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Parkinson's disease and cognition

Alexandru Hanganu, Oury Monchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease was studied for a long time from the prism of a motor impairment. Recent advances have outlined the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the PD equation. This review concentrates on the present possibilities of using neuroimaging techniques in order to quantify the cognitive performance and NPS in PD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Mild cognitive impairment as well as many NPS have been acknowledged as important criteria for assessing the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and have been shown as potential factors in predicting further evolution of PD from a clinical perspective...
October 15, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Davide M Cammisuli, Simon Crowe
Objectives: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) present with a wide range of cognitive deficits. Cognitive impairment is recognized as an independent nonmotor aspect of the disorder and has a critical role in functional outcome and conversion into PD dementia. To date, everyday memory impairment in elderly patients with PD is underinvestigated and its relationship with executive dysfunction was not clearly explained. Our study aims at clarifying the neuropsychological pattern of everyday memory and executive deterioration in elderly patients with PD...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Mohsen Khosravi, Andrew Newberg, Abass Alavi
PET has been a key component in the diagnostic armamentarium for evaluating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. PET imaging has been used for the diagnosis of these disorders, for identification of their pathophysiology, and for following treatment of these disorders. Further, PET imaging has been extensively used for both research and clinical purposes. This chapter will review the current literature with regard to PET imaging and neurodegenerative disorders. This includes an evaluation of the most commonly used tracer (FDG) that measures cerebral metabolism, as well as neurotransmitter tracers, and tracers designed to reveal specific pathophysiological processes...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Ruwei Ou, Yutong Zou, Wei Song, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) could be classified into akinetic-rigidity (PDAR ), tremor-dominant (PDTD ) and mixed subtypes. PDAR patients are more prone to develop cognitive deficits. The default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) play important roles in cognitive processing. Our aim was to evaluate changes in connectivity patterns of the DMN, and its interrelation with the FPN and DAN in cognitively unimpaired drug-naïve PDAR patients...
October 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sara Becker, Alena Bäumer, Walter Maetzler, Susanne Nussbaum, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Giacomo Salvadore, Detlev Zaunbrecher, Benjamin Roeben, Kathrin Brockmann, Johannes Streffer, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
The core criterion for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) function primarily caused by cognitive, not motor symptoms. There is evidence to assume that mild ADL impairments in mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) characterize those patients at high risk for dementia. Data of 216 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients assessed with comprehensive motor and neuropsychological assessments were analysed. Based on linear regression models, subscores of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) primarily reflecting patients' global cognitive status (FAQC ) or PD-related motor severity (FAQM ) were developed...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Trung P Nguyen, Jeff Schaffert, Christian LoBue, Kyle B Womack, John Hart, C Munro Cullum
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with loss of consciousness (LOC) has been associated with earlier onset of mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has not been examined as a risk factor for earlier onset of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between a history of TBI and the age of onset of DLB. METHOD: Data from 576 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of DLB were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jessica Battisto, Katharina V Echt, Steven L Wolf, Paul Weiss, Madeleine E Hackney
BACKGROUND: The Body Position Spatial Task (BPST) is a novel measure of whole-body spatial cognition involving multidirectional steps and turns. Individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) are affected by motor and cognitive impairments, particularly in spatial function, which is important for mental imagery and navigation. Performance on the BPST may inform understanding of motor-cognitive and spatial cognitive function of individuals with PD. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to determine feasibility and validity of the BPST with standard, validated, and reliable measures of spatial cognition and motor-cognitive integration and to compare BPST performance in adults with and without PD...
October 15, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Zhang Ping, Wu Xiaomu, Xie Xufang, Shao Liang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex; it includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Notably, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may activate inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses in Parkinson's disease. Vinpocetine has been tested as an anti-inflammatory in both animal and in vitro research. Thus, it is important to test whether the anti-inflammatory properties of vinpocetine may have a protective effect in PD patients. METHODS: Eighty-nine Parkinson's disease patients and 42 healthy controls were recruited for this study...
