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Rachel J Jerrell, Mitchell J Leih, Aron Parekh
During the dermal wound healing process, the mechanical rigidity of the newly deposited extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-β1 promote the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts generate large cellular forces that contract and remodel the extracellular matrix leading to scar formation. In contrast, myofibroblasts are not detected in fetal dermal wounds which are more compliant and contain less transforming growth factor-β1 than adult wounds. Instead, fetal fibroblasts orchestrate scarless healing of dermal wounds resulting in healed tissues that resemble uninjured dermis...
October 13, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Ting Gong, Chi Zhang, Jing Kang, J J Lamb, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Vocal fold scarring remains a major treatment challenge, and scar prevention without residual lesions remains a dilemma. Cryotherapy has shown cosmetic outcomes on skin lesions with minimal scarring. The aim of this study was to clarify the beneficial effects of cryotherapy for the prevention and the treatment of vocal fold scarring. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro. METHODS: Primary cultures of human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) were used in this study...
October 12, 2018: Laryngoscope
Tingting Cui, Sebastiaan Theuns, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Jiexiong Xie, Gaëtan M A De Gryse, Bo Yang, Wim Van den Broeck, Hans J Nauwynck
A stable culture of primary porcine enterocytes is necessary to study porcine enteric virus replication characteristics. Because the direct cultivation of primary porcine enterocytes is difficult, alternatives have to be considered. As subepithelial myofibroblasts secrete extracellular matrix and growth factors contributing to the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, co-cultures of primary porcine enterocytes (ileocytes and colonocytes) with myofibroblasts were developed and evaluated for their susceptibility to enteric viruses...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shaoqun Shu, Jiefu Zhu, Zhiwen Liu, Chengyuan Tang, Juan Cai, Zheng Dong
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), i.e. AKI-CKD transition, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER resulting in a cellular stress response. The role of ER stress in AKI-CKD transition remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we examined ER stress in the mouse model of AKI-CKD transition after unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (uIR)...
October 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jie Duan, Xishi Liu, Honglin Wang, Sun-Wei Guo
RESEARCH QUESTION: Recent research has shown that endometriotic lesions are essentially wounds that undergo repeated tissue injury and repair, which results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation, smooth muscle metaplasia and ultimately fibrosis. Macrophages are a key regulator of tissue repair and fibrogenesis. But do macrophages also play a role in fibrogenesis of endometriosis, and, if yes, which subset of macrophages? DESIGN: To elucidate the role of macrophages in fibrogenesis of endometriosis, we conducted three experiments in mice...
September 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Jelle J Posthuma, Jens J N Posma, Goof Schep, Mart M H Bender, Rene van Oerle, Allard C van der Wal, Hugo Ten Cate, Henri M H Spronk
OBJECTIVE: High-performance athletes can develop symptomatic arterial flow restriction during exercise caused by endofibrosis. The pathogenesis is poorly understood; however, coagulation enzymes, such as tissue factor (TF) and coagulation factor Xa, might contribute to the fibrotic process, which is mainly regulated through activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to evaluate the presence of coagulation factors and PARs in endofibrotic tissue, which might be indicative of their potential role in the natural development of endofibrosis...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Xionglin Chen, Xiaoming Cao, He Jiang, Xiangxin Che, Xiaoyuan Xu, Baicheng Ma, Jie Zhang, Tao Huang
: Skin wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves angiogenesis and growth factor secretion. Newly formed vessels can provide nutrition and oxygen for skin wound healing. Growth factors in skin wounds are important for keratinocytes and fibroblasts proliferation, epithelialization, extracellular matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis, which accelerate skin wound healing. Therefore, treatment strategies that enhance angiogenesis and growth factors secretion in skin wounds can accelerate skin wound healing...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eduardo Anitua, María de la Fuente, Francisco Muruzabal, Ronald Mauricio Sánchez-Ávila, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Mikel Azkargorta, Felix Elortza, Gorka Orive
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study is to compare the protein expression of human keratocytes treated with Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) or autologous serum (AS) and previously induced to myofibroblast by TGF-β1 treatment. METHODS: Blood from healthy donor was collected and processed to obtain AS and PRGF eye drops. Blood derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. Keratocyte cells were pretreated for 60 minutes with 2.5 ng/ml TGF-β1...
