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Parkinson's disease and cognition

Marina F Souza, Marco A M Freire, Katty A A L Medeiros, Lívia C R F Lins, José M M Bispo, Auderlan M Gois, Pollyana C Leal, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R Santos
Pesticide exposure is a risk factor to Parkinson's disease (PD) development. One of these pesticides, Deltamethrin (DM), has been widely used for vector control in crops, farming, veterinary medicine and domestic pest control. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the motor, cognitive and neurochemical changes caused by repeated administration of DM in rats. Male Wistar rats received 3 intranasal (i.n.) injections of 100 μL (50 μL/nostril) of DM 0.5 μg/μl or Vehicle (saline solution 0...
August 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Felix P Bernhard, Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Markus A Hobert, Carina Arnold, Yvonne G Weber, Sven Poli, Nils G Margraf, Christian Schlenstedt, Clint Hansen, Walter Maetzler
BACKGROUND: Deficits in gait and balance are common among neurological inpatients. Currently, assessment of these patients is mainly subjective. New assessment options using wearables may provide complementary and more objective information. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional feasibility study performed over a four-month period, all patients referred to a normal neurology ward of a university hospital and aged between 40 and 89 years were asked to participate...
August 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Alfonsina D'Iorio, Gianpaolo Maggi, Carmine Vitale, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms such as cognitive deficit and behavioural disturbances. Apathy seems to be related to cognitive impairment, but some studies failed to confirm the relationship due to different methodological procedures across studies. A meta-analysis on 8 studies was performed to explore the cognitive correlates of apathy without depression and dementia (pure apathy). Global cognitive function, memory, executive functions, processing speed/attention/working memory, visuospatial abilities and language were the outcomes...
August 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Darko Aleksovski, Dragana Miljkovic, Daniele Bravi, Angelo Antonini
INTRODUCTION: Discrete patterns of progression have been suggested for patients with Parkinson disease and presenting tremor dominant (TD) or postural instability gait disorders (PIGD). However, longitudinal prospective assessments need to take into consideration the variability in clinical manifestations and the evidence that only 40% of initially classified PIGD remain in this subtype at subsequent visits. METHODS: We analyzed clinical progression of PIGD compared to TD using longitudinal clinical data from the PPMI...
August 14, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Amritha Gourisankar, Sarah A Eisenstein, Nicholas T Trapp, Jonathan M Koller, Meghan C Campbell, Mwiza Ushe, Joel S Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey, Kevin J Black
The anatomical connections of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) have driven hypotheses about its functional anatomy, including the hypothesis that the precise anatomical location of STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) contributes to the variability of motor and non-motor responses across patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously tested the hypothesis using a three-dimensional (3D) statistical method to interpret the acute effects of unilateral DBS at each patient's clinically optimized DBS settings and active contact...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Koji Ishikuro, Nobuhiro Dougu, Takamasa Nukui, Mamoru Yamamoto, Yuji Nakatsuji, Satoshi Kuroda, Isao Matsushita, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Mariana F P Araujo, Hisao Nishijo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with motor and non-motor symptoms due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The current pharmacological treatments induce complications associated with long-term use. However, current stimulation techniques for PD treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), are too invasive. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a safe and effective alternative treatment for PD. We previously reported that anodal tDCS over the frontal polar area (FPA) improved motor functions in heathy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Johan Lökk, Anders Wimo, Maria Eriksdotter
BACKGROUND: Whether dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are distinct disorders or two subtypes of the same entity, is not yet fully understood. There is a dearth of knowledge on differences in longitudinal clinical outcomes between DLB and PDD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare longitudinal trend of cognitive decline, mortality, and their determinant factors between patients with DLB and PDD. METHODS: At baseline, we recruited 1110 DLB, and 764 PDD patients registered in the Swedish dementia registry (SveDem) during 2007- 2015...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kensuke Daida, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Takashi Ogawa, Genko Oyama, Kenya Nishioka, Yasushi Shimo, Atsushi Umemura, Nobutaka Hattori
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, their association with cognitive decline has been unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of 124 cases of clinically diagnosed PD to determine the association between the presence of CMBs and cognitive decline. RESULTS: Of the 124 participants, 21 (16.9%) was diagnosed as PDD in this cohort. CMBs were observed significantly more frequently in the PDD than in the PD (47...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Pasquale Varriale, Antoine Collomb-Clerc, Angele Van Hamme, Anaik Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Nathalie George, Brian Lau, Carine Karachi, Marie-Laure Welter