October 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Trina Mitchell, Alexandra Potvin-Desrochers, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Oury Monchi, Alexander Thiel, Caroline Paquette
Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease often occurs during steering of gait (i.e., complex gait) which is thought to arise from executive dysfunction. Our aim was to test whether cognitive cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo cortical circuitry is impaired and whether alternate neural circuits are used for complex gait in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait. Methods: Eighteen individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease in the OFF medication state, nine with freezing of gait (aged 68 ± 6) and nine without freezing (aged 65 ± 5) were included...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hui Liu, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Yanbing Hou, Bei Cao, Bi Zhao, Huifang Shang
The current study aimed to investigate the occurrence and clinical associations of rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) from a cohort of Chinese patients. 158 treatment-naive PD patients in total were enrolled in the study. Each patient was categorized as PD with or without RBD according to the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ). Of 158 patients, 31 PD patients (19.62%) reported RBD. PD patients with RBD showed higher Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score, higher Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score, higher Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) score, higher Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score, higher PD Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) score, lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) score and higher scores for the cognitions and communication domains from the PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the development of behavioral addictions. This chapter will discuss potential risk factors and associations with the development of addictive behavior in PD including the role of dopaminergic medication and genetic predisposition...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L T M Müller
One of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is expanding to studying cholinergic correlates of mobility impairments, dyskinesias, olfaction, sleep, visual hallucinations and risk taking behavior in this disorder...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Gennaro Pagano, Marios Politis
In the last decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of Parkinson's disease has been on non-dopaminergic systems involved in the disease alongside the pathognomonic dopaminergic changes. Molecular imaging can detect, in vivo, both presynaptic and postsynaptic serotonergic changes in the brain and has played a key role in elucidating the pathophysiology of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease. Alterations in the serotonergic system may happen very early in the course of the disease and have shown a leading role in the development of tremor and dyskinesias, and in several non-motor symptoms, including sleep, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Marketa Marvanova, Paul Jacob Henkel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing aging populations in the United States means an increasing number of persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) requiring competent pharmaceutical care. The workshop was designed and implemented to integrate pharmacology and therapeutics in management of PD and AD, and evaluate efficacy of students' high-cognitive thinking, and self-rated knowledge improvement, confidence, and interest in the subject. EDUCATION ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Third-year pharmacy students participated in a three-hour workshop comprised of a foundational knowledge quiz from pathophysiology, pharmacology and therapeutics, performance on high-cognitive thinking in clinical scenarios, and hands-on activities in pharmacology and therapeutics related to PD and AD care...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Jean-François Houvenaghel, Sophie Drapier, Joan Duprez, Gabriel Hadrien Robert, Audrey Riou, Dominique Drapier, Paul Sauleau, Marc Vérin
INTRODUCTION: Treatment optimization using continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) improves the control of motor fluctuations of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although CSAI seems to be cognitively and behaviorally safe and to improve the quality of life, very few studies have investigated its influence in these domains, especially in patients without cognitive impairment. METHODS: We estimated the impact of CSAI on motor symptoms, cognition, psychiatric domains and quality of life in parkinsonian patients without cognitive impairment by comparing the scores of 22 patients assessed before and 6 months after the start of add-on CSAI...
October 7, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Laura Bonanni, Raffaella Franciotti, Marco Onofrj, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Lucia Fraioli, Lucilla Parnetti, Lucia Farotti, Michela Pievani, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, John Paul Taylor, Ian McKeith, Fabrizio Stocchi, Laura Vacca, Giovanni B Frisoni, Maria Francesca De Pandis
We hypothesized that dopamine neuromodulation might affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients set in quiet wakefulness, as revealed by resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms at alpha frequencies (8-12 Hz). Clinical and rsEEG rhythms in PD with dementia (N = 35), PD with mild cognitive impairment (N = 50), PD with normal cognition (N = 35), and normal (N = 50) older adults were available from an international archive. Cortical rsEEG sources were estimated by exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography...
August 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Teppo Särkämö, Aleksi J Sihvonen
During the last decades, there have been major advances in mapping the brain regions that underlie our ability to perceive, experience, and produce music and how musical training can shape the structure and function of the brain. This progress has fueled and renewed clinical interest towards uncovering the neural basis for the impaired or preserved processing of music in different neurological disorders and how music-based interventions can be used in their rehabilitation and care. This article reviews our contribution to and the state-of-the-art of this field...
September 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Gwanhee Ehm, Woong-Woo Lee, Yu Jin Jung, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Some of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have abnormal tandem gait (TG) performance without any symptoms and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Clinical difference between patients with good and poor TG performance has not yet been studied. We report the relationship between tandem gait performance and clinical characteristics including 37 patients with PD who had no evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. Using tandem gait test, the patients were divided into two groups (good-TG and poor-TG). We evaluated the two groups with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Batter (FAB), Beck Depression Index (BDI-II), REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), MDS-UPDRS items related to axial disability and freezing...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ryan Van Patten, Geoffrey Tremont
Background and objectives One method of mitigating global increases in dementia prevalence involves assessing public knowledge and then educating laypeople. We measured knowledge of late-life pathological cognitive decline in a diverse, international sample using a standardized, validated instrument. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed 3619 international respondents recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk with a 44-item dementia knowledge survey and 18 sociodemographic items. Results Results suggested that the following sociodemographic variables are associated with less overall knowledge: young age, male gender, low educational attainment, born in a developing nation, of ethnic minority status, not married, and less prior dementia experience...
October 11, 2018: Dementia
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