy, Karen Bernard, Jessy S Deshane, Ralph D Sanderson, James A Mobley, Victor J Thannickal
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are endosome and plasma membrane-derived nanosized vesicles that participate in intercellular signaling. Although EV cargo may signal via multiple mechanisms, how signaling components on the surface of EVs mediate cellular signaling is less well understood. In this study, we show that fibroblast-derived EVs carry fibronectin on the vesicular surface, as evidenced by mass spectrometry-based proteomics (sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical peptides; SWATH) and flow cytometric analyses...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Giuseppe Amato, Giorgio Romano, Roberto Puleio, Antonino Agrusa, Thorsten Goetze, Eliana Gulotta, Luca Gordini, Enrico Erdas, Piergiorgio Calò
Despite undisputed improvements, prosthetics hernia repair continues to be affected by unacceptable rates of complications. Postoperative adverse events such as discomfort and chronic pain represent a subject of increasing concern among the surgical community. Poor quality biologic response, stiff scar plates, and mesh shrinkage, a typical effect of conventional static meshes and plugs, are all indicated as the main reasons for many of the complications related to inguinal hernia repair. Even the conventional concept of treatment based upon a supposed reinforcement of the groin consequent to the fibrotic incorporation of meshes, would appear to be inadequate in the light of the latest scientific evidence concerning the degenerative genesis of inguinal hernia...
October 14, 2018: Artificial Organs
J Caballero-Villalobos, A Figueroa, K Xibrraku, E Angón, J M Perea, A Garzón
In Spain, ewe milk is mainly used for cheesemaking, and farming systems have traditionally been based on the use of autochthonous breeds. However, in recent years, the progressive introduction of highly productive foreign breeds in Spanish farms has led to an increasing interest in the characterization of dairy sheep breeds to evaluate whether genetic selection schemes should focus on productivity or milk technological aptitude. The purpose of this work was to explore milk composition and coagulation to classify 4 of the main dairy sheep breeds used in Spain...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Cristina P Garcia, Lauren T Catalano, Kristen R Dwyer, Julie M McCarthy, Melanie E Bennett, Jack J Blanchard
Social affiliation, or engagement in positive social interactions, is often profoundly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Valid measures of social affiliation are needed to understand these impairments and their symptom and functional correlates; however, such measures are limited and have not been validated. This pilot study evaluated one such measure-the video-based Social Affiliation Interaction Task (SAIT)-and a novel in vivo behavioral measure, the Affiliative Conversation Task (ACT). Twenty participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 35 nonpsychiatric controls (CT) completed both tasks and measures of negative symptoms and functioning...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Yizeng Zhang, Junning Gao, Zhiwu Chen
Graphitic carbon nitride with nitrogen defects (g-C3 N4-x ) is prepared by a facile and effective solid-state chemical reduction technique at mild temperature conditions. The cyano groups and nitrogen vacancies, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and Solid-state 13 C MAS NMR spectra, are controllable via adjusting chemical reduction temperature. Comparing to the pristine g-C3 N4 , the as-prepared g-C3 N4-x shows much enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity under visible-light irradiation...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Fernando A Angarita, Benjamin Price, Matthew Castelo, Mauricio Tawil, Juan Carlos Ayala, Lilian Torregrossa
PURPOSE: Clinical breast examination (CBE) is an important step in the assessment of patients with breast-related complaints. We developed a standardized simulation and multimedia-based (SSMBI) curriculum using current evidenced-based recommendations. This study aimed to determine if SSMBI training resulted in better performance (examination scores and detection of abnormal findings) than the traditional teaching method. METHODS: Novice fourth-year medical students were exposed to the SSMBI curriculum (n = 68) or traditional (n = 52) training...
