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Hepatic injury

Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Paulo Ricardo Gessolo Lins, Wallace Stwart Carvalho Padilha, Carolina Frade Magalhaes Giradin Pimentel, Marcelo Costa Batista, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de Gois
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in cirrhotic patients and is associated with negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of AKI and its progression according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria in cirrhotic patients admitted to the emergency department and to determine the association of AKI with hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study included 258 cirrhotic patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital from March 2015 to February 2017...
October 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Hai-Yan Sun, Yi-Jing Yan, Yan-Hui Li, Le Lv
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in the adjunctive therapy of the liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginsenosides are one kind of the main active ingredients in ginseng. Although hepatoprotective mechanisms of ginsenosides, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis, have been well studies, little is known about the effect of ginsenosides on drug metabolism in liver...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rupal Padhiyar, Swati Chavan, Swapnil Dhampalwar, Trupti Trivedi, Nivedita Moulick
Background: In India, it is estimated that up to 20,000 people die annually from snake bites. The present study was carried to out to estimate the snake bite related epidemiology, predictors of severity, relationship between type of snake, clinical severity, complications, outcome and usage pattern of polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV) in a tertiary care center. Methods: All indoor patients admitted in our institute with definitive history of bite by a snake, with or without presence of fang marks, Evidence of cellulitis, acute onset of neurotoxicity or bleeding diathesis were serially recruited in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Xian-Yang Qin, Jun Lu, Muyi Cai, Soichi Kojima
We previously reported a profound augmentation in the hepatic levels of a pro-inflammatory precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), during liver tumorigenesis. Here, we report a critical role of the induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cellular activation of a protein cross-linking enzyme, transglutaminase 2 (TG2), in liver injury by AA. In cultures of hepatic cells, AA dose-dependently suppressed cell growth, which accompanied the induced nuclear accumulation of TG2, as demonstrated in EGFP-tagged, TG2-overexpressing hepatic cells...
October 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Toshio Itani, Tomoaki Ishihara
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is characterized by insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and often prediabetes or diabetes. Canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is a new oral anti-diabetic drug that reduces hyperglycaemia by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Glycosuria produced by canagliflozin is associated with weight loss, mainly due to reduced fat volume and improve insulin resistance...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Yoonjin Nam, Jinhyung Bae, Ji Hoon Jeong, Sung Kwon Ko, Uy Dong Sohn
Background: Acute hepatic failure is a life-threatening critical condition associated with rapid deterioration of liver function and liver transplantation. Several studies have shown that Panax ginseng Mayer has antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects. However, the hepatoprotective effect of ginseng berry is still unveiled. In this study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of ultrasonication-processed ginseng berry extract (UGBE) on acute hepatic failure model in rats. Methods: Ginseng berry extract (GBE) was ultrasonically processed...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Vera A de Vries, Marcella C A Müller, M Sesmu Arbous, Bart J Biemond, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Nuray Kusadasi, Lambert R F Span, Alexander P J Vlaar, David J van Westerloo, Hanneke C Kluin-Nelemans, Walter M van den Bergh
OBJECTIVES: Historically, patients with a hematologic malignancy have one of the highest mortality rates among cancer patients admitted to the ICU. Therefore, physicians are often reluctant to admit these patients to the ICU. The aim of our study was to examine the survival of patients who have a hematologic malignancy and multiple organ failure admitted to the ICU. DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study, part of the HEMA-ICU study group, was designed to study the survival of patients with a hematologic malignancy and organ failure after admission to the ICU...
October 17, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Jinhyung Bae, Young Sil Min, Yoonjin Nam, Hyun Seok Lee, Uy Dong Sohn
It has been described that Humulus japonicus has potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory effects. The antiaging activity of H. japonicus extract (HJE) was also examined not only in yeast but also in human fibroblast cells. We evaluated the protective effect of HJE on hepatotoxicity in this study. We demonstrated the expression of antioxidative enzyme and cytokines in plasma. The vehicle control group received orally administered normal saline. Acute hepatotoxicity rat model was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (30 μg/kg) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN) (500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection...
