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Rifampicin resistant Tuberculosis

Shiferaw Bekele, Yohannes Derese, Elena Hailu, Adane Mihret, Kifle Dagne, Lawrence Yamuah, Tsegaye Hailu, Samuel Ayele, Demissew Beyene, Stefan Berg, Abraham Aseffa
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern of increasing significance. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading worldwide. It is important to monitor trends of antimycobacterial resistance. This is particularly true for high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia where disproportionally less drug sensitivity data are reported from. Methods: The prevalence of drug resistance was assessed with the line probe assay GenoType MTBDR plus in a set of 161  M...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Purushotham Gorla, Renata Plocinska, Krishna Sarva, Akash T Satsangi, Emmanuel Pandeeti, Robert Donnelly, Jaroslaw Dziadek, Malini Rajagopalan, Murty V Madiraju
The biological processes regulated by the essential response regulator MtrA and the growth conditions promoting its activation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , a slow grower and pathogen, are largely unknown. Here, using a gain-of-function mutant, MtrAY 102C , which functions in the absence of the cognate MtrB sensor kinase, we show that the MtrA regulon includes several genes involved in the processes of cell division and cell wall metabolism. The expression of selected MtrA targets and intracellular MtrA levels were compromised under replication arrest induced by genetic manipulation and under stress conditions caused by toxic radicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shariq Ahmed, Indu Shukla, Nazish Fatima, Sumit K Varshney, Mohammad Shameem, Uzma Tayyaba
Background: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new and previously treated cases is increasing worldwide as well as in India. Rapid detection of MDR-TB allows the establishment of an effective treatment regimen; minimizes the risk of further resistance, and limits the spread of drug-resistant strains. Early diagnosis of MDR-TB is the need of the hour in high-TB burden countries like India, and GenotypeMTBDRplus is quite sensitive and specific in determining the molecular resistance in drugs such as rifampicin and isoniazid...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Gumral Alakbarova, Luqman Satti, Nadia Tayyab, Gohar Zaman, Nora Morcillo, Belen Imperiale, Ingrid Wainmayer, Norberto Simboli
Background: Effective control of tuberculosis is achieved by early diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing for initiation of appropriate treatment. The performance of crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) was compared in a multicenter study. Methods: Seventy-two M. tuberculosis isolates were tested in two phases by CVDA. Results: In Phase I, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and agreement for INH were 100%, respectively...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Joāo Luís Rheingantz Scaini, Alex Dias Camargo, Vinicius Rosa Seus, Andrea von Groll, Adriano Velasque Werhli, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva, Karina Dos Santos Machado
Tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and the emergency of multidrug and extensive drug resistance cases is an utmost issue on the control of the disease. Despite the efforts on the development of new antibiotics, eventually there will be strains resistant to them as well. Efflux plays an important role in the evolution of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tap is an important efflux pump associated with tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid, rifampicine and ofloxacin and with multidrug resistance...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Latifa Noussair, Frédéric Bert, Véronique Leflon-Guibout, Roselyne Métivier, Chantal Chauvet, Catherine Napol, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a new tool for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis. METHODS: A total of 374 smear-negative clinical specimens from patients with suspected tuberculosis were evaluated using a new procedure consisting of a preliminary step of culture in broth bottles followed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtb) and rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (XMTB-RIF). RESULTS: A total of 30 Mtb strains were isolated, all susceptible to rifampicin...
