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Hepatic injury

Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Dong-Sheng Zhao, Zi-Tian Wu, Zhuo-Qing Li, Ling-Li Wang, Li-Long Jiang, Wei Shi, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dioscorea bulbifera rhizome (DBR), one type of herbal medicine, is extensively used in both Indian and Chinese system of traditional medicine. It has been effective in treating various diseases, such as sore throat, struma, and tumors. However, more and more clinical investigations have suggested that DBR can cause liver injury. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we aimed to characterize the corresponding molecular changes of liver dysfunction and reveal overall metabolic and physiological mechanisms of the subchronic toxic effect of DBR...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sarang Thaker, Cemal Yazici, Sean Koppe
Pericardial tamponade is a rare cause of acute liver injury due to the compressive effects of an effusion resulting in a poor cardiac output which ultimately leads to ischemia-induced injury. We present a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection and end-stage renal disease who was transferred to our center for further evaluation and management of acute liver injury after presenting to an outside hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient was discovered to have tamponade physiology on transthoracic echocardiogram as an underlying cause of his acute liver injury despite lack of clinical tamponade features...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
Michael E Lindquist, Xiankun Zeng, Louis A Altamura, Sharon P Daye, Korey L Delp, Candace Blancett, Kayla M Coffin, Jeffrey W Koehler, Susan Coyne, Charles J Shoemaker, Aura R Garrison, Joseph W Golden
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can cause severe hepatic injury in humans. However, the mechanism(s) causing this damage are poorly characterized. CCHFV produces an acute disease, including liver damage, in mice lacking type I interferon signaling (IFN-I) either due to STAT-1 gene deletion or disruption of the IFN-I receptor 1 gene. Here, we explored CCHFV-induced liver pathogenesis in mice using an antibody to disrupt IFN-I signaling. When IFN-I blockade was induced within 24 h post-exposure to CCHFV, mice developed severe disease with greater than 95% mortality by six days post-exposure...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rachel Latremouille, Patricia Martinez-Quinones, Nicole S Lopez, Cassandra Q White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Lei Li, Wenxiang Huang, Shoukai Wang, Kecheng Sun, Wenxue Zhang, Yanmei Ding, Le Zhang, Bayaer Tumen, Lili Ji, Chang Liu
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known antipyretic and analgesic drug. However, the accidental or intentional APAP overdose will induce liver injury and even acute liver failure. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a bioactive compound isolated from Astragali Radix, has been reported to have protective effects on the digestive and immune systems because of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to observe whether AS-IV pretreatment provides protection against APAP-induced liver failure. The results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) analysis, hepatic glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) amounts, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity showed that AS-IV protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
August 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhi-Zhun Mo, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Zi-Ren Su, Lin Zheng, Hui-Lin Li, Jian-Hui Xie, Yan-Fang Xian, Tie-Gang Yi, Shui-Qing Huang, Jian-Ping Chen
Angelica sinensis (AS, Danggui in Chinese) is an important herbal component of various traditional formulae for the management of asthenia and its tonic effects. Although AS has been shown to ameliorate cognitive damage and nerve toxicity in D-galactose (D-gal)-elicited senescent mice brain, its effects on liver and kidney injury have not yet been explored. In this work, mice were subjected to hypodermic injection with D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally gavaged with AS (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 8 successive weeks...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Gaurav Maurya, Rajib Kishore Hazam, Rajesh Ruttala, Rahul Karna, Bhudev C Das, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND: The level of inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-10 is increased in patients infected with hepatitis-related acute liver failure (ALF), and this was thought to be because of the regulatory polymorphism in the IL-10 gene promoter region. The present study was designed to analyze the possible association between IL-10 gene promoter polymorphism and acute viral hepatitis (AVH), and ALF. An attempt was made to quantify IL-10 levels at admission, during the hospital stay, and at the final outcome to study its relationship with liver injury among patients with AVH, ALF, and controls...
August 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Neven Makram Aziz, Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of somatostatin (SST) analogue, Octreotide, on some features of liver injury induced by immobilization stress (IS) in adult male albino rats. Eighteen adult male albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: control, IS, and Octreotide-treated stressed groups. Octreotide (40 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was administrated twice daily for 8 days during the exposure to IS. Octreotide was found to reduce the IS significantly and induce elevations in the plasma level of corticosterone, liver transaminases, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as compared with IS group...
