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Exercise Heat

Cora Weigert, Miriam Hoene, Peter Plomgaard
Regular physical activity not only improves the exercise capacity of the skeletal muscle performing the contractions, but it is beneficial for the whole body. An extensive search for "exercise factors" mediating these beneficial effects has been going on for decades. Particularly skeletal muscle tissue has been investigated as a source of circulating exercise factors, and several myokines have been identified. However, exercise also has an impact on other tissues. The liver is interposed between energy storing and energy utilising tissues and is highly active during exercise, maintaining energy homeostasis...
October 18, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Katarzyna E Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Jolanta Patro-Małysza, Agnieszka Stenzel-Bembenek, Jan Oleszczuk, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex condition that involves a variety of pathological mechanisms, including pancreatic β-cell failure, insulin resistance, and inflammation. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that these interrelated phenomena may arise from the common mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Both obesity-associated nutrient excess and hyperglycemia disturb ER function in protein folding and transport. This results in the accumulation of polypeptides in the ER lumen and impairs insulin secretion and signaling...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrew W D'Souza, Sean R Notley, Erin K Brown, Martin P Poirier, Glen P Kenny
Using direct calorimetry, we determined whether the Hexoskin® shirt, a wearable device for monitoring physiological strain, would compromise whole-body heat loss and exacerbate body heat storage during moderate-intensity activity in hot-dry conditions. The shirt did not impair heat dissipation and resulted in similar body heat storage when worn alone relative to a semi-nude condition (214 vs. 211 kJ) or when worn underneath a work uniform compared to a cotton undershirt (307 vs. 318 kJ).
October 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sven P Hoekstra, Nicolette C Bishop, Steve H Faulkner, Stephen J Bailey, Christof Andreas Leicht
Regular exercise-induced acute inflammatory responses are suggested to improve the inflammatory profile and insulin sensitivity. As body temperature elevations partly mediate this response, passive heating might be a viable tool to improve the inflammatory profile. This study investigated the acute, and chronic effects of hot water immersion on inflammatory and metabolic markers. Ten sedentary, overweight males (BMI: 31.0±4.2 kg/m2 ) were immersed in water set at 39°C for 1 h (HWI) or rested for 1 h at ambient temperature (AMB)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lauren K Walsh, Thaysa Ghiarone, T Dylan Olver, Areli Medina-Hernandez, Jenna C Edwards, Pamela K Thorne, Craig A Emter, Jonathan R Lindner, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Jaume Padilla
KEY POINT: It has been postulated that increased blood flow-associated shear stress on endothelial cells is an underlying mechanism by which physical activity enhances insulin-stimulated vasodilation. This report provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that increased shear stress exerts insulin-sensitizing effects in the vasculature and this evidence is based on experiments in vitro in endothelial cells, ex vivo in isolated arterioles, and in vivo in humans. Given the recognition that vascular insulin signaling, and associated enhanced microvascular perfusion, contributes to glycemic control and maintenance of vascular health, strategies that stimulate an increase in limb blood flow and shear stress have the potential to have profound metabolic and vascular benefits mediated by improvements in endothelial insulin sensitivity...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
M Libarle, Ph Simon, V Bogne, A Pintiaux, E Furet
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common reasons for consultation in gynecology. The social and economic burdens are important. Dysmenorrhea may therefore be considered as a major public health issue. Its management is not yet optimal as dysmenorrhea still affects the quality of life of many patients. Primary dysmenorrhea, with no underlying organic cause, results from myometrial hyper contractility, arteriolar vasoconstriction, and tissue hypoxia. Secondary dysmenorrhea may involve the pathophysiological mechanisms of primary dysmenorrhea, but is mainly the expression of an underlying gynecological pathology...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Tze-Huan Lei, James D Cotter, Zachary J Schlader, Stephen R Stannard, Blake G Perry, Matthew J Barnes, Toby Mündel
KEY POINTS: One in two female athletes chronically take a combined, mono-phasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Previous thermoregulatory investigations having theorised that an endogenous rhythm of the menstrual cycle still occurs with OCP usage. Forthcoming large international sporting events will expose female athletes to hot environments differing in their thermal profile, yet few data exist on how trained women will respond from both a thermoregulatory and performance standpoint. We demonstrated here that a small endogenous rhythm of the menstrual cycle still affects Tcore, and that chronic OCP use attenuates the sweating response but behavioural thermoregulation is maintained...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Takamasa Tsuzuki, Toshinori Yoshihara, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Ryo Kakigi, Yuri Takamine, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hisashi Naito
This study examined the effect of changes in body temperature during exercise on signal transduction-related glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (25 weeks of age), which have type 2 diabetes, were divided into the following four weight-matched groups; control (CON, n = 6), exercised under warm temperature (WEx, n = 8), exercised under cold temperature (CEx, n = 8), and heat treatment (HT, n = 6). WEx and CEx animals were subjected to running on a treadmill at 20 m/min for 30 min under warm (25°C) or cold (4°C) temperature...
