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Rifampicin resistant Tuberculosis

Francesco Bisognin, Giulia Lombardi, Donatella Lombardo, Maria Carla Re, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: The new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Ultra, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, USA) is a cartridge-based automated diagnostic test that can simultaneously identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and resistance to Rifampicin (RIF). With respect to the previous version Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), IS6110/IS1081 repetitive elements probes have been added allowing the detection of lower MTB load, defined by the new semi-quantitative category "trace" with indeterminate RIF resistance...
2018: PloS One
Peter Ogie Ikuabe, Ikenna Desmond Ebuenyi
Introduction: The diagnosis of tuberculosis and its treatment is challenging in resource - limited settings. The growth and speed of multi drug - resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high burden countries like Nigeria is a growing concern. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive survey of all consecutive sputum specimens of adults greater than 15 years of age that presented to the Tuberculosis Referral Hospital Laboratory were subjected to the automated Genexpert test between January and December 2016...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Basant Joshi, Trisasi Lestari, Stephen Michael Graham, Sushil Chandra Baral, Sharat Chandra Verma, Gokarna Ghimire, Bandana Bhatta, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Adi Utarini
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in low and middle-income countries. Early detection and enrolment of TB cases is a challenge for National TB Programs. OBJECTIVE: To understand the performance and feasibility for scale-up of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the TB diagnosis in Nepal. DESIGN: Implementation research employed mixed-method sequential explanatory design. The results of Xpert MTB/RIF assay were analysed in 26 TB diagnostic centres where Xpert machines had been installed before 2015...
2018: PloS One
S Raghuvanshi, A Kotwal, R Maheshwari, G Sindhwani
SETTING: Most epidemiological studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis focus on pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), whereas extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) remains poorly explored. OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of resistant EPTB cases among individuals with suspected EPTB using a commercial line-probe assay (LPA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridisation test. We also examined the molecular profile of the EPTB isolates obtained at the Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, India...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
M Sahrin, A Rahman, M K M Uddin, S N Kabir, S Kabir, E Houpt, S Banu
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. RIF-resistant (RIF-R) MTB cases detected using Xpert on sputum specimens at three private-sector TB screening centres in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were subjected to consecutive confirmatory Xpert testing, the results of which were MTB-positive/RIF-susceptible, MTB-positive/RIF-indeterminate or MTB-negative. OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible causes of discordant MTB and RIF-R results...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
M A Zuur, A D I van Asselt, N van 't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, A Aleksa, M J Postma, J W C Alffenaar
SETTING: We proposed to: 1) introduce an intermediate-susceptible, dose-dependent (ISDD) category for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; and 2) treat patients with M. tuberculosis infection in this category with a high dose of rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH). OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of our strategy on quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and costs in a low-income country with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (Belarus) and a high-income, low MDR-TB prevalence country (The Netherlands)...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Zorica Nanovic, Biserka Kaeva-Jovkovska, Gorica Breskovska, Milena Petrovska
BACKGROUND: Global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is being driven to an increasing extent by the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We present a case of primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), highlighting Macedonian MDR-TB management issues. CASE REPORT: A 39-year old previously healthy Caucasian male, with no previous history of TB or close contact to TB, was admitted in referral TB-hospital due to respiratory bleeding...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Sushruta S Hakkimane, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Santosh L Gaonkar, Indira Bairy, Bharath Raja Guru
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the single largest infectious disease which requires a prolonged treatment regime with multiple drugs. The present treatment for TB includes frequent administration of a combination of four drugs for a duration of 6 months. This leads to patient's noncompliance, in addition to developing drug-resistant strains which makes treatment more difficult. The formulation of drugs with biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) promises to overcome this problem...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sanghyuk S Shin, Chawangwa Modongo, Yeonsoo Baik, Christopher Allender, Darrin Lemmer, Rebecca E Colman, David M Engelthaler, Robin M Warren, Nicola M Zetola
Background: Heteroresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections (concomitant infection with drug-resistant and drug-susceptible Mtb) may explain the higher risk of poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes observed among patients with mixed-strain Mtb infections. We investigated the clinical effect of mixed infections while controlling for pre-treatment heteroresistance among a population-based sample of TB patients starting first-line TB therapy in Botswana. Methods: We performed 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and targeted deep sequencing on baseline primary cultured isolates to detect mixed infections and heteroresistance, respectively...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Asma Muhammad Yar, Ghanva Zaman, Annam Hussain, Yan Changhui, Azhar Rasul, Abrar Hussain, Zhu Bo, Habib Bokhari, Muhammad Ibrahim
Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global threat particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. In this study, we identified 2 M tuberculosis strains, mnpk and swlpk, by 16S RNA genes, sequenced their draft genome, and compared the 2 genomes with reference strain H37Rv and gene expression analysis of selected virulent genes. Phylogenetic analysis of M tuberculosis strains, mnpk and swlpk, using 16S RNA genes revealed that the strains are closely related with reference strain H37Rv. The draft genome sequence of mnpk and swlpk contains 4305 and 4295 protein-coding genes, respectively, having 99...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Dristi Halwai, Rajendra Gurung, Nimesh Poudyal, Dharanidhar Baral, Shyamal Kumar Bhattacharya
Background: Emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious challenge for successful global tuberculosis control. Early diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis by direct nitrate reductase assay (NRA) aids in appropriate treatment and reduction in disease transmission, particularly in countries with high tuberculosis burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of NRA for direct detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in laboratories with limited resources...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Tomasz Jagielski, Zofia Bakuła, Anna Brzostek, Alina Minias, Radosław Stachowiak, Joanna Kalita, Agnieszka Napiórkowska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Anna Żaczek, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Jacek Bielecki, Jarosław Dziadek
Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampicin, mediated by mutations in the rpoB gene, coding for the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, poses a serious threat to the efficacy of clinical management and thus control programs of TB. The contribution of many individual rpoB mutations to the development and level of RMP resistance remains elusive. In this study, the incidence of mutations throughout the rpoB gene among 115 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, both resistant and susceptible to RMP was determined...
