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animal model pigment

Richard F Spaide, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, Peter M Maloca
PURPOSE: To investigate the deep retinal vascular changes potentially present in macular telangiectasis Type 2 (MacTel 2) with projection resolved optical coherence tomography angiography including volume rendering. METHODS: Retrospective consecutive evaluation of patients with MacTel 2 in a community-based retinal referral practice with a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination to include optical coherence tomography and projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography with volume rendering...
August 8, 2018: Retina
F H Rodríguez, G Cáceres, J P Lhorente, S Newman, R Bangera, T Tadich, R Neira, J M Yáñez
From a physiological-behavioral perspective, it has been shown that fish with a higher density of black eumelanin spots are more dominant, less sensitive to stress, have higher feed intake, better feed efficiency and therefore are larger in size. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic (co)variation between skin pigmentation patterns and growth exists and it is advantageous in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationships between skin pigmentation patterns and BW in a breeding population of rainbow trout...
August 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Radames J B Cordero, Vincent Robert, Gianluigi Cardinali, Ebuka S Arinze, Susanna M Thon, Arturo Casadevall
Pigmentation is a fundamental characteristic of living organisms that is used to absorb radiation energy and to regulate temperature. Since darker pigments absorb more radiation than lighter ones, they stream more heat, which can provide an adaptive advantage at higher latitudes and a disadvantage near the Tropics, because of the risk of overheating. This intuitive process of color-mediated thermoregulation, also known as the theory of thermal melanism (TTM), has been only tested in ectothermic animal models [1-8]...
July 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Laura N Silva, Rodrigo Campos-Silva, Lívia S Ramos, Danielle S Trentin, Alexandre J Macedo, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos
Candida haemulonii complex has emerged as notorious yeasts causing invasive infections with high rates of treatment failures. Since there is a particular interest in the development of non-mammalian host models to study microbial virulence, with the aim to evade the ethical impact of animal tests, herein we compared the virulence of C. haemulonii, C. duobushaemulonii and C. haemulonii var. vulnera with non-albicans Candida species (C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaneae) on Galleria mellonella and the efficacy of antifungal drugs...
July 25, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Tatjana Taubitz, Alexander V Tschulakow, Marina Tikhonovich, Barbara Illing, Yuan Fang, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
Background: Stargardt disease (SD) is characterized by the accumulation of the age-pigment lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and subsequent neuroretinal degeneration. The disease leads to vision loss early in life. Here, we investigate age-dependent ultrastructural changes in three SD mouse models: albino Abca4-/- and pigmented Abca4-/- and Abca4-/- .Rdh8-/- mice. Since we found indications for oxidative stress primarily in albino SD mice, we tested RPE melanin for its antioxidative capabilities...
2018: PeerJ
Basma Baccouche, Maha Benlarbi, Alistair J Barber, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
OBJECTIVES: Psammomys obesus is a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes recently explored as a model of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. This study tested the protective effect of the pigment astaxanthin (AST) in the P. obesus diabetic retina. METHODS: Young adult P. obesus were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group received a normal diet consisting of a plant-based regimen, and the HFD group received an enriched laboratory chow...
July 20, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ying-Cheng Lin, Lin-Yea Horng, Hui-Ching Sung, Rong-Tsun Wu
PURPOSE: Low doses of sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) impair visual function in experimental animals with selective damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and serve as a useful model to study diseases caused by RPE degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction and defective autophagy have been suggested to play important roles in normal aging as well as many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined whether NaIO3 treatment disrupted the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis in cultured RPE. METHODS: The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was treated with low concentrations (≤500 μM) of NaIO3 ...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tali Fishman Jacob, Vijay Singh, Mudit Dixit, Tamar Ginsburg-Shmuel, Begoña Fonseca, Jesus Pintor, Moussa B H Youdim, Dan T Major, Orly Weinreb, Bilha Fischer
Extracellular nucleotides can regulate the production/drainage of the aqueous humor via activation of P2 receptors, thus affecting the intraocular pressure (IOP). We evaluated 5-OMe-UDP(α-B), 1A, a potent P2Y6-receptor agonist, for reducing IOP and treating glaucoma. Cell viability in the presence of 1A was measured using [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay in rabbit NPE ciliary non-pigmented and corneal epithelial cells, human retinoblastoma, and liver Huh7 cells...
July 17, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Lorena Perdices, Lorena Fuentes-Broto, Francisco Segura, Neyla Ben Gdara, Ana Isabel Sánchez-Cano, Gema Insa, Elvira Orduna, Isabel Pinilla
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of inherited retinal degenerative conditions characterized by primary degeneration of the rod photoreceptors. Increased oxidative damage is observed in the retina, aqueous humor, and plasma of RP animal models and patients. The hepatic oxidative status may also be affected in RP due to oxidative damage influencing soluble macromolecules exiting the retina or to alterations in the melanopsin system resulting in chronic circadian desynchronization that negatively alters the oxidative stress defense system...
July 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Billy R Hammond, Lisa Renzi-Hammond
OBJECTIVES: Data obtained mostly from animal models and ex vivo samples show that a small portion of ultraviolet light (UV, 300-400 nm) penetrates the cornea and crystalline lens and impinges on the human retina. UV transmission to the retina appears to be unique to the young and some older pseudophakes. In this study, we determine the variation in UV transmission in a relatively homogenous sample of young adults. METHODS: 42 subjects were tested (M = 19 ± 1.3 years)...