August 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Amber M D'Souza, Yanjun Jiang, Ashley Cast, Leila Valanejad, Mary Wright, Kyle Lewis, Meenasri Kumbaji, Sheeniza Shah, David Smithrud, Rebekah Karns, Soona Shin, Nikolai Timchenko
Background & Aims: Uncontrolled liver proliferation is a key characteristic of liver cancer; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Elucidation of these mechanisms is necessary for the development of better therapy. The oncogene Gankyrin (Gank) is overexpressed in both hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. The aim of this work was to determine the role of Gank in liver proliferation and elucidate the mechanism by which Gank promotes liver proliferation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xing-He Wang, Wei Li, Xing-Hui Wang, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xiao-Xu Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is very harmful for broiler production and public health. The water-soluble castoff in gluten production, i.e., the water-soluble substances of wheat (WSW) that contains 14% pentosan has positive effect on animal nutrient absorption, immunity, and antioxidation. Our study aims to investigate the preventive effects of WSW against AFB1-induced broiler liver injury. One day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly separated to 4 groups and were, respectively, fed with control diet, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard and 214 ml/kg WSW, and diet with 214 ml/kg WSW continuously for 28 d...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Xiaobo Cai, Zhenghong Li, Qidi Zhang, Yin Qu, Mingyi Xu, Xinjian Wan, Lungen Lu
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in response to the inflammatory response that accompanies tissue injury, which at an advanced stage can lead to cirrhosis and even liver failure. This study investigated the role of the CXC chemokine CXCL6 (GCP-2) in liver fibrosis. The expression of CXCL6 was found to be elevated in the serum and liver tissue of high stage liver fibrosis patients. Furthermore, treatment with CXCL6 (100 ng/mL) stimulated the phosphorylation of EGFR and the expression of TGF-β in cultured Kupffer cells (KCs)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Giuseppe Corrias, Simone Krebs, Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Davinia Ryan, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Luca Saba, Serena Monti, Maggie Fung, Scott Reeder, Lorenzo Mannelli
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. Since the liver plays an active role in the metabolism of chemotherapy agents, hepatic injury is a common adverse effect. The purpose of this study is to compare a novel quantitative chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) method with conventional T1-weighted In and Out of phase (T1 IOP) MR for evaluating the reproducibility of the methods in an oncologic population exposed to chemotherapy...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Mei-Hui Wang, Chuan-Yi Chien, Hung-Man Yu, Ping-Yen Wang, Wuu-Jyh Lin
Many biochemical tests detecting the presence of liver disease are not liver-specific and may be abnormal in non-hepatic conditions. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a hepatocyte-specific receptor for Gal/GalNAc-terminated glycopeptide or glycoprotein. The number of these receptors decreases in patients with chronic liver diseases. Here, we aimed to evaluate the use of 111 In-hexavalent lactoside, a known ASGPR imaging biomarker, as a more sensitive probe to detect small changes in liver reserve in animal models of chronic liver injury...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Zun-En Xia, Juan-Li Xi, Lei Shi
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural acid condensation extracted from cruciferous plants, exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in hepatic and cardiac fibrosis models. The effects of DIM on renal fibrosis, however, are unclear. This study aimed to explore the protective effects of DIM on renal fibrosis. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated normal rat kidney (NRK)-49F fibroblast cell mouse models were established. The models were then treated with DIM for the assessment of its anti-fibrotic effects and mechanisms...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Naoya Yamada, Takumi Katano, Yuta Hirata, Noriki Okada, Yukihiro Sanada, Yoshiyuki Ihara, Taizen Urahashi, Kentaro Ushijima, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Masafumi Takahashi, Koichi Mizuta
BACKGROUND: Serum Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel fibrosis marker for various chronic liver diseases. We investigated the ability of M2BPGi to predict liver fibrosis in liver transplant (LT) recipients. METHODS: A total of 116 liver biopsies (LB) were performed in 113 LT recipients. The serum level of M2BPGi was also measured on the same day. The median age at LT and LB was 1.1 and 11.8 years, respectively. Serum M2BPGi levels and liver fibrosis status using METAVIR fibrosis score were compared...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Laure Monteillet, Monika Gjorgjieva, Marine Silva, Vincent Verzieux, Linda Imikirene, Adeline Duchampt, Hervé Guillou, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas
OBJECTIVE: Ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys is a hallmark of metabolic diseases leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, recent data have highlighted a strong correlation between NAFLD and CKD incidences. In this study, we use two mouse models of hepatic steatosis or CKD, each initiated independently of the other upon the suppression of glucose production specifically in the liver or kidneys, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of CKD in the context of NAFLD-like pathology...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Christopher Adlbrecht, Alejandro Blanco-Verea, María C Bouzas-Mosquera, María Brion, Martin Burtscher, Federico Carbone, Ting-Ting Chang, Evangelia Charmandari, Jaw-Wen Chen, Liane Correia-Costa, Robin P F Dullaart, Makarios Eleftheriades, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Georg Goliasch, Thomas Gremmel, Menno Evert Groeneveld, Alexandrino Henrique, Martin Huelsmann, Christian Jung, Michael Lichtenauer, Fabrizio Montecucco, Nicolas C Nicolaides, Alexander Niessner, Carlos Palmeira, Markus Pirklbauer, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Alexandros Sotiriadis, Teresa Sousa, Patrick Sulzgruber, André P van Beek, Nicola Veronese, Max-Paul Winter, Kak Khee Yeung
Following the publication of our study [1] no biochemical data derived from adolescent marathon runners have been made available. However, there are two potentially relevant investigations including adult runners. Shin and colleagues demonstrated different effects depending on the running distance, i.e. marathon, 100 km and 308 km [2]. Hepatic function was more impaired after completing 308 km (low intensity, long duration) compared to marathon or 100 km, but renal dysfunction was more pronounced after marathon and especially after 100 km (higher intensity and shorter duration)...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Puneet Puri, George Cholankeril, Thomas Y Myint, Aparna Goel, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ann M Harper, Aijaz Ahmed
Liver transplantation is lifesaving for patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) with preliminary data demonstrating favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, we demonstrate that liver transplantation for SAH in the USA has steadily increased and is associated with similar 1- and 3-year post-transplant survival as well as comparable 30-day waitlist mortality to acute liver failure due to drug-induced liver injury.
August 7, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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