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Rifampicin resistant Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300403/high-rates-of-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-by-12-months-of-rifampicin-resistant-tb-treatment-in-south-africa
#1
Kamban Hirasen, Rebecca Berhanu, Denise Evans, Sydney Rosen, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long
INTRODUCTION: Treatment success rates of rifampicin resistant (RR)/multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa range from 43-48%, falling short of the World Health Organization's target of ≥75%. We present rates and assess predictors of attrition by 12 months on treatment. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort analysis of adults (≥18 years) initiating RR/MDR-TB treatment from 01 March 2013 to 30 September 2016. Attrition was defined as a combination of death and loss to follow-up (LTFU; treatment interruption ≥2 months) by 12 months on treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297823/rifamycin-congeners-kanglemycins-are-active-against-rifampicin-resistant-bacteria-via-a-distinct-mechanism
#2
James Peek, Mirjana Lilic, Daniel Montiel, Aleksandr Milshteyn, Ian Woodworth, John B Biggins, Melinda A Ternei, Paula Y Calle, Michael Danziger, Thulasi Warrier, Kohta Saito, Nathaniel Braffman, Allison Fay, Michael S Glickman, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell, Sean F Brady
Rifamycin antibiotics (Rifs) target bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) and are widely used to treat infections including tuberculosis. The utility of these compounds is threatened by the increasing incidence of resistance (RifR ). As resistance mechanisms found in clinical settings may also occur in natural environments, here we postulated that bacteria could have evolved to produce rifamycin congeners active against clinically relevant resistance phenotypes. We survey soil metagenomes and identify a tailoring enzyme-rich family of gene clusters encoding biosynthesis of rifamycin congeners (kanglemycins, Kangs) with potent in vivo and in vitro activity against the most common clinically relevant RifR mutations...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296686/design-synthesis-and-anti-mycobacterial-activity-evaluation-of-benzofuran-isatin-hybrids
#3
Feng Gao, Hua Yang, Tianyu Lu, Zijian Chen, Long Ma, Zhi Xu, Paul Schaffer, Guangming Lu
Herein we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel benzofuran-isatin hybrids, and in vitro evaluation of their anti-mycobacterial activity against both drug-susceptible and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. In parallel, cytotoxicity of these hybrids was also tested in VERO cells. Preliminary results indicated that all hybrids with acceptable cytotoxicity in VERO cells (CC50 : 128->1024 μg/mL) exhibited considerable anti-mycobacterial activities against MTB H37 Rv and MDR-TB with MIC ranging from 0...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288068/phenotypic-and-genotypic-drug-sensitivity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-isolated-from-south-omo-zone-southern-ethiopia
#4
Biniam Wondale, Girmay Medhin, Gemeda Abebe, Samuel Tolosa, Temesgen Mohammed, Takele Teklu, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
Background: Knowledge of drug-sensitivity patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated from patients is an important aspect of TB control strategy. This study was conducted to evaluate the drug sensitivity of MTBC isolates in South Omo, southern Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A total of 161 MTBC isolates (153 from new cases and eight re-treatment TB cases) were isolated using Lowenstein Jensen medium of which 126 isolates were able to be tested for drug sensitivity by BACTEC™MGIT™ 960 system, while all the 161 isolates were tested by GenoType® MTBDR plus VER 2...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284512/retropharyngeal-abscess-as-a-paradoxical-reaction-in-a-child-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
Lavina Desai, Ira Shah, Manohar Shaan
Paradoxical reactions (PRs) are exaggerated inflammatory responses owing to recovery of cellular immunity following initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT). The presentation is worsening of pre-existing symptoms or development of new lesions. A 14-year-old girl with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis developed a recurrent asymptomatic retropharyngeal abscess while on ATT. She required multiple aspirations of the abscess. Xpert MTB/RIF detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the aspirate which was resistant to rifampicin; culture was negative...
October 4, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271784/erratum-to-the-feasibility-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-to-detect-rifampicin-resistance-among-childhood-tuberculosis-for-prevalence-surveys-in-northern-china
#6
Jie Lu, Huimin Li, Fang Dong, Jin Shi, Hui Yang, Shujing Han, Ping Chu, Yanlin Zhao, Wenqi Song, Yongli Guo, Shunying Zhao
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5857369.].
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271728/has-the-utilisation-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-in-manicaland-province-zimbabwe-improved-with-new-guidance-on-whom-to-test
#7
A Jokwiro, C Timire, A D Harries, P T Gwinji, A Mulema, K C Takarinda, P T Mafaune, C Sandy
Setting: Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. Objectives: To compare the utilisation and results of deploying Xpert® MTB/RIF in 13 (one provincial, six district and six rural) hospitals between January and June 2016, when Xpert was recommended only for those with presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and between January and June 2017, when Xpert was recommended for all presumptive TB patients. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Results: Xpert assays averaged 759 monthly in 2016 and 1430 monthly in 2017 (88% increase)...
