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Parkinson's disease and cognition

Sarah J Banks, Ece Bayram, Guogen Shan, Denise R LaBelle, Brent Bluett
BACKGROUND: The etiology of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) is yet to be clarified. Non-motor risk factors including cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance and mood disorders have been shown in freezing of gait. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to determine the predictive value of non-motor features in freezing of gait development. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Fifty PD patients with self-reported freezing of gait, and 50 PD patients without freezing of gait at the fourth year visit were included...
December 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Maria Eduarda Brandão Bueno, Luiz Inácio do Nascimento Neto, Marcelle Brandão Terra, Natália Mariano Barboza, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Suhaila Mahmoud Smaili
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an appropriate treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). It offers promising results and is known to improve symptoms. Nevertheless, consistent parameters need to be established for research purposes. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness of acute tDCS on non-motor and motor symptoms in PD. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized and sham-controlled study, in which twenty individuals randomly underwent two (one real, one sham) stimulation sessions...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Valentina Tesio, Laura Rizzi, Tingting Jiang, Chiara Fronda, Michele Lanotte, Lorys Castelli
INTRODUCTION: It remains to be clarified whether penetration of the caudate nucleus increases the risk of cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of pre/postoperative neuropsychological changes was performed with 46 consecutive patients with PD who underwent DBS of the STN. In particular, to evaluate the possible relationship between cognitive changes and DBS lead trajectories, repeated-measures ANCOVAs were conducted to analyze the effects of group (23 patients with vs 23 patients without penetration of the caudate nucleus) and time (T0 vs T1) for each neuropsychological test...
December 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Giuseppe Tardiolo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
N -acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an acetylated cysteine compound, has aroused scientific interest for decades due to its important medical applications. It also represents a nutritional supplement in the human diet. NAC is a glutathione precursor and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the uses quoted in the literature, NAC may be considered helpful in therapies to counteract neurodegenerative and mental health diseases. Furthermore, this compound has been evaluated for its neuroprotective potential in the prevention of cognitive aging dementia...
December 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shima Mehrabian, Håkan Thonberg, Margarita Raycheva, Lena Lilius, Katya Stoyanova, Charlotte Forsell, Lena Cavallin, Desislava Nesheva, Eric Westman, Draga Toncheva, Latchezar Traykov, Bengt Winblad, Caroline Graff
BACKGROUND: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed...
2018: PloS One
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Lan Cheng, Nannan Li, Panli Zuo, Danny J J Wang, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Graham J Kemp, Rong Peng, Qiyong Gong
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a well-defined nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), greatly impairs functioning and quality of life. However, the contribution of cerebral perfusion, quantified by arterial spin labeling (ASL), to MCI in PD remains poorly understood. The selection of an optimal delay time is difficult for single-delay ASL, a problem which is avoided by multidelay ASL. This study uses a multidelay multiparametric ASL to investigate cerebral perfusion including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial transit time (ATT) in early stage PD patients exhibiting MCI using a voxel-based brain analysis...
December 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Motoyasu Honma, Yuri Masaoka, Shinichi Koyama, Takeshi Kuroda, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Yasuo Terao, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive impairments. However, the nature of cognitive modification in patients with PD remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether patients with PD could correct and maintain subjective time duration and line length estimation. After training sessions, in which participants repeatedly memorized either a duration or a length, we compared a learning performance in 20 PD patients with 20 healthy controls. In the case of duration in the PD patients, the learned durations immediately returned to baseline of pre-training within a few minutes...
2018: PloS One
Stéphane Prange, Teodor Danaila, Chloé Laurencin, Catherine Caire, Elise Metereau, Hélène Merle, Emmanuel Broussolle, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Stéphane Thobois
OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course of hazard for motor and nonmotor milestones of Parkinson disease (PD) in the long term and to investigate whether risk scales nonlinearly with time is instrumental in identifying changes in pathological processes and evaluating disease-modifying therapies in PD. METHODS: Outpatients with PD at the Lyon University Movement Disorders Center were evaluated for 7 clinical milestones in this retrospective cohort study, encompassing 4 domains of PD progression: (1) motor (motor fluctuations, dyskinesias); (2) axial (postural instability and falls, freezing of gait); (3) neuropsychiatric (impulse control disorders, hallucinations); and (4) cognitive (dementia) complications...
December 12, 2018: Neurology
Na Ye, Bang Li, Qi Mao, Eric A Wold, Sheng Tian, John A Allen, Jia Zhou
While G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recognized as pivotal drug targets involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, the majority of GPCRs including orphan GPCRs (oGPCRs) are unexploited. GPR88, a brain-specific oGPCR with particularly robust expression in the striatum, regulates diverse brain and behavioral functions including cognition, mood, movement control and reward-based learning, and is thus emerging as a novel drug target for CNS disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and addiction...
December 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
L Cuenca, A L Gil-Martinez, L Cano-Fernandez, C Sanchez-Rodrigo, C Estrada, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero
After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Thus, early diagnosis is not available, nor are there efficient therapies that can stop neurodegeneration...