December 6, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Narendran Pushpasekaran, Deepak Gupta, Abhishek Kashyap, Sumit Arora, Ajay Kumar Gupta
A 23-year-old female on anti-tubercular therapy for tuberculous sacroiliitis presented with right sided gluteal and thigh abscess. Suspecting treatment failure, surgical evacuation of purulent material was done. The bacteriological isolation showed positivity for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although the microbiological and histopathology examination of the specimen were negative for tubercular isolates, the cartridge based -nucleic acid amplification tests revealed positive genes for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and additional primers showed sensitivity for rifampicin and isoniazid...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Marco Galarza, Heinner Guio, Jenny Reques, Omar Piscoya, Mitzi Rodríguez
OBJECTIVES.: To analyze melting curves for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from sputum samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Sputum samples (n = 250) were collected from patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis as a result of bacilloscopy and cultured in solid medium Lowenstein Jensen. According to the reference method, 124 samples sensitive to rifampicin and isoniazid, 24 resistant to rifampicin, 33 resistant to isoniazid, and 69 multidrug-resistant were used...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Ronald Anderson, Annette J Theron, Jan G Nel, Chrisna Durandt, Moloko C Cholo, Charles Feldman, Gregory R Tintinger
Although the inclusion of the cationic amphiphilic, anti-mycobacterial agent, clofazimine, in the chemotherapeutic regimens of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has contributed to improved outcomes, concerns remain about the cardiotoxic potential of this agent. Accordingly, the current study was undertaken with the primary objective of investigating the effects of clofazimine, on the reactivity of human platelets in vitro , a seemingly unexplored, mechanism of cardiotoxicity. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) prepared from the blood of healthy, adult humans was treated with clofazimine (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zikun Huang, Jinghui Du, Zhen Deng, Qing Luo, Guoliang Xiong, Yaoxing Wang, Xi Zhang, Junming Li
To perform a multicentre study evaluating the performance of the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) using liquid medium for the detection of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to establish the MICs and critical concentrations of rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin. The study was carried out in three phases. Phase I determined the MIC of each drug. Phase II established the critical concentration of each drug. Phase III validated critical concentrations for the six drugs tested by the NRA using liquid medium compared with the agar proportion method or MGIT 960 system at each site...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Erik Tenland, Nitya Krishnan, Anna Rönnholm, Sadaf Kalsum, Manoj Puthia, Matthias Mörgelin, Mina Davoudi, Magdalena Otrocka, Nader Alaridah, Izabela Glegola-Madejska, Erik Sturegård, Artur Schmidtchen, Maria Lerm, Brian D Robertson, Gabriela Godaly
Tuberculosis has been reaffirmed as the infectious disease causing most deaths in the world. Co-infection with HIV and the increase in multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains complicate treatment and increases mortality rates, making the development of new drugs an urgent priority. In this study we have identified a promising candidate by screening antimicrobial peptides for their capacity to inhibit mycobacterial growth. This non-toxic peptide, NZX, is capable of inhibiting both clinical strains of M...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Jose Gabriel Cornejo Garcia, Valentina Antonieta Alarcón Guizado, Alberto Mendoza Ticona, Edith Alarcon, Einar Heldal, David A J Moore
BACKGROUND: Resistance to isoniazid is the most common form of drug-resistance in tuberculosis. However only a tiny proportion of TB patients in the world have access to isoniazid drug susceptibility testing-the widely implemented Xpert MTB/RIF technology only tests for resistance to rifampicin. Patients with isoniazid mono resistance that is not identified at baseline are treated with a standard regimen that effectively results in rifampicin mono-therapy during the latter four months of the six month treatment course, exposing remaining viable organisms to a single agent and greatly increasing the risk of development of multi drug-resistant TB...
2018: PloS One
Greta Franco-Sotomayor, Daniel Garzon-Chavez, Margarita Leon-Benitez, Jacobus H de Waard, Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain
The aim of this study was to characterize the most frequent mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Ecuador. Sequence analysis of 40 strains, resistant for the tuberculosis drugs INH, RIF, or for both showed that of the 31 strains with resistance to INH, 20 strains (64.5%) carried a mutation in the katG gene (codon 315). Eight INH-resistant strains carried a mutation in the katG gene at codon 463. This katG463 mutation, considered a phylogenetic marker, was exclusively found in INH-resistant strains and not in 121 INH-susceptible strains...