October 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Fahaid Al-Hashem, Suliman Al-Humayed, Shaimaa N Amin, Samaa S Kamar, Soheir S Mansy, Sarah Hassan, Lubna O Abdel-Salam, Mohamed Abd Ellatif, Mohammed Alfaifi, Mohamed A Haidara, Bahjat Al-Ani
The potential inhibitory effect of the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, metformin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity associated with the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) axis has not been investigated before. Therefore, we tested whether metformin can protect against liver injuries including fibrosis induced by TAA possibly via the downregulation of mTOR-HIF-1α axis and profibrogenic and inflammatory biomarkers. Rats either injected with TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being killed after 10 weeks (model group) or were pretreated with metformin (200 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment, at Week 10 (protective group)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marilena Durazzo, Elena Ponzo, Silvia Bonetto, Sharmila Fagoonee, Rinaldo Pellicano
Due to the progressive increase in life expectancy, the number of elderly people in the world is growing rapidly. Although there are no liver diseases specific of older age, the ageing liver shows some anatomical and physiological changes that can affect the frequency and the clinical behavior of most hepatopathies. In particular, these changes tend to cause an increased vulnerability to acute liver injury and an increased susceptibility to liver fibrosis, accounting for the predisposition to a generally more severe course of liver diseases compared to younger patients...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Medica
Anna Maria Geretti, Harrison Austin, Giovanni Villa, Dan Hungerford, Colette Smith, Paula Davies, Jillian Williams, Apostolos Beloukas, Wojciech Sawicki, Mark Hopkins
Eliminating hepatitis C as a public health threat requires an improved understanding of how to increase testing uptake. We piloted point-of-care testing (POCT) for a current HCV infection in an inner-city Emergency Department (ED) and assessed the influence on uptake of offering concomitant screening for HIV. Over four months, all adults attending ED with minor injuries were first invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire then invited to test in alternating cycles offering HCV POCT or HCV+HIV POCT. Viral RNA was detected in finger-prick blood by GeneXpert...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Nobuyuki Fukuishi, Masae Yoshikawa, Ming-Yu Gui, Yong-Ri Jin, Xu-Wen Li, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Nobuhiko Miura, Yutaka Aoyagi
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of kamebakaurin (KA) and 1O, 20O-diacetyl kamebakaurin (Ac2 KA) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and compare the hepatoprotective mechanisms of the two chemicals. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered KA, Ac2 KA, or an ethanol/olive oil emulsion once per day for 7-days. Twenty-four hours after the final administration, the mice were fasted and then intraperitoneally injected with 450 mg/kg APAP or saline. At 16 h after injection, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for plasma analysis...
2018: Biomedical Research
Shohei Asada, Akitoshi Douhara, Koji Murata, Koji Yanase, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Hitoshi Yoshiji
Both autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) are known to be complicated by other autoimmune diseases. However, AIH complicated by EF has never been reported. We experienced a 58-year-old man with AIH complicated by EF. He was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatic injury and edema of the legs in April 201X. The etiologies of these symptoms were histologically proven as AIH and EF. The administration of prednisolone (PSL) drastically improved his liver injury and edema of the legs. When we make a diagnosis of AIH, we should carefully evaluate the physical findings, including the appearance of the legs, in order to detect other coexisting autoimmune diseases...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Yuki Hayashi, Junpei Yamaguchi, Toshio Kokuryo, Tomoki Ebata, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Masato Nagino
Although the regeneration of the adult liver depends on hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), many uncertainties regarding hepatic regeneration in the injured liver remain. Trefoil factor family 1 (TFF1), a secretory protein predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, is responsible for mucosal restitution. Here, we investigated the role of TFF1 in liver regeneration using a mouse model of hepatic injury (choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet and carbon tetrachloride administration) and genetically engineered mice (TFF1 knockout (TFF1-/-))...
October 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Natalie Chaves Cayuela, Gabrielly Pascoa Negreti, Roberto Rasslan, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, Edna Frasson de Souza Montero
PURPOSE: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours...
September 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Christopher A Parratt, Ava M Firth, Amanda K Boag, Gavin F Allison, Søren R Boysen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the signalment, etiology, and short-term outcome of dogs and cats presenting in a coma or stupor. DESIGN: Retrospective study conducted between May 2012 and February 2015. SETTING: Multicenter out-of-hours emergency service provider. ANIMALS: Three hundred eighty-six patients presenting in a coma or stupor to a multicenter out-of-hours emergency care provider. INTERVENTIONS: None...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Ali Yurtseven, Mümine Türksoylu, Pınar Yazıcı, Bülent Karapınar, Eylem Ulaş Saz
Yurtseven A, Türksoylu M, Yazıcı P, Karapınar B, Saz EU. A `glue sniffer` teenager with anuric renal failure and hepatitis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 206-209. `Inhalant abuse` is a common form of volatile drug abuse throughout the world especially in developing countries. This substance mainly contains toluene. Acute toluene inhalation produces a biphasic response with an initial central nervous system (CNS) excitation followed by CNS depression as well as various metabolic alterations. Chronic inhalational abuse is associated with muscular weakness, gastrointestinal symptoms, renal and hepatic injury...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Sho Akai, Shingo Oda, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Lamotrigine (LTG) has been widely prescribed as an antipsychotic drug, although it causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury in humans. LTG is mainly metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, while LTG undergoes bioactivation by cytochrome P450 to a reactive metabolite; it is subsequently conjugated with glutathione, suggesting that reactive metabolite would be one of the causes for LTG-induced liver injury. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of LTG-induced liver injury in both humans and rodents...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Liu Xin, Wu Fan, Du Tingting, Sun Zuoming, Zhang Qiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) on intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced liver cell injury and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: L02 cells (normal human liver cells) were cultured in normoxic condition or subjected to intermittent hypoxia for 4, 8, and 12 h. A part of hypoxia-treated L02 cells was applied with 4-PBA 1 h before exposure to hypoxia. The effect of 4-PBA on liver injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and PERK-eIFa2-ATF4-CHOP apoptotic pathway was investigated...
October 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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