December 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Kelsey Barrell, Britta Bureau, Pierpaolo Turcano, Gregory D Phillips, Jeffrey S Anderson, Atul Malik, David Shprecher, Meghan Zorn, Edward Zamrini, Rodolfo Savica
Objective: To determine whether Parkinson disease (PD) patients with (VH) have different clinical characteristics and gray-matter volume than those with visual misperceptions (VM) or other visual symptoms (OvS). Background: The spectrum of visual complaints in PD is broad and complex. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 525 PD patients to identify the frequency of visual symptoms and the association with clinical and radiological features. Brain volumetric MRI data was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to differentiate cases with and without visual symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Allison A Bay, Ariel R Hart, W Michael Caudle, Daniel M Corcos, Madeleine E Hackney
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with aging characterized by loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a reduction in dopamine levels in the striatum. PD is commonly treated using dopamine-replacement medication called levodopa. Levodopa has decreasing efficacy over time. Periods when levodopa is not effective at controlling symptoms of PD are called "OFF-time" or "medication-related motor fluctuations," (MRMF)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Fatma Gargouri, Cécile Gallea, Marie Mongin, Nadya Pyatigorskaya, Romain Valabregue, Claire Ewenczyk, Marie Sarazin, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Marie Vidailhet, Stéphane Lehéricy
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) may result from damage in the cortex as well as in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs to the cortex. Cholinergic inputs to the cortex mainly originate from the basal forebrain and are clustered in several regions, called Ch1 to Ch4, that project to the hippocampus (Ch1-2), the olfactory bulb (Ch3), and the cortex and amygdala (Ch4). OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in basal forebrain and their role in cognitive deficits in PD...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Margaret T M Prenger, Penny A MacDonald
Difficulty with emotion recognition is increasingly being recognized as a symptom of Parkinson's disease. Most research into this area contends that progressive cognitive decline accompanying the disease is to be blamed. However, facial mimicry (i.e., the involuntary congruent activation of facial expression muscles upon viewing a particular facial expression) might also play a role and has been relatively understudied in this clinical population. In healthy participants, facial mimicry has been shown to improve recognition of observed emotions, a phenomenon described by embodied simulation theory...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Carlos Guevara, Jose de Grazia, Pedro Vazquez, Pablo Baabor, Cristián Garrido, Melissa Martinez, Jaime Fuentes, Fabian Piedimonte, Marcos Baabor
We report a successful bilateral globus pallidus internus-deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) for a Parkinson disease (PD) patient with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and an unusually long anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line. A 54-year-old man presented with a history of 3 months of severe shuffling gait, rigidity, slow movements of the left side limbs, and difficulty managing finances. A brain MRI revealed marked ventriculomegaly (Evans index = 0.42). The patient was diagnosed with INPH and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Gwenda Engels, Annemarie Vlaar, Brónagh McCoy, Erik Scherder, Linda Douw
Research has shown that dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with better attention performance and with motor symptom severity. In the current study, we aimed to investigate dFC of both the default mode network (DMN) and the frontoparietal network (FPN) as neural correlates of cognitive functioning in patients with PD. Additionally, we investigated pain and motor problems as symptoms of PD in relation to dFC. Twenty-four PD patients and 27 healthy controls participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ellen Lirani-Silva, Sue Lord, Dionne Moat, Lynn Rochester, Rosie Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait impairments in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) are difficult to manage. Auditory cueing has been shown to be an effective therapy. However, the optimal time to introduce cues with respect to disease stage has not yet been established. This longitudinal study examines the effect of auditory cues on gait characteristics in people with early PD at 2 time points, 3 years apart. METHODS: We assessed 25 people with PD from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation-Parkinson's disease (ICICLE-PD) study...
January 2019: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Niklas Löfgren, David Conradsson, Conran Joseph, Breiffni Leavy, Maria Hagströmer, Erika Franzén
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although increasing evidence supports the benefit- of exercise among people with Parkinson disease (PwPD), it is unclear whether a given exercise modality suits all PwPD, given the heterogeneity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with responsiveness to a highly challenging training intervention that incorporated dual-task exercises. METHODS: Forty-seven PwPD (mean age: 73 years; 19 females, Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3) who had participated in 10 weeks of highly challenging gait and balance training were included...
January 2019: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Carolien Strouwen, Esther A L M Molenaar, Liesbeth Münks, Sanne Broeder, Pieter Ginis, Bastiaan R Bloem, Alice Nieuwboer, Elke Heremans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dual-task interventions show positive effects in people with Parkinson disease (PD), but it remains unclear which factors determine the size of these benefits. As a secondary analysis of the DUALITY trial, the aim of this study was to assess the determinants of the effect size after 2 types of dual-task practice. METHODS: We randomly allocated 121 participants with PD to receive either integrated or consecutive dual-task training. Dual-task walking performance was assessed during (i) a backward digit span task (digit), (ii) an auditory Stroop task (Stroop), and (iii) a functional mobile phone task...
January 2019: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Hitoshi Shinotoh, Hitoshi Shimada, Yasumasa Kokubo, Kenji Tagai, Fumitoshi Niwa, Soichiro Kitamura, Hironobu Endo, Maiko Ono, Yasuyuki Kimura, Shigeki Hirano, Maya Mimuro, Masanori Ichise, Naruhiko Sahara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the distribution of tau pathology in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex on the Kii Peninsula (Kii ALS/PDC) by tau PET using [11 C]PBB3 as ligand. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 5 patients with ALS/PDC and one asymptomatic participant with a dense family history of ALS/PDC from the Kii Peninsula who took part in this study. All were men, and their age was 76 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years. Thirteen healthy men (69 ± 6 years) participated as healthy controls (HCs)...
December 7, 2018: Neurology
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