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General Medical

Géraldine Bloy, Laetitia Moussard Philippon, Laurent Rigal
INTRODUCTION: Healthy behaviours become less common when descending the social ladder, which contributes to social inequalities in health. General practitioners (GPs) could have an impact on this general trend by providing preventive care counselling. We wanted to describe the social inequalities related to physical activity (PA) and the counselling given to patients, in order to improve our understanding of how inequalities can be produced at the doctor-patient relationship level. METHODS: Prev Quanti simultaneously examined social differences in the patients' level of PA and in the PA counselling provided by their GPs...
September 6, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Kai Zhao, Hon-Cheong So
The cost of new drug development has been increasing, and repurposing known medications for new indications serves as an important way to hasten drug discovery. One promising approach to drug repositioning is to take advantage of machine learning (ML) algorithms to learn patterns in biological data related to drugs and then link them up to the potential of treating specific diseases. Here we give an overview of the general principles and different types of ML algorithms, as well as common approaches to evaluating predictive performances, with reference to the application of ML algorithms to predict repurposing opportunities using drug expression data as features...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yunguan Wang, Jaswanth Yella, Anil G Jegga
Conventional drug discovery in general is costly and time-consuming with extremely low success and relatively high attrition rates. The disparity between high cost of drug discovery and vast unmet medical needs resulted in advent of an increasing number of computational approaches that can "connect" disease with a candidate therapeutic. This includes computational drug repurposing or repositioning wherein the goal is to discover a new indication for an approved drug. Computational drug discovery approaches that are commonly used are similarity-based wherein network analysis or machine learning-based methods are used...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hamza A Salhab, Pascale Salameh, Hind Hajj, Hassan Hosseini
Background: The Arab world has an increasing prevalence of strokes, a leading cause of death in this part of the world. Aims: The aim of this article is to quantify the stroke research activity in the Arab countries over the past 15 years taking into consideration the population, GDP, and DALY of each country. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to find stroke research articles published from the Arab countries between 2002 and 2016 (inclusive)...
December 2018: ENeurologicalSci
Glenn Goodwin, Dyana Picache, Brian J Louie, Nicholas Gaeto, Tarik Zeid, Paxton P Aung, Armando Clift, Sonu Sahni
Background Despite advances in resuscitation science and public health, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) cases have an average survival rate of only 12% nationwide, compared to 24.8% of cases occurring in hospital. Many factors, including resuscitation interventions, contribute to positive patient outcomes and have, therefore, been studied in attempts to optimize emergency medical services (EMS) protocols to achieve higher rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the field. However, no consensus has been met regarding the appropriate amount of time for EMS to spend on scene...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Erfan Soliman, Sarujan Ranjan, Tianyou Xu, Carol Gee, Aidan Harker, Alvaro Barrera, John Geddes
There are 12 billion injections given worldwide every year. For many injections, the intramuscular route is favoured over the subcutaneous route due to the increased vascularity of muscle tissue and the corresponding increase in the bioavailability of drugs when administered intramuscularly. This paper is a review of the variables that affect the success of intramuscular injections and the implications that these success rates have in psychiatry and general medicine. Studies have shown that the success rates of intended intramuscular injections vary between 32 and 52%, with the rest potentially resulting in inadvertent subcutaneous drug deposition...
2018: Bio-design and manufacturing
Shadi Saleh, Amena El Harakeh, Maysa Baroud, Najah Zeineddine, Angie Farah, Abla Mehio Sibai
Background: Global mortality rates resulting from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching alarming levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries, imposing a considerable burden on individuals and health systems as a whole. This scoping review aims at synthesizing the existing literature evaluating the cost associated with the management and treatment of major NCDs across all Arab countries; at evaluating the quality of these studies; and at identifying the gap in existing literature...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Chirn-Bin Chang, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Shu-Yu Yang, Ru-Shu Wu, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Ding-Cheng Chan
Background: PIM-Taiwan criteria were first established in 2010 for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Currently, updating of PIM criteria is mandatory because of newly established evidence and newly developed medications. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of PIM based on country-specific PIM criteria and factors associated with PIM use by applying 2010 version and newly updating PIM-Taiwan criteria in a cohort with polypharmacy. Methods: The baseline data of Medication Safety Review Clinic Taiwan (MSRC-Taiwan) study were used to investigate the prevalence of PIMs...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Jing Chen, Kangjia Zheng, Weihai Xia, Qi Wang, Zongqing Liao, Yutong Zheng
Attitudes toward one's own aging and self-esteem are crucial variables in predicting older adults' physical and mental health and can significantly affect their will to live, cognitive judgement and acceptance of medical treatment. However, little is known about the relation between the implicit attitude toward one's own aging and implicit self-esteem. This research explored consistencies between implicit and explicit attitudes toward one's own aging and between implicit and explicit self-esteem and explored their relations in 70 older adults aged 60-91 years old using the word and picture versions of the Implicit Association Test and standardized scales...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nima Eftekhary, James E Feng, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Ran Schwarzkopf, Jonathan M Vigdorchik, William J Long
