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General Medical

Nadav Harel, Jeremy T Moskovitch, Tracey J Weiland, Michael R Augello
Prisoners are a particularly vulnerable minority group whose healthcare needs and management differ substantially from the general population. The overall burden of disease of prisoners is well documented; however, little is known regarding the aetiology and frequency of prisoners' acute medical complaints requiring an ED visit. Objectives of the review were to identify, review and appraise existing literature regarding prisoners' presentations to EDs. We performed systematic electronic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science using MeSH terms and keywords...
August 17, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Marion Demouron, Xavier Delforge, Philippe Buisson, Mounia Hamzy, Céline Klein, Elodie Haraux
BACKGROUND: To assess the need for contralateral surgical exploration in preterm girls with symptomatic unilateral inguinal hernia. METHODS: The medical data of girls operated for inguinal hernia between 2004 and 2016 in a single pediatric surgery center were retrospectively collected. Preterm girls operated for unilateral hernia before 6 months of life were selected (55/517 cases) to assess the incidence and risk factors for contralateral metachronous inguinal hernia (CMIH)...
August 17, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Trine Madsen, Annette Erlangsen, Sonja Orlovska, Ramy Mofaddy, Merete Nordentoft, Michael E Benros
Importance: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can have serious long-term consequences, including psychiatric disorders. However, few studies have assessed the association between TBI and risk of suicide. Objective: To examine the association between TBI and subsequent suicide. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using nationwide registers covering 7 418 391 individuals (≥10 years) living in Denmark (1980-2014) with 164 265 624 person-years' follow-up; 567 823 (7...
August 14, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Motti Haimi, Shuli Brammli-Greenberg, Yehezkel Waisman, Orna Baron-Epel
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine in general, and telephone triage, in particular, is considered a high-stress clinical activity and involves decision making under conditions of uncertainty and urgency. AIM: We wanted to explore the experiences, attitudes, and challenges of the physicians in a Pediatric Telemedicine Service operated in Israel, and to explore whether the doctors are using non-medical factors (not related to the medical problem), when making the clinical decisions in this setting...
July 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
Elise Chia-Hui Tan, Duan-Rung Chen
PURPOSE: The health of physicians can have a strong impact on the quality and safety of the health care they provide. Studies have shown a link between work stress, burnout, and depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between malpractice dispute experiences and the well-being of physicians. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to collect information about the malpractice experiences of primary care physicians in 2004. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and SF-36 measures were also collected...
August 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Ambrose H Wong, R Andrew Taylor, Jessica M Ray, Steven L Bernstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of agitation among emergency department (ED) patients is increasing. Physical restraints are routinely used to prevent self-harm and to protect staff, but are associated with serious safety risks. To date, characterization of physical restraint use in the emergency setting has been limited. We thus aim to describe restraint patterns in the general ED to guide future investigation in the management of behavioral disorders. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to 5 adult EDs within a large regional health system for 2013 to 2015, and with a physical restraint order during their visit...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Samed Rahatli, Ozden Altundag, Ebru Ayvazoglu Soy, Gokhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The risk of some cancer types increases after organ transplant compared with that shown in the general population; this has been well documented in clinical studies. With patients having longer survival and with the higher number of transplant procedures, cancer is an increasing health concern at high-volume transplant centers. Malignancy has an important effect on short- and long-term graft and patient survival. In this study, we evaluated cancer frequency during transplant patient follow-up...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Fabiën N Belle, Rahel Kasteler, Christina Schindera, Murielle Bochud, Roland A Ammann, Nicolas X von der Weid, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids can lead to weight gain during cancer treatment, but to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their long-term effects in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). METHODS: As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, the authors sent a questionnaire to CCS aged <21 years at diagnosis who were residing in Switzerland, had survived ≥5 years, and were aged 15 to 45 years at the time of the survey. Cumulative doses of glucocorticoids were assessed from medical records and study protocols and body mass index was calculated from self-reported height and weight at the time of the survey...
August 17, 2018: Cancer
Guo-Zhang Zhu, Wei-Rui Zhao, Cheng-En Luo, Bing Cai, Xiang-Xue Kong, Wen-Feng Zhan, Zhong-Sheng Sun, Sheng-Kang Luo
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications resulting from intravascular filler injection and embolism are major safety concerns for facial filler injection. It is essential to systematically screen full face arterial variations and help design evidence-based safe filler injection protocols. METHODS: The carotid arteries of 22 cadaveric heads were infused with adequate lead oxide contrast. The facial and superficial temporal arteries of another 12 cadaveric heads were injected with the contrast in a sequential order...
August 14, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Hyejung Oh, Hyunjin Noh, Omar T Sims, Yuqi Guo, Patricia Sawyer
Although residential geographic health disparities have been noted in the previous literature, studies are specifically lacking on intra-group health comparisons of African American older adults by residential geography. The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related characteristics of African American older adults varied by residential geography. Socioeconomic demographics, medical conditions, primary care use, and self-ratings of general health, social activity, and physical activity were compared in a community-dwelling sample of 327 urban and non-urban African American older adults...
