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animal model melanogenesis

Tse-Hung Huang, Pei-Wen Wang, Shih-Chun Yang, Wei-Ling Chou, Jia-You Fang
Fish oil has been broadly reported as a potential supplement to ameliorate the severity of some skin disorders such as photoaging, skin cancer, allergy, dermatitis, cutaneous wounds, and melanogenesis. There has been increasing interest in the relationship of fish oil with skin protection and homeostasis, especially with respect to the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The other PUFAs, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), also show a beneficial effect on the skin...
July 30, 2018: Marine Drugs
Martyna Śniegocka, Ewa Podgórska, Przemysław M Płonka, Martyna Elas, Bożena Romanowska-Dixon, Małgorzata Szczygieł, Michał A Żmijewski, Mirosława Cichorek, Anna Markiewicz, Anna A Brożyna, Andrzej T Słominski, Krystyna Urbańska
The focus of the present review is to investigate the role of melanin in the radioprotection of melanoma and attempts to sensitize tumors to radiation by inhibiting melanogenesis. Early studies showed radical scavenging, oxygen consumption and adsorption as mechanisms of melanin radioprotection. Experimental models of melanoma in hamsters and in gerbils are described as well as their use in biochemical and radiobiological studies, including a spontaneously metastasizing ocular model. Some results from in vitro studies on the inhibition of melanogenesis are presented as well as radio-chelation therapy in experimental and clinical settings...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Gabriela Sarti Kinker, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME) and macro-environments (TMaE) in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Yixue Shi, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Xianjin Peng, Chunliang Xie, Xiang Xu, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang, Zhiyue Lv
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that can cause irreversible toxicity to animals, and is an environmental pollutant in farmlands. Spiders are considered to be an excellent model for investigating the impacts of heavy metals on the environment. To date, the changes at the molecular level in the cerebral ganglia of spiders are poorly understood. Cd exposure leads to strong damage in the nervous system, such as apoptosis and necrosis of nerve cells, therefore we conducted a transcriptomic analysis of Pardosa pseudoannulata cerebral ganglia under Cd stress to profile differential gene expression (DGE)...
March 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ruth M Williams, Robert J Winkfein, Rebecca S Ginger, Martin R Green, Paul P Schnetkamp, Grant N Wheeler
NCKX5 is an ion exchanger expressed mostly in pigment cells; however, the functional role for this protein in melanogenesis is not clear. A variant allele of SLC24A5, the gene encoding NCKX5, has been shown to correlate with lighter skin pigmentation in humans, indicating a key role for SLC24A5 in determining human skin colour. SLC24A5 expression has been found to be elevated in melanoma. Knockdown analyses have shown SLC24A5 to be important for pigmentation, but to date the function of this ion exchanger in melanogenesis has not been fully established...
2017: PloS One
Hang Ma, Jialin Xu, Nicholas A DaSilva, Ling Wang, Zhengxi Wei, Liangran Guo, Shelby L Johnson, Wei Lu, Jun Xu, Qiong Gu, Navindra P Seeram
The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa(™); contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays...
May 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
Francesca Pintus, Maria J Matos, Santiago Vilar, George Hripcsak, Carla Varela, Eugenio Uriarte, Lourdes Santana, Fernanda Borges, Rosaria Medda, Amalia Di Petrillo, Benedetta Era, Antonella Fais
Melanogenesis is a physiological pathway for the formation of melanin. Tyrosinase catalyzes the first step of this process and down-regulation of its activity is responsible for the inhibition of melanogenesis. The search for molecules capable of controlling hyperpigmentation is a trend topic in health and cosmetics. A series of heteroarylcoumarins have been synthesized and evaluated. Compounds 4 and 8 exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities (IC50 =0.15 and 0.38μM, respectively), than the reference compound, kojic acid (IC50 =17...
March 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Nanase Ishii, Mizuyuki Ryu, Yasushi A Suzuki
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on melanin-producing cells and to elucidate its mechanism of action. We tested the anti-melanogenic effect of bLf on a 3-dimensional cultured pigmentation skin model and confirmed a 20% reduction in pigmentation, suggesting that bLf was transdermally absorbed and it suppressed melanin production. Treatment of human melanoma cells with bLf resulted in a significant, dose-dependent suppression of melanin production. Apo-bLf and holo-bLf suppressed melanogenesis to the same degree as bLf...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Lian Xu, Qin-Han Xu, Xin-Ying Zhou, Li-Yan Yin, Peng-Peng Guan, Ting Zhang, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hyunjung Choi, Ji Hyun Shin, Eun Sung Kim, So Jung Park, Il-Hong Bae, Yoon Kyung Jo, In Young Jeong, Hyoung-June Kim, Youngjin Lee, Hea Chul Park, Hong Bae Jeon, Ki Woo Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong-Hyung Cho
The primary cilium is an organelle protruding from the cell body that senses external stimuli including chemical, mechanical, light, osmotic, fluid flow, and gravitational signals. Skin is always exposed to the external environment and responds to external stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that primary cilia have an important role in skin. Ciliogenesis was reported to be involved in developmental processes in skin, such as keratinocyte differentiation and hair formation. However, the relation between skin pigmentation and primary cilia is largely unknown...