December 4, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
O W Akkerman, J W C Alffenaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Anna Lena Lopez, Josephine G Aldaba, Merrylle Morales-Dizon, Jesus N Sarol, Jedas Veronica Daag, Ma Cecilia Ama, Patrick Sylim, Aida Salonga, Karin Nielsen-Saines
INTRODUCTION: Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended for the simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance directly from sputum specimens. Since young children cannot always expectorate, we assessed urine as a possible specimen source to diagnose TB in children using Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: During a field study to enhance childhood TB identification, spot urine samples were prospectively collected from consecutive ambulatory children aged 0 to 14 years presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB in community health centers...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Xiaoyun Lu, Zoe Williams, Kiel Hards, Jian Tang, Chen-Yi Cheung, Htin Lin Aung, Bangxing Wang, Zhiyong Liu, Xianglong Hu, Anne J Lenaerts, Lisa Woolhiser, Courtney Hastings, Xiantao Zhang, Zhe Wang, Kyu Y Rhee, Ke Ding, Tianyu Zhang, Gregory M Cook
Respiration is a promising target for the development of new antimycobacterial agents, with a growing number of compounds in clinical development entering this target space. However, more candidate inhibitors are needed to expand the therapeutic options available for drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here, we characterize a putative respiratory complex III (QcrB) inhibitor, TB47: a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide. TB47 is active (MIC between 0.016 - 0.500 µg/mL) against a panel of 56 M...
November 28, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Mehmet Sezai Taşbakan, Damla Akdağ, Hasip Kahraman, Deniz Akyol, Meltem Taşbakan, Cengiz Çavuşoğlu
Introduction: Tuberculosis is seen generally in the lungs. Besides, all organs in the body can be affected by tuberculosis. Diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is more difficult than pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Although, the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is gold standard of diagnosis of EPTB, the rate of bacteriologic isolation is low especially in EPTB. If M. tuberculosis is detected, it gives some information about the epidemiological features of the disease and drug susceptibility...
September 2018: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Jung-Kyu Lee, Ji Yeon Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Ina Jeong, Eun Young Heo, Young Sik Park, Yong Suk Jo, Jae Ho Lee, Sung Soo Park, Jong Sun Park, Junghyun Kim, Sang-Min Lee, Joon-Sung Joh, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jinwoo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Ju-Hee Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Young-Jae Cho, Yeon Joo Lee, Se Joong Kim, Nakwon Kwak, Yong Ran Hwang, Hyeonjeong Kim, Jongeun Ki, Ji Na Lim, Hyoung Sook Choi, Myungsun Lee, Taeksun Song, Hyun Su Kim, Jiyeon Han, Heejung Ahn, Seokyung Hahn, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Linezolid improves the treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis substantially. We investigated whether use of linezolid instead of ethambutol increases the proportion of sputum culture conversion at 8 weeks of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a phase 2, multicentre, randomised, open-label trial for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at the three affiliated hospitals to Seoul National University and National Medical Center (Seoul-Seongnam, South Korea)...
November 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anthony D Harries, Ajay M V Kumar
Case finding and the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are key activities to reach the World Health Organization's End TB targets by 2030. This paper focuses on the diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) in low- and middle-income countries. Sputum smear microscopy, despite its many limitations, remains the primary diagnostic tool in peripheral health facilities; however, this is being replaced by molecular diagnostic techniques, particularly Xpert MTB/RIF, which allows a bacteriologically confirmed diagnosis of TB along with information about whether or not the organism is resistant to rifampicin within two hours...
November 23, 2018: Diagnostics
Ruben Cloete, Erika Kapp, Jacques Joubert, Alan Christoffels, Sarel F Malan
Mycobacterial efflux pumps play a major role in the emergence of antimycobacterial drug resistance. Of particular interest is the proteinaceous multi-drug efflux pump protein Rv1258c that encodes a tetracycline/aminoglycoside resistance (TAP-2)-like efflux pump which is active in susceptible and drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rv1258c is implicated in drug resistance to numerous antimycobacterials including first line drugs rifampicin and isoniazid as well as fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotic classes...
2018: PloS One
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