August 17, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
Benjamin J W Kuek, Huihua Li, Susan Yap, Marie X R Ng, Yih Yng Ng, Alexander E White, Marcus E H Ong
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe frequent users of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) conveyed to a Singapore tertiary hospital, focusing on a comparison between younger users (age <65) and older users in diagnoses and admission rates. METHODS: All patients conveyed by EMS to a tertiary hospital 4 times or more over a 1-year period in 2015 had their EMS ambulance charts and Emergency Department (ED) electronic records retrospectively analyzed (n = 243), with admission the primary outcome...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jane H Brice, Julianne M Cyr, Andrew T Hnat, Trent L Wei, Stephanie Principe, Sarah E Thead, Theodore R Delbridge, James E Winslow, Jonathan R Studnek, Antonio R Fernandez, Emily E Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To characterize key health indicators in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and identify areas for intervention in order to ensure a strong and capable emergency health workforce. METHODS: Participants were EMS personnel delivering patients to four regional tertiary care emergency departments within North Carolina (NC). After transferring patient care and agreeing to participate, height, weight, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and each participant completed a questionnaire regarding demographics, activity levels, alcohol consumption, smoking, and medical history...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
A F Santoro, S M Shear, A Haber
BACKGROUND: Associations between childhood adversity and negative health outcomes are well documented within the general population; however, this relationship has yet to be confirmed in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). Bridging the gap between public health and I/DD research is critical in order to better understand the ways in which the health of people with I/DD are compromised by adversity and social disadvantage and to develop preventative care frameworks and health-promoting practices specifically for adults with I/DD...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Farid F Youssef
Background: There are limited empirical data on all matters pertaining to mental illness in the Caribbean but what little there is suggests significant levels of stigmatization exist. In this context, health professionals reveal at least equal to or only slightly improved attitudes to mental illness as compared to the general population. In addition, while there is evidence of improved attitudes among the population at large over the past decade this trend has not been observed among health professionals...
January 2018: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Yuanqing Pan, Kehu Yang, Xiue Shi, Haiqian Liang, Xiping Shen, Renjie Wang, Li Ma, Qi Cui, Runze Yu, Yi Dong
IMPORTANCE: Acupuncture can help reduce unpleasant side effects associated with endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Nevertheless, comprehensive evaluation of current evidence from randomized controlled trials(RCTs) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy of acupuncture for the reduction of hormone therapy-related side effects in breast cancer patients. EVIDENCE REVIEW: RCTs of acupuncture in breast cancer patients that examined reductions in hormone therapy-related side effects were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases through April 2016...
September 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Ty Kirkpatrick, Bethany Zimmerman, Karl LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted surgery has proved to be a valuable modality in specialties such as urology and gynecology and has gained wide acceptance in those fields. Its value in general surgery, however, has had a slower acceptance rate among surgeons. This study reviews my first 150 cases using the robot for one of the most common general surgery operations-the repair of hernias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All robotic hernia cases performed by a single surgeon were documented in an Excel� (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) spreadsheet beginning in April, 2014...
August 14, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Liping Chen, Chunliu Luo, Shuai Liu, Weiju Chen, Yaping Liu, Yunjia Li, Yun Du, Haihua Zou, Jiyang Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in a population of hospital nurses in South China as well as the influence of EDS on the occurrence of adverse events. METHODS: A total of 1102 nurses working in a large medical center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (96.9% females, mean age 29.6 years). They all completed a self-reported questionnaire consisting of items on demographic variables, lifestyle factors, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and both work-related and sleep-related characteristics...
August 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Ruin Moaddel, Michelle Shardell, Mohammed Khadeer, Jacqueline Lovett, Bashkim Kadriu, Sarangan Ravichandran, Patrick J Morris, Peixiong Yuan, Craig J Thomas, Todd D Gould, Luigi Ferrucci, Carlos A Zarate
(R,S)-Ketamine produces rapid, robust, and sustained antidepressant effects in major depressive disorder. Specifically, its pharmacological efficacy in treatment refractory depression is considered a major breakthrough in the field. However, the mechanism of action of ketamine's rapid effect remains to be determined. In order to identify pathways that are responsible for ketamine's effect, a targeted metabolomic approach was carried out using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, with infusion order randomized with medication-free patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (29 subjects) and healthy controls (25 subjects)...
August 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Michael Mankbadi, Samira Hassan, Michelle McGee, Bonnie Jan, Sibani Mangal, Jake Altier, Manjunath Harlapur
Brugada syndrome (BS) is an inherited cardiac ion channelopathy that is a rare, but treatable, cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD). There are many studies that explore the management of symptomatic BS, but few trials have been conducted regarding management of asymptomatic Brugada patients. Asymptomatic BS patients are shown to be at increased risk (0.5%-1.5%) for SCD compared to the general population and account for nearly 20% of deaths from SCD in patients with structurally normal hearts. Treatment for asymptomatic BS patients is often debated with the current guidelines allowing for management decisions to be made on a case-by-case basis...
June 13, 2018: Curēus
Katie J Lee, Anna Finnane, H Peter Soyer
Teledermatology is a useful alternative where specialized dermatological assistance is not available and has been used successfully to support health professionals in a wide range of settings worldwide, in either an asynchronous store-and-forward format or a real-time video conferencing format. Teledermoscopy, which includes dermoscopic images in the teleconsultation, is another addition that improves remote assessments of pigmented lesions. A more recent variant is mobile teledermoscopy, which uses a smartphone to deliver the same type of service...
July 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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