2018: PloS One
Amy L Kimball, Patrick M McCue, Michael A Petrie, Richard K Shields
AIM: Exercise modulates glucose tolerance and homeostasis in both healthy and diabetic individuals. Heat stress is a fundamental element of exercise. The acute glycemic response and alterations in glucose clearance following whole body passive heat stress in the absence of muscle activity has yet to be examined in humans. Knowledge of this relationship may prove useful, particularly in populations with compromised glucoregulation from reduced activity. PURPOSE: To determine insulin/glucose levels before and after an acute bout of heat stress in healthy, lean individuals and examine the effects of whole body heat stress (WBHS) and exercise on acute glucose tolerance in an expanded cohort...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Luana Colloca, Nicole Corsi, Mirta Fiorio
Over the last few decades, placebo, and nocebo effects in general, have been investigated at rest. This proposed study explores whether they could work even when the experience of pain occurs during a movement. Exercise itself can have a hypoalgesic effect, suggesting that placebo- and exercise-induced hypoalgesia could foster pain reduction. In the present study, we investigated the interplay of exercise, placebo and nocebo effects on pain. To this aim, we developed a machine-controlled isotonic motor task to standardize the exercise across participants and used a well-validated model of placebo and nocebo manipulations with reinforced expectations via a conditioning procedure including visual cues paired with heat painful stimulations...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter A Falgiano, Trevor L Gillum, Zach J Schall, Harrison R Strag, Matthew R Kuennen
INTRODUCTION: Curcumin reduces gut barrier damage and plasma cytokine responses to exertional heat stress. However, the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in this response remains unclear. PURPOSE: This work investigated the effect of 3 days of 500 mg/day dietary curcumin supplementation on PBMC responses to exertional heat stress in non-heat acclimated humans. METHODS: Eight participants ran (65% VO2max ) for 60 min in an environmental chamber (37 °C/25% RH) two times (curcumin/placebo)...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Joshua Bautz, David Hostler, Priya Khorana, Joe Suyama
Bautz, J, Hostler, D, Khorana, P, and Suyama, J. Cardiovascular effects of compression garments during uncompensable heat stress. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the potential hemodynamic benefits of wearing lower extremity compression garments (CGs) beneath thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by wildland firefighters, while exercising in a heated environment. Using in a counterbalanced design, 10 male subjects ([mean ± SD] age 27 ± 6 years, height 1.78 ± 0.09 m, body mass 74...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Felicity M Bright, Georgia K Chaseling, Ollie Jay, Nathan B Morris
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the exercise performance benefits with neck cooling in the heat are attributable to neck-specific cooling, general body cooling, a cooler site-specific thermal perception or a combination of the above. DESIGN: Counter-balanced crossover design. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants cycled in the heat (34°C, 30% relative humidity), at a power output (PO) self-selected to maintain a fixed rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 16...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Martin D Hoffman, Rhiannon M J Snipe, Ricardo J S Costa
PURPOSE: To examine if ad libitum drinking will adequately support hydration during exertional heat stress. METHODS: Ten endurance-trained runners ran for 2 h at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under different conditions. Participants drank water ad libitum during separate trials at mean ambient temperatures of 22 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C. Participants also completed three trials at a mean ambient temperature of 35 °C while drinking water ad libitum in all trials, and with consumption of programmed glucose or whey protein hydrolysate solutions to maintain euhydration in two of these trials...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matthew J McAllister, Steven A Basham, JohnEric W Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Ben M Krings, Joni A Mettler, Matthew B Butawan, Richard J Bloomer