July 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Serge Mignani, Rama Pati Tripathi, Liang Chen, Anne-Marie Caminade, Xiangyang Shi, Jean-Pierre Majoral
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infection that usually attacks not only the lungs, but also brain and spine. More than twenty drugs have been developed for the treatment of TB, but most of them were developed some years ago. They are used in different combinations. Isoniazid and Rifampicin are examples of the five first line TB drugs, whereas, for instance, Levofloxacin, Kanamycin and Linezolid belong to the second line drugs that are used for the treatment of drug resistant TB. Several new bicyclic nitroimidazoles (e...
July 26, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Moshtaq Ahmed, Mohammad Riazul Islam, Arfatur Rahman, Razia Khatun, M D Anwar Hossain, Aung Kya Jai Maug, Sayera Banu
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem worldwide including in Bangladesh. Molecular epidemiological tools provide genotyping profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains that can give insight into the transmission of TB in a specific region. The objective of the study was to identify the genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of M. tuberculosis strains circulating in the northeast Bangladesh. A total of 244 smear-positive sputum specimens were collected from two referral hospitals in Mymensingh and Netrakona districts...
July 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
R Sarkar, C Mdladla, L Macingwana, R-D Pietersen, A H Ngwane, D L Tabb, P D van Helden, I Wiid, B Baker
The emerging resistance of tuberculosis (TB) to current first line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol) warrants alternative treatment approaches with broad-spectrum efficacy. Previously, we have shown that sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has synergestic activity with rifampicin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The primary target of SMX is folP1 in mycobacteria; however, SMX may affect other secondary targets in M. tuberculosis. This study investigated the potential additional targets of SMX in a clinical isolate of M...
July 2018: Tuberculosis
Nathally Claudiane de Souza Santos, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Aryadne Larissa de Almeida, Vanessa Pietrowski Baldin, Sandra Sayuri Nakamura de Vasconcelos, Vera Lucia Dias Siqueira, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Paula Aline Zanetti Campanerut-Sá, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
SETTING: The increase of multidrug and extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains turns the search for new tuberculosis (TB) treatment options of paramount importance. OBJECTIVE: In this sense, the present study evaluates the in vitro activity of isoniazid (INH)/rifampicin (RIF)/levofloxacin (LVX) and INH/RIF/linezolid (LNZ) combinations in resistant M. tuberculosis. DESIGN: The activities of the combinations were evaluated with M...
July 2018: Tuberculosis
Laíse Adriane Hegeto, Katiany R Caleffi-Ferracioli, Sandra S Nakamura-Vasconcelos, Aryadne Larissa de Almeida, Vanessa Pietrowski Baldin, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Vera Lúcia D Siqueira, Regiane B L Scodro, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem worldwide and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB worsened the global context. The resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, can partially derive from efflux pumps (EPs) activity in plasma membrane. Due to the recent discovery of piperine (PIP), an organic alkaloid compound, increasing the bioavailability of various drugs, the current assay evaluated the combined activity of PIP and anti-TB drugs in susceptible and resistant M...
July 2018: Tuberculosis
Aishwarya Govindaswamy, Dhananjayan Sakthi, Rekha Pai, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Joy Sarojini Michael
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of the pyrosequencing (PSQ) assay for the rapid detection of resistance to rifampicin (RIF), fluoroquinolones (FQs) and second-line injectables (SLIs) such as capreomycin (CAP) and kanamycin (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clinical isolates. METHODOLOGY: Pyrosequencing is a simple and accurate short read DNA sequencing method for genome analysis. DNA extraction from Mtb clinical isolates was performed using Tris-HCl buffer and chloroform...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hye Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Eunjin Cho, Jong Seok Lee, Hyeyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection represents a global public health emergency. We evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform [QMAP], QuantaMatrix, Seoul, Korea) to rapidly identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations. METHODS: A total of 200 clinical isolates from respiratory samples were used...
November 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Liliana Rondón, Estefanía Urdániz, Cecilia Latini, Florencia Payaslian, Mario Matteo, Ezequiel J Sosa, Darío F Do Porto, Adrian G Turjanski, Sergio Nemirovsky, Graham F Hatfull, Susana Poggi, Mariana Piuri
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 40% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are not diagnosed and treated correctly. Even though there are several diagnostic tests available in the market, rapid, easy, inexpensive detection, and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still of critical importance specially in low and middle-income countries with high incidence of the disease. In this work, we have developed a microscopy-based methodology using the reporter mycobacteriophage mCherrybomb ϕ for detection of Mycobacterium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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