OBJECTIVE: Freezing of gait (FOG) represents a major burden for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. High-frequency (130-Hz) subthalamic deep-brain-stimulation (STN-DBS) has been reported to aggravate FOG whereas lowering the frequency to 60-80 Hz improves FOG. To further understand the effects of STN-DBS on FOG, we assessed the effects of 80-Hz and 130-Hz STN-DBS on gait initiation performance, in relation to motor and executive function processing. METHODS: Gait initiation was recorded in 19 PD patients and 20 controls, combined or not with a cognitive interference task with a modified Stroop paradigm...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Abby Luck Parish
Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive, debilitating impairments of neurologic function. Dementia affects cognition and function. Persons with cognitive deficits should undergo a full workup and may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia may be assessed and treated individually. Parkinson disease is a disorder of movement. Levodopa is the standard treatment of dopamine-related movement symptoms. Associated symptoms should be assessed and treated...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Caitlin S M Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract thus it is not surprising that most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Matthew C L Phillips, Deborah K J Murtagh, Linda J Gilbertson, Fredrik J S Asztely, Christopher D P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that diet manipulation may influence motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD, but conflict exists regarding the ideal fat to carbohydrate ratio. OBJECTIVES: We designed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to compare the plausibility, safety, and efficacy of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet versus a ketogenic diet in a hospital clinic of PD patients. METHODS: We developed a protocol to support PD patients in a diet study and randomly assigned patients to a low-fat or ketogenic diet...
August 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
A E P Mulders, A J H Moonen, K Dujardin, M L Kuijf, A Duits, B Flinois, R L H Handels, R Lopes, A F G Leentjens
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders occur in up to 35% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a negative effect on motor symptoms and quality of life. To date, no clinical trials specifically targeting anxiety in PD patients have been published. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that aims to study the clinical effectiveness, alterations in brain circuitry, and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety in PD...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Maryam Haghshomar, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Mehdi Shirin Shandiz, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by a series of pathological mechanisms which contribute to a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD which has shed light on our understanding of structural abnormalities underlying PD symptoms or its associations with pathological mechanisms. One of the white matter tracts shown to be disrupted in PD with a possible contribution to some PD symptoms is the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kara M Smith, David N Caplan
Communication impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may have both motor speech control and cognitive-linguistic underpinnings. The neurobiology of communication impairment in PD is poorly understood, and work is needed to disentangle the relative contributions of motor and cognitive dysfunction. In clinical practice, cognitive-linguistic impairments are often overlooked despite the large body of research on this topic in neurocognitive and linguistics literature. In this review, we will discuss the roles of motor speech changes, cognitive and linguistic impairment, and other related functions in the communication disabilities of individuals with PD...
August 6, 2018: Brain and Language
Marta Picascia, Nicolò G Pozzi, Massimiliano Todisco, Brigida Minafra, Elena Sinforiani, Roberta Zangaglia, Roberto Ceravolo, Claudio Pacchetti
OBJECTIVE: The clinical differentiation between parkinsonism in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenging in initial phase. We addressed whether an early cognitive profiling might support the differential diagnosis of early iNPH and PD. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the neuropsychological tests of iNPH 40 subjects with early symptoms resembling parkinsonism with 47 "de novo" PD patients (dnPD)...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Agnieszka Jankowska, Artur Swierczek, Elzbieta Wyska, Alicja Gawalska, Adam Bucki, Maciej Pawlowski, Grazyna Chlon-Rzepa
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a double substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes second messenger molecules such as cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Through this process, PDE10A controls intracellular signaling pathways in the mammalian brain and peripheral tissues. Pharmacological, biochemical, and anatomical data suggest that disorders in the second messenger system mediated by PDE10A may contribute to impairments in central nervous system (CNS) function, including cognitive deficits as well as disturbances of behavior, emotion processing, and movement...
August 7, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Zahra Shirzadi, Andrew D Robertson, Arron W Metcalfe, Sarah Duff-Canning, Connie Marras, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis, Bradley J MacIntosh
Introduction: This study investigated whether brain tissue pulsatility is associated with features of disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Data were extracted from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative among 81 adults with PD (confirmed with DATSCAN™). Brain tissue pulsatility was computed using resting state blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI in white matter (WM), referred to as BOLDTP . Motor impairment was assessed using the Movement Disorders Society unified Parkinson's disease rating scale...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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