OBJECTIVE: Firefighters (FFs) involved in fire suppression have the greatest on-duty risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be caused by oxidative stress (OS). METHODS: Healthy, active FFs performed a victim "search and clear" exercise involving three conditions: 1) no heat, 2) heat + antioxidant, and 3) heat + placebo. Blood samples were analyzed for OS markers glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Beril Dogu, Ahmet Usen, Banu Kuran, Figen Yilmaz, Hulya Sirzai
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measures assessing self-reported disability, pain, and function are primary endpoints for determination of optimal treatment strategies in hand-related conditions. In this study, we aimed to compare responsiveness of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), and Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) in patients with traumatic hand injury. METHODS: Consecutive patients with traumatic hand injury who were referred to our polyclinic for rehabilitation were included in the study...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Michele Shropshire, Stephen J Stapleton, Mary J Dyck, Myoungjin Kim, Caroline Mallory
Elders residing in long-term care facilities experience ongoing moderate to severe pain, relief from and increased comfort remain relevant healthcare concerns. However, persistent, noncancer pain may not have been properly addressed due to insufficient attention to research that exists to support the utilization and efficacy of nonpharmacological intervention(s) for elders in long-term care facilities. Our aim of this integrated review was to evaluate the current state of the science on nonpharmacological intervention(s) for pain that are currently utilized in elders who reside in long-term care facilities...
September 22, 2018: Nursing Forum
Adaeze C Ayuk, Jordache Ramjith, Heather J Zar
Background Asthma prevalence in African children is high. Factors driving the prevalence or disease severity are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate environmental factors associated with asthma and severity in African children. Methods Population based cross-sectional study of children aged 13-14 years from 10 African centers who participated in ISAAC III. Self-reported environmental exposures included engaging in physical exercise, television watching, various biomass and ETS exposure, consumption of paracetamol, large family sizes and having pets in the home...
September 20, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Tatsuro Amano, Anna Igarashi, Naoto Fujii, Daichi Hiramatsu, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Narihiko Kondo
PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during bilateral static knee extension (KE) and lateral isometric handgrip (IH) exercises followed by post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in habitually trained individuals. METHOD: Ten habitually trained men (maximum oxygen uptake, 57.1 ± 3.4 ml kg-1  min-1 ) were mildly heated by increasing their skin temperature, and bilateral KE or lateral IH exercises at an intensity of 60% maximum voluntary contraction were subsequently performed for 1 min, followed by PEMI to stimulate muscle metaboreceptors for 2 min...
September 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matthew A Borgman, Morten Zaar, James K Aden, Zachary J Schlader, Daniel Gagnon, Eric Rivas, Jena Kern, Victor A Convertino, Andrew P Cap, Craig G Crandall
Heat stress followed by an accompanying hemorrhagic challenge may influence hemostasis. We tested the hypothesis that hemostatic responses are increased by passive heat stress, and exercise-induced heat stress, each with accompanying central hypovolemia to simulate a hemorrhagic insult. In Aim 1, subjects were exposed to passive heating or normothermic time control, each followed by progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to pre-syncope. In Aim 2 subjects exercised in hyperthermic environmental conditions, with and without accompanying dehydration, each also followed by progressive LBNP to pre-syncope...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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