2018: PloS One
Wenda Wang, Qi Miao
Spontaneous pericardial hematoma is rare, and the diagnosis of spontaneous organized hemopericardium is difficult in some cases. The present study reports a case of a 23-year-old man admitted to our hospital for dyspnea on Sept. 30, 2017. The patient experienced shortness of breath 10 days before admission and went to a local hospital. The chest non-contrast CT and Echo revealed effusion of pericardium, right thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. The patient went to our hospital for further treatment, and there was no abnormality in the laboratory tests of infection, tumor, or immune disease...
September 27, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Fanglin Lu, Hao Wu, Yifan Bai, Dejun Gong, Cuiping Xia, Qin Li, Fanglin Lu, Zhiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Chemically cross-linked animal tissues, such as porcine aortic valves (PAVs) have many documented advantages over mechanical valves. However, calcification is the major underlying pathologic process that results in bioprosthetic valve failure. Recently, several reports described the expression of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins in bioprosthetic valves and suggested an actively regulated process of tissue repair. METHODS: Thirty-one explanted PAVs with evidence of calcification were collected and examined for the protein expression implicated in myofibroblast activation, osteoblast differentiation, and bone matrix deposition by using immunohistochemistry...
September 13, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Felix Bremmer, Alexander Fichtner, Ralph Triefenbach, Reinhard Inniger, Peter Mayer, Laura Lukat, Philipp Ströbel, Hans Ulrich Schildhaus
In addition to germ cell tumors and tumors of the sex cord stroma, the WHO classification of testis and paratesticular tumors also contains malignant soft tissue tumors. Among them, liposarcomas of the spermatic cord are the most common entities. Other mesenchymal tumors with smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, fibroblastic/myofibroblastic, or nerve sheath differentiation are rare. Ewing sarcoma is composed of uniform small round cells and typically characterized by translocations of the EWSR1 gene. In rare cases, Ewing sarcoma-like tumors lack an EWSR1 gene fusion...
October 11, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Masanobu Hayakawa, Kazuyuki Oda
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the lung is a rare disease. The patient underwent the chemoradiotherapy for primary left lung cancer which showed complete responce (CR) by the treatment. A different nodule of 10 mm in diameter was found in the left lung by computed tomography (CT). Positron emission tomography(PET) showed positive detection correspond to the nodule ( SUVmax 4.82). A partial lung resection was carried out, and the tumor was diagnosed as IMT pathologically.
October 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Reiko Sakurai, Jie Liu, Ying Wang, John S Torday, Virender K Rehan
Perinatal nicotine exposure drives the differentiation of alveolar lipofibroblasts (LIFs), which are critical for lung injury repair, to myofibroblasts (MYFs), which are the hallmark of chronic lung disease. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are important players in lung injury repair; however, how these cells are affected with perinatal nicotine exposure and whether these can be preferentially driven to a lipofibroblastic phenotype are not known. We hypothesized that perinatal nicotine exposure would block offspring BMSCs lipogenic differentiation, driving these cells towards a MYF phenotype...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Caterina Peña, Renata Vargas, Juan Pablo Hernandez-Fonseca, Jesús Mosquera
The up-regulation of HLA antigens is important during heart inflammatory events and myofibroblasts may modulate the expression of this molecule in tissues. To test this possibility, the effect of cardiac myofibroblast:macrophage contact and the production of myofibroblast inhibitor factor(s) on the macrophage HLA (Ia) expression were studied. Listeria monocytogenes-elicited Ia + peritoneal macrophages (high Ia expression) were co-cultured with cardiac myofibroblasts for 3 and 7 days (myofibroblast contact)...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Mir S Ali, Nandini Deb, Xinmei Wang, Minhazur Rahman, Gordon F Christopher, Carla M R Lacerda
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) constitute the major cell population in heart valves. Quiescent fibroblastic VICs are seen in adult healthy valves. They become activated myofibroblastic VICs during development, in diseased valves and in vitro. 2D substrate stiffness within a 5-15 kPa range along with high passage numbers promote VIC activation in vitro. In this study, we characterize VIC quiescence and activation across a 1-21 kPa range of substrate stiffness and passages. We define a cell morphology characterization system for VICs as they transform...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Yan Li, Julei Zhang, Qin Zhou, Hongtao Wang, Songtao Xie, Xuekang Yang, Peng Ji, Wanfu Zhang, Ting He, Yang Liu, Kejia Wang, Xiaoqiang Li, Jihong Shi, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibro-proliferative disease after serious burns, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The study was performed to clarify the effect of high glucose (HG) on HS. The expression of Col1, Col3 and α-SMA were up-regulated in HS derived fibroblasts (HSFs) exposed to HG (20mM, 30mM), and HG activated the phosphorylated protein expression of IGF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in HSFs. Dpp4, a marker targeted the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was overexpressed in HG-induced HSFs. Linagliptin, a Dpp4 inhibitor, played the anti-fibrosis role in HSFs exposed to HG, the levels of Col1, Col3 and α-SMA were significantly down-regulated, the cell proliferation and migration was also inhibited...