2016: PloS One
Shuting Hu, Zongping Zheng, Feng Chen, Mingfu Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morus australis, one of the major Morus species growing in East Asia, is rich in phenolic compounds. The extract of M. australis has been used as skin whitening components for a long period. The action mechanisms of its principal constituents are still unclear. This study aims to evaluate the skin lightening effects of phenolic compounds extracted from the root of M. australis in different melanocyte systems and artificial skin models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The depigmenting effect of resorcinol type polyphenols (RTPs) from the root extract of M...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nadia Tabassum, Ji-Hyung Lee, Soon-Ho Yim, Galzad Javzan Batkhuu, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ismael Galván, Francisco Solano
Melanins are the ubiquitous pigments distributed in nature. They are one of the main pigments responsible for colors in living cells. Birds are among the most diverse animals regarding melanin-based coloration, especially in the plumage, although they also pigment bare parts of the integument. This review is devoted to the main characteristics of bird melanins, including updated views of the formation and nature of melanin granules, whose interest has been raised in the last years for inferring the color of extinct birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs using resistant fossil feathers...
April 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christoph Schwab, Werner Wackernagel, Petra Grinninger, Christoph Mayer, Katharina Schwab, Gerald Langmann, Erika Richtig, Andreas Wedrich, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Iris Zalaudek
Pigmented cells are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate along the peripheral nerve sheets into their specific final region. During their migration, cells progressively acquire pigment-producing capabilities, maturation, and the shape of melanocytes. These insights, along with specific clinical characteristics of melanocytic nevi, have led to new concepts of cutaneous, periocular, and iris nevogenesis. To further elucidate the specific ocular embryogenic melanoblast distribution and dissemination - that could explain the distinct distribution of uveal melanocytic neoplasms - we investigated the ocular pigmentation of dogs affected by a specific mutation called Merle, which results in either pigment- (wild type) or non-pigment- (mutated type) producing cells...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Minkyung Kim, Seoungwoo Shin, Jung-A Lee, Deokhoon Park, Jongsung Lee, Eunsun Jung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine the anti-melanogenic and anti-oxidant properties of Gaillardia aristata flower extract (GAE). METHODS: Melanogenesis inhibition by GAE was investigated in cultivated cells and in a human skin model. In cultivated cells, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of GAE was evaluated using melanin content, intracellular tyrosinase activity and anti-oxidant characteristics. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by western blot assay and real-time PCR...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Martina Pauli, Nayden Chakarov, Oliver Rupp, Jörn Kalinowski, Alexander Goesmann, Michael D Sorenson, Oliver Krüger, Joseph Ivan Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Studies of non-model species are important for understanding the molecular processes underpinning phenotypic variation under natural ecological conditions. The common buzzard (Buteo buteo; Aves: Accipitriformes) is a widespread and common Eurasian raptor with three distinct plumage morphs that differ in several fitness-related traits, including parasite infestation. To provide a genomic resource for plumage polymorphic birds in general and to search for candidate genes relating to fitness, we generated a transcriptome from a single dead buzzard specimen plus easily accessible, minimally invasive samples from live chicks...
2015: BMC Genomics
Nicholas J Hanovice, Christina M S Daly, Jeffrey M Gross
PURPOSE: Despite the number of albinism-causing mutations identified in human patients and animal models, there remain a significant number of cases for which no mutation has been identified, suggesting that our understanding of melanogenesis is incomplete. Previously, we identified two oculocutaneous albinism mutations in zebrafish, au13 and au18. Here, we sought to identify the mutated loci and determine how the affected proteins contribute to normal pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
November 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
E-S Kim, A R Elbeltagy, A M Aboul-Naga, B Rischkowsky, B Sayre, J M Mwacharo, M F Rothschild
Goats and sheep are versatile domesticates that have been integrated into diverse environments and production systems. Natural and artificial selection have shaped the variation in the two species, but natural selection has played the major role among indigenous flocks. To investigate signals of natural selection, we analyzed genotype data generated using the caprine and ovine 50K SNP BeadChips from Barki goats and sheep that are indigenous to a hot arid environment in Egypt's Coastal Zone of the Western Desert...
March 2016: Heredity
Seon Beom Kim, Yang Hee Jo, Qing Liu, Jong Hoon Ahn, In Pyo Hong, Sang Mi Han, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eunson Hwang, Taek Hwan Lee, Wook-Joo Lee, Won-Sik Shim, Eui-Ju Yeo, Sanghee Kim, Sun Yeou Kim
Piper amides have a characteristic, unsaturated amide group and exhibit diverse biological activities, including proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes, although the molecular mechanisms underlying its antimelanogenesis effect remain unknown. We screened a selected chemical library of newly synthesized Piper amide derivatives and identified (E)-3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide (NED-180) as one of the most potent compounds in suppressing melanogenesis. In murine melan-a melanocytes, NED-180 downregulated the expression of melanogenic regulatory proteins including tyrosinase, Tyrp1, Dct, and MITF...
January 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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