September 21, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267759/in-vitro-evaluation-of-dinactin-a-potent-microbial-metabolite-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Aehtesham Hussain, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Aasif Majeeda Mubashir Maqbool, Aabid Manzoor Shah, Mushtaq A Aga, Aiyatullah Shah, Saleem Mushtaq, Payare L Sangwan, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan, Zahoor Ahmad
The existing long duration treatment options and the emergence of drug resistance in tuberculosis has led to the renewed interest for discovery of the novel anti-tubercular agents or the scaffolds exhibiting enhanced efficacy with current antituberculosis drugs. Herein, dinactin, a potent bioactive macrotetrolide isolated from Streptomyces puniceus AS13 was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv along with other susceptible and drug resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. In-vitro pharmacological assays demonstrated that dinactin is bactericidal against laboratory standard strain M...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261007/efficacy-of-pyrazinoic-acid-dry-powder-aerosols-in-resolving-necrotic-and-non-necrotic-granulomas-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-tuberculosis
#9
Stephanie A Montgomery, Ellen F Young, Phillip G Durham, Katelyn E Zulauf, Laura Rank, Brittany K Miller, Jennifer D Hayden, Feng-Chang Lin, John T Welch, Anthony J Hickey, Miriam Braunstein
New therapeutic strategies are needed to treat drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) and to improve treatment for drug sensitive TB. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a critical component of current first-line TB therapy. However, the rise in PZA-resistant TB cases jeopardizes the future utility of PZA. To address this problem, we used the guinea pig model of TB and tested the efficacy of an inhaled dry powder combination, referred to as Pyrazinoic acid/ester Dry Powder (PDP), which is comprised of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active moiety of PZA, and pyrazinoic acid ester (PAE), which is a PZA analog...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258443/the-synergistic-effects-of-the-glutathione-precursor-nac-and-first-line-antibiotics-in-the-granulomatous-response-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Garrett Teskey, Ruoqiong Cao, Hicret Islamoglu, Albert Medina, Chaya Prasad, Ramaa Prasad, Airani Sathananthan, Marcel Fraix, Selvakumar Subbian, Li Zhong, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the causative bacterial agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Although the human immune system plays a critical role in containing M. tb infection, elimination proves immensely more challenging. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to eradicate, and limit the spread of M. tb through the conventional use of first-line antibiotics. Unfortunately, with the emergence of drug resistant and multi-drug resistant strains of M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258420/a-chip-for-detecting-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-based-on-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr-magnetic-bead-molecule-platform
#11
Jingtong Lyu, Wenjie Wu, Peng Cheng, Xun Liu, Fei Luo, Zehua Zhang, Kanglai Tang, Jianzhong Xu
Objective: A Tag Array chip was used to detect plasmids of different template concentration, and then analyzed for sensitivity and specificity. Drug resistance genes from tuberculosis clinical specimens were detected, giving comparative phenotypic resistance results to explore the feasibility and value of clinical applications. Methods: Twenty-four strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) having sequence differences in extracted plasmids of mutant strains. The plasmid was diluted into different concentrations, and then was performed to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the chip system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246875/antibiotics-for-treating-scrub-typhus
#12
REVIEW
Iman El Sayed, Qin Liu, Ian Wee, Paul Hine
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, an important cause of acute fever in Asia, is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Antibiotics currently used to treat scrub typhus include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides, and rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effects of different antibiotic regimens for treatment of scrub typhus. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 8 January 2018: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library (2018, Issue 1); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT)...
September 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244835/mode-of-action-of-kanglemycin-a-an-ansamycin-natural-product-that-is-active-against-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Hamed Mosaei, Vadim Molodtsov, Bernhard Kepplinger, John Harbottle, Christopher William Moon, Rose Elizabeth Jeeves, Lucia Ceccaroni, Yeonoh Shin, Stephanie Morton-Laing, Emma Claire Louise Marrs, Corinne Wills, William Clegg, Yulia Yuzenkova, John David Perry, Joanna Bacon, Jeff Errington, Nicholas Edward Ellis Allenby, Michael John Hall, Katsuhiko S Murakami, Nikolay Zenkin
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent healthcare threat, prompting a demand for new medicines. We report the mode of action of the natural ansamycin antibiotic kanglemycin A (KglA). KglA binds bacterial RNA polymerase at the rifampicin-binding pocket but maintains potency against RNA polymerases containing rifampicin-resistant mutations. KglA has antibiotic activity against rifampicin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-M. tuberculosis)...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237887/management-of-rifampicin-mono-resistant-tuberculosis-in-queensland-australia-a-retrospective-case-series
#14
Justine Gibson, Ellen Donnan, Geoffrey Eather
Rifampicin mono-resistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) is rare worldwide; however, it is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Evidence to guide the treatment of RMR-TB is lacking. International guidelines have recently changed and now recommend that RMR-TB should be managed with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) regimens. This report is a retrospective review of all cases of RMR-TB in Queensland, Australia, from 2000 to 2016 to assess treatment outcomes and regimens used. Twelve cases of RMR-TB were diagnosed, with seven patients completing treatment in Queensland...