October 11, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
S Ciavarella, M C Vegliante, M Fabbri, S De Summa, F Melle, G Motta, V De Iuliis, G Opinto, A Enjuanes, S Rega, A Gulino, C Agostinelli, A Scattone, S Tommasi, A Mangia, F Mele, G Simone, A F Zito, G Ingravallo, U Vitolo, A Chiappella, C Tarella, A M Gianni, A Rambaldi, P L Zinzani, B Casadei, E Derenzini, G Loseto, A Pileri, V Tabanelli, S Fiori, A Rivas-Delgado, A López-Guillermo, T Venesio, A Sapino, E Campo, C Tripodo, A Guarini, S A Pileri
Background: Gene-expression-profiling (GEP) studies recognized a prognostic role for tumor microenvironment (TME) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the routinely adoption of prognostic stromal signatures remains limited. Patients and methods: Here, we applied the computational method CIBERSORT to generate a 1,028-gene matrix incorporating signatures of 17 immune and stromal cytotypes. Then, we performed a deconvolution on publicly available GEP data of 482 untreated DLBCLs to reveal associations between clinical outcomes and proportions of putative tumor-infiltrating cell types...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Shan Song, Duojun Qiu, Fengwei Luo, Jinying Wei, Ming Wu, Haijang Wu, Chunyang Du, Yunxia Du, Yunzhuo Ren, Nan Chen, Huijun Duan, Yonghong Shi
Tubular injury is one of the crucial determinants of progressive renal failure in diabetic nephropathy (DN), while epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular cells contributes to the accumulation of matrix protein in the diabetic kidney. Activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leads to the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1B and is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes. In this study, we explored the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on high glucose (HG) or transforming growth factor-B1 (TGFB1)-induced EMT in HK-2 cells...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Xiu Li, Menghua Sun, Suzhen Men, Yanan Shi, Lijuan Ma, Yongqiang An, Yaqing Gao, Hui Jin, Wei Liu, Zuoyi Du
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in cardiac myofibroblast (CMF) differentiation and in a rat model of cardiac fibrosis induced by experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM).In vitro studies performed in primary neonatal rat CMF revealed that silencing of C/EBPβ expression (via lentiviral mediated shRNA strategies) was sufficient to reduce C/EBPβ mRNA and protein levels as well as to decrease the expressions of actin cytoskeletal proteins, cofilin, and filamin A (FLNA)...
October 10, 2018: International Heart Journal
Eoghainín Ó hAinmhire, Haojia Wu, Yoshiharu Muto, Erinn L Donnelly, Flavia G Machado, Lucy X Fan, Monica Chang-Panesso, Benjamin D Humphreys
Gli1-positive resident mesenchymal stem cell-like cells are the predominant source of kidney myofibroblasts in fibrosis but investigating Gli1-positive myofibroblast progenitor activation is hampered by the difficulty of isolating and propagating primary cultures of these cells. Using a genetic strategy with positive and negative selection, we isolated Kidney-Gli1 (KG1) cells that maintain expression of appropriate mesenchymal stem cell-like cell markers, respond to hedgehog pathway activation and display robust myofibroblast differentiation upon treatment with TGFb...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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