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) score is a nationally standardized measure of a patient's inpatient experience. This study aims to assess whether HCAHPS scores differ between patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and patients undergoing revision TJA. METHODS: Patients who underwent primary or revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) and returned a completed HCAHPS survey were included in this study...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kalysha Closson, Alexis Palmer, Kate Salters, Cathy Puskas, Surita Parashar, Lateefa Tiamiyu, Wendy Zhang, Rolando Barrios, Angela Kaida, Robert S Hogg
PURPOSE: We assessed differences in optimal adherence between youth (aged 15-29 years) and adults (aged ≥30 years) enrolled in the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: Population-level clinical data were used to compare optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence (≥95%), based on pharmacy refill data, among youth and adults. Unadjusted and adjusted generalized estimating estimates were performed to examine the independent relationship between time-dependent age categories and optimal adherence, adjusting for confounders...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Melanie Handley, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of interventions to improve hospital care for patients with dementia. Evidence for their impact on staff actions and patient outcomes is, however, limited and context dependent. OBJECTIVE: To explain the factors that support hospital staff to provide dementia sensitive care and with what outcomes for patients with dementia. DESIGN: A realist evaluation using a two-site case study approach. SETTING: Two hospital trusts in the East of England...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Deborah Winders Davis, Yana Feygin, Liza Creel, P Gail Williams, W David Lohr, V Faye Jones, Jennifer Le, Natalie Pasquenza, Soutik Ghosal, Kahir Jawad, Xiaofang Yan, Gil Liu, Samantha McKinley
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prescribing of stimulants in preschool-age children receiving Medicaid and to identify factors associated with the receipt of psychosocial care. STUDY DESIGN: Data were extracted from 2012-2016 Kentucky Medicaid claims for children aged <6 years. ADHD was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes F90.0, F90.1, F90.2, F90...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Thiago Ferreira de Toledo, Huei Diana Lee, Newton Spolaôr, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Feng Chung Wu
The overall purpose of automatic speech recognition systems is to make possible the interaction between humans and electronic devices through speech. For example, the content captured from user's speech using a microphone can be transcribed into text. In general, such systems should be able to overcome adversities such as noise, communication channel variability, speaker's age and accent, speech speed, concurrent speeches from other speakers and spontaneous speech. Despite this challenging scenario, this study aims to develop a Web System Prototype to generate medical reports through automatic speech recognition in the Brazilian Portuguese language...
January 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Hildi Hagedorn, Marie Kenny, Adam J Gordon, Princess E Ackland, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Wei Yu, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors...
December 13, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Peipei Zhao, Bolin Cao, Cedric H Bien-Gund, Weiming Tang, Jason J Ong, Yi Ding, Weiying Chen, Joseph D Tucker, Zhenzhou Luo
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in China. Inadequate clinical services and poor clinical competency among physicians are major barriers to improving the sexual health of MSM. This study aims to understand physician clinical competency in providing MSM health services in China. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey among Chinese physicians who have seen male patients for STI complaints in the past year...
December 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Junwon Lee, Christopher Seungkyu Lee, Min Kim, Sung Chul Lee
BACKGROUND: Changes in retinal fluid patterns associated with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) have not been investigated yet. A long-term follow-up study was performed to evaluate the changes of retinal fluid patterns and treatment responses. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all CCH patients diagnosed between November 2005 and March 2017. Enrolled patients had visual symptoms, were treatment-naïve, and had been followed-up for more than 2 years...
December 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Charlotte F Davies, Joanna M Kesten, Mark Gompels, Jeremy Horwood, Megan Crofts, Annette Billing, Charlotte Chick, Margaret T May
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients often present to primary care several times with HIV-indicator conditions before diagnosis but the opportunity to test by healthcare professionals (HCPs) is frequently missed. Current HIV testing rates in primary care are low and educational interventions to facilitate HCPs to increase testing and awareness of HIV are needed. METHOD: We implemented a pilot feasibility stepped-wedged randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention in high HIV prevalence practices in Bristol...
December 13, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Susana Carregal-Romero, Sandra Plaza-García, Rafael Piñol, José L Murillo, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Daniel Padro, Angel Millán, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer
Medical imaging is an active field of research that fosters the necessity for novel multimodal imaging probes. In this line, nanoparticle-based contrast agents are of special interest, since those can host functional entities either within their interior, reducing potential toxic effects of the imaging tracers, or on their surface, providing high payloads of probes, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. The long-term stability of the particles in solution is an aspect usually under-tackled during probe design in research laboratories, since their performance is generally tested briefly after synthesis...
December 12, 2018: Biosensors
Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) levels may be confounded by spurious results in anemic persons, but its degree is not well-established. METHODS: We used an employer-based health insurance database, containing health checkup data and medical claims data; both were linked via a unique identifier of each beneficiary. This study included persons aged 18⁻75 years who participated in health checkups, with a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of diabetes...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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