November 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237679/linking-common-non-coding-rnas-of-human-lung-cancer-and-m-tuberculosis
#15
Debmalya Barh, Sandeep Tiwari, Ranjith N Kumavath, Preetam Ghosh, Vasco Azevedo
Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium are two major causes of deaths worldwide. Tuberculosis linked lung cancer is known. However, the precise molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium associated increased risk of lung cancer is not understood. We report 45 common human miRNAs deregulated in both pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. We show that sRNA_1096 and sRNA_1414 from M. tuberculosis have sequence homology with human mir-21. Hence, the potential role of these three small non-coding RNAs in rifampicin resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis is implied...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224802/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-carrying-a-rifampicin-drug-resistance-mutation-reprograms-macrophage-metabolism-through-cell-wall-lipid-changes
#16
Nicole C Howard, Nancy D Marin, Mushtaq Ahmed, Bruce A Rosa, John Martin, Monika Bambouskova, Alexey Sergushichev, Ekaterina Loginicheva, Natalia Kurepina, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Robyn S Klein, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Jordi B Torrelles, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Makedonka Mitreva, Maxim N Artyomov, Fong-Fu Hsu, Barun Mathema, Shabaana A Khader
Tuberculosis is a significant global health threat, with one-third of the world's population infected with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mtb that is resistant to the frontline anti-tubercular drugs rifampicin and isoniazid forces treatment with toxic second-line drugs. Currently, ~4% of new and ~21% of previously treated tuberculosis cases are either rifampicin-drug-resistant or MDR Mtb infections1 . The specific molecular host-pathogen interactions mediating the rapid worldwide spread of MDR Mtb strains remain poorly understood...
October 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216368/-life-continues-patient-health-care-and-community-care-workers-perspectives-on-self-administered-treatment-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-khayelitsha-south-africa
#17
Erika Mohr, Leigh Snyman, Zodwa Mbakaz, Judy Caldwell, Virginia DeAzevedo, Yulene Kock, Laura Trivino Duran, Emilie Venables
BACKGROUND: Self-administered treatment (SAT), a differentiated model of care for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), might address adherence challenges faced by patients and health care systems. This study explored patient, health-care worker (HCW) and community care worker (CCW) perspectives on a SAT pilot programme in South Africa, in which patients were given medication to take at home with the optional support of a CCW. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study from July 2016-June 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208864/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-serbia-a-case-control-study
#18
Maja Stosic, Dejana Vukovic, Dragan Babic, Gordana Antonijevic, Kristie L Foley, Isidora Vujcic, Sandra Sipetic Grujicic
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents TB which is simultaneous resistant to at least rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H). Identifying inadequate therapy as the main cause of this form of the disease and explaining the factors leading to its occurrence, numerous social determinants that affect the risk of developing resistance are highlighted. The objectives of the study was to identify independent factors of MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted from 1st September 2009 to 1st June 2014 in 31 healthcare institutions in Serbia where MDR-TB and TB patients were treated...
September 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198502/molecular-characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-khartoum-sudan
#19
Asrar Elegail, Nuha Yousif Ibrahim Mohamed, Eman Osman Mohamed Nour, Sven Hoffner, Melles Haile
Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the drug resistance profile, and the specific lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains isolated from patients with pulmonary TB in the state of Khartoum in Sudan. Methods: Consecutive sputum samples and clinical data were collected from 406 smear-positive TB patients with pulmonary TB in 2007-2009. The samples were cultured, and drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the proportion method (PM) on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium, and species were identified using biochemical methods at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in Khartoum...
July 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198501/effective-pragmatic-approach-of-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-by-high-resolution-melt-curve-assay
#20
Sanjay Singh Negi, Priyanka Singh, Anudita Bhargava, Sachin Chandrakar, Ujjwala Gaikwad, Padma Das, Ajoy Behra
Background: Effective management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires cost-effective and rapid screening of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. Accordingly, a highly promising high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was evaluated in the detection of mutation in rpoB, katG gene and inhA promoter region in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Methods: A total of 143 M. tuberculosis isolates comprising phenotypically confirmed 94 MDR and 49 sensitive isolates were analyzed by HRM following real-time-polymerase chain reaction in comparison to gold standard of targeted DNA sequencing of rpoB, katG gene and inhA promoter region...
July 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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