October 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Yanyan Liao, Weiyi Wang, Xiaomei Huang, Yongyan Sun, Shen Tian, Peng Cai
Graphene and its derivatives have exhibited wide potential applications in electronics, structural engineering and medicine. However, over utilization and untreated discharge may cause its distribution into environmental as well as biological chain, which raised the concerns of potential health risk as a potential hazard. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that graphene derivatives induce lung fibrosis in vivo, so overall goal of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the pulmonary fibrotic responses of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), using in vitro assays...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thiagarayaselvam Aarthy, Fayaj A Mulani, Avinash Pandreka, Ashish Kumar, Sharvani S Nandikol, Saikat Haldar, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram
BACKGROUND: Neem tree serves as a cornucopia for triterpenoids called limonoids that are of profound interest to humans due to their diverse biological activities. However, the biosynthetic pathway that plant employs for the production of limonoids remains unexplored for this wonder tree. RESULTS: Herein, we report the tracing of limonoid biosynthetic pathway through feeding experiments using 13 C isotopologues of glucose in neem cell suspension. Growth and development specific limonoid spectrum of neem seedling and time dependent limonoid biosynthetic characteristics of cell lines were established...
October 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jakob Grauslund, Nis Andersen, Jens Andresen, Per Flesner, Per Haamann, Steffen Heegaard, Michael Larsen, Caroline Schmidt Laugesen, Katja Schielke, Jesper Skov, Toke Bek
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of visual loss in the working-age population. It is generally accepted that screening of DR is cost-effective and can detect DR before it becomes sight-threatening to allow timely treatment. METHODS: A group of retinal specialists was formed by the Danish Ophthalmological Society with the aim to formulate contemporary evidence-based guidelines for screening of DR in order to implement these in the Danish screening system...
October 11, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
I Veal, N Peat, G D Jones, V Tsianakas, J Armes
PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) is central to self-management for people with colorectal cancer (CRC) to support health behaviour and function secondary to cancer treatment. However, there is limited evidence on how health professionals (HPs) promote PA during cancer treatment. This study aimed to investigate how and when PA is promoted throughout the chemotherapy pathway among colorectal cancer survivors. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted with adults with CRC receiving chemotherapy at a large cancer centre...
October 11, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Ahmad Salawi, Sami Nazzal
Soluplus® is an amphiphilic graft copolymer used in hot melt extrusion applications and electrospinning. Very little information is available on the use of Soluplus® as a film former and in the development of film-based formulations. The overall aim of this work was to study the mechanical and adhesive properties of Soluplus® films prepared by the solvent casting technique. More specifically, we discovered that vitamin E can serve as a plasticizer for the Soluplus® polymer and to significantly modulate its mechanical and adhesive properties...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sylvie Ferlay, Petra Hellwig, Mir Wais Hosseini
The thermal behaviour of an H-bonded molecular network A based on [FeII (CN)6 ]4- anions and organic bisamidium cations 12+ was investigated. Heating was found to induce the partial oxidation of [FeII (CN)6 ]4- into [FeIII (CN)6 ]3- , together with a thermochromic effect and also a loss of crystallinity was evidenced from mid and far FT-IR spectroscopic data, XRPD and DSC/TGA analysis. Rehydration also partially reversed the redox reaction and its colour, and after that, a mixture of A with an amorphous phases was observed...
October 11, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Pingyuan Wang, Jia Zhou
Great success has been achieved in small molecule drug discovery programs, making extraordinary contributions for human health, especially in targeted therapy. Taking anticancer drug discovery as an example, small molecules traditionally inhibit the target protein enzyme activities and induce cancer cell apoptosis through the target binding. However, the target protein within tumor cells often recovers its activities, leading to acquired drug-resistance through the overexpression of the target protein or the generation of new mutations in the target protein [1]...
October 9, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Amanda-Mahammad Mushashe, Beatriz-Serrato Coelho, Paula-Pontes Garcia, Bruna-Cristina-do Nascimento Rechia, Leonardo-Fernandes da Cunha, Gisele-Maria Correr, Carla-Castiglia Gonzaga
Background: Tooth bleaching is a popular aesthetic treatment to modify the color of teeth. Despite the extensive literature concerning the subject, there is still no consensus regarding the application mode of the different bleaching agents and their effect on enamel. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of different bleaching protocols on whitening efficiency and enamel superficial hardness. Material and Methods: Bovine enamel fragments were embedded in acrylic resin and wet-sanded to obtain a flat buccal surface...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Pradeep K Rai, Sathi Babu Chodisetti, Sudeep K Maurya, Sajid Nadeem, Weiguang Zeng, Ashok K Janmeja, David C Jackson, Javed N Agrewala
BACKGROUND: The clinical trials conducted at Chingleput India suggest that BCG fails to protect against tuberculosis (TB) in TB-endemic population. Recent studies advocate that non-tuberculous mycobacteria and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection interferes in the antigen processing and presentation of BCG in inducing protective immunity against Mtb. Thereby, indicating that any vaccine that require extensive antigen processing may not be efficacious in TB-endemic zones. Recently, we have demonstrated that the vaccine candidate L91, which is composed of lipidated promiscuous MHC-II binder epitope, derived from latency associated Acr1 antigen of Mtb is immunogenic in the murine and Guinea pig models of TB and conferred better protection than BCG against Mtb...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Banglin Chen, Zongbi Bao, Jiawei Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Huabin Xing, Qiwei Yang, Yiwen Yang, Hui Wu, Rajamani Krishna, Wei Zhou, Qilong Ren
Purification of ethylene from the ethylene (C2H4)/ethane (C2H6) mixture, one of the most important while challenging industrial separation processes, is mainly through the energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Herein we report a family of gallate-based metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, M-gallate (M= Ni, Mg, Co), featuring three-dimensionally interconnected zigzag channels, whose aperture sizes (3.47-3.69 Å) are ideally suitable for molecular sieving of ethylene (3.28 × 4.18 × 4.84 Å3) and ethane (3...
October 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Devin Heinze Kehoe, Selvi Aybulut, Mazyar Fallah
Previous behavioral and physiological research has demonstrated that as the behavioral relevance of potential saccade goals increases, they elicit more competition during target selection processing as evidenced by increased saccade curvature and neural activity. However, these effects have only been demonstrated for lower-order feature singletons and it remains unclear whether more complicated featural differences between higher-order objects also elicit vector modulation. Therefore, we measured human saccades curvature elicited by distractors bilaterally flanking a target during a visual search saccade task and systematically varied subsets of features shared between the two distractors and the target, referred to as objective similarity (OS)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Weitao Li, Yan Zhang, Yanbai Xue, Hejuan Yu, Yameng Zhang, Ling Tao, Yamin Yang, Zhiyu Qian
BACKGROUND: Ethanol is associated with various medical comorbidities affecting the brain and central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: The use of puerarin in treating alcohol-induced memory disorders is systematically evaluated in this study based upon an analysis of the firing rate and oxygen saturation (SO2). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multi-channel data acquisition system and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were combined to obtain the electroneurophysiological signals and SO2 in the hippocampus of mice from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) after ethanol injection...
October 9, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xiaolong Xie, Bo Xiang, Yang Wu, Yiyang Zhao, Qi Wang, Xiaoping Jiang
BACKGROUND: Colonic stenosis is a rare cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. The root cause underlying colonic stenosis is unclear and there is no fixed operation. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported on a male infant with progressive colonic stenosis caused by antibiotic-related colitis. The infant was admitted to our hospital with pneumonia but developed progressive abdominal distension and diarrhea following antibiotic treatment with meropenem. Initial testing of stool culture showed a Clostridium difficile infection...
October 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Luane Ferreira Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Peixoto da Cunha, Emily Kussmaul Gonçalves Moreno, Douglas Vieira Thomaz, Germán Sanz Lobón, Rafael Luque, Vernon Somerset, Eric de Souza Gil
Methyldopa is a catecholamine widely used in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension whose determination in pharmaceutical formulae is of upmost importance for dose precision. Henceforth, a low-cost carbon paste electrode (CPE) consisting of graphite powder obtained from a crushed pencil stick was herein modified with nanostructured TiO₂ (TiO₂@CPE) aiming for the detection of methyldopa in pharmaceutical samples. The TiO₂-modified graphite powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the oxide nanostructured morphology...
October 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
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