2018: PloS One
Krista Hupman, Karen A Stockin, Kenneth Pollock, Matthew D M Pawley, Sarah L Dwyer, Catherine Lea, Gabriela Tezanos-Pinto
Population parameters of poorly marked gregarious species are difficult to estimate. This is the case for common dolphins (Delphinus sp.), a genus known for its lack of distinctive marks resulting in a low mark ratio. Furthermore, the widespread nature of common dolphins results in low recaptures. We developed reliable photo-identification protocols to ensure accurate identification of individuals in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. These protocols combined the use of nicks and notches and pigmentation patterns for identification and included the development of a distinctiveness threshold...
2018: PloS One
Ran Liu, Xianke Li, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In both human patients and animals, diabetic condition of high blood glucose induced significant apoptotic responses in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this work, we used an in vitro culture model of human ARPE-19 cells to evaluate whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) may protect high d-glucose (DG)-induced diabetic apoptosis. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with DG in vitro to induce apoptosis. Cells were also pre-incubated with different concentrations of DEX prior to DG treatment...
July 2, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao, Bruce A Pfeffer, Néstor Más Gómez, Lara A Skelton, Ueda Keiko, Janet R Sparrow, Aryn M Rowsam, Claire H Mitchell, Steven J Fliesler
Treatment of rats with the cholesterol pathway inhibitor AY9944 produces an animal model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), an autosomal recessive disease caused by defective cholesterol synthesis. This SLOS rat model undergoes progressive and irreversible degeneration of the neural retina, with associated pathological features of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Here, we provide further insights into the mechanism involved in the RPE pathology. In the SLOS rat model, markedly increased RPE apical autofluorescence is observed, compared to untreated animals, which correlates with increased levels of A2E and other bisretinoids...
July 31, 2018: Autophagy
Mia Baxter-Holland, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional endogenous glycoprotein, has a very wide range of biological actions, notably in bone homeostasis. The question has been raised regarding the place of PEDF in the treatment of bone disorders and osteosarcoma, and its potential for tumour growth suppression. METHODS: The PubMed database was used to compile this review. KEY FINDINGS: Pigment epithelium-derived factor's actions in osteoid tissues include promoting mesenchymal stem cell commitment to osteoblasts, increasing matrix mineralisation, and promoting osteoblast proliferation...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Francisco Segura, Justo Arines, Ana Sánchez-Cano, Lorena Perdices, Elvira Orduna-Hospital, Lorena Fuentes-Broto, Isabel Pinilla
The aim of this study was to develop software that performs the optokinetic tracking assessment without the involvement of experimenters to increase the objectivity of the test. To check the effectiveness of the software, several videos were analyzed and the results were compared to those produced by two experimenters. Videos consisted of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity tests on normal animals and pigmented P23H rats (animal model of retinitis pigmentosa). Our software showed a reasonably high success rate: in approximately 78% of the cases, both the software program and the experimenters were in agreement, including the direction of rotation...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Delia Pinzón-García, Laura Alejandra Ariza Orellano, Marcela Guimarães Takahashi de Lazari, Paula Peixoto Campos, Maria Esperanza Cortes, Ruben Dario Sinisterra
Associations between obesity, diabetes type II, and steatosis have long been recognized. However, a pharmacotherapy that acts in a multifactorial manner controlling the interactions between these conditions is not available. A variety of natural plants, functional fatty acids, and other natural dietary compounds have been used in various anti-obesity products. We investigated the effects of oral administration of an antioxidant carotenoid pigment Bixin and Bixin: β-Cyclodextrin in an obese murine model. C57BL/6 male mice (4-5 weeks) received standard diet (2...
June 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ismael Galván, Javier Cerezo, Alberto Jorge, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
Animal colouration is characterized by the concentration of pigments in integumentary structures and by the nanoscale arrangement of constitutive elements. However, the influence of molecular vibration on colour expression has been overlooked in biology. Molecular vibration occurs in the infrared spectral region, but vibrational and electronic properties can influence each other. Thus, the vibration of pigment molecules may also affect their absorption properties and the resulting colours. We calculated for the first time the relative contribution of molecular vibration (by means of Raman spectroscopy) and concentration (by means of HPLC) of melanin polymers, the most common animal pigments, to generate diversity in plumage colour in 47 species of birds...
June 28, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Jorge L Pérez-Moreno, Gergely Balázs, Heather D Bracken-Grissom
Animals that inhabit subterranean environments often undergo various distinct phenotypic modifications (referred to as "troglomorphy") as they transition to life in perpetual darkness. However, the molecular basis behind troglomorphy remains poorly understood, particularly in regards to the mechanisms involved in the reduction and/or loss of traits at the transcriptomic level. In this study we investigate the transcriptional basis behind vision loss in populations of cave-dwelling crustaceans. We employ phylogenetic and transcriptomic methods on surface and cave-adapted populations of an emerging model species for biospeleology, the isopod Asellus aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758), and the amphipod Niphargus hrabei S...
June 20, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Jelle Reinen, Pieter van Sas, Ton van Huygevoort, Leticia Rubio, Kevin Scase, Mira Wenker
Drug-induced phototoxicity occurs when drugs absorb natural sunlight, leading to chemical reactions causing cellular damage. Distribution to light-exposed tissues is critical and is enhanced by binding to melanin. The International Council on Harmonization S10 guidance document on photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals states that although nonpigmented skin tends to be more sensitive than pigmented skin, pigmented skin models should be considered for drugs that bind significantly to melanin. In this study, an in vitro melanin-binding assay was evaluated as prescreening tool for animal model selection...
July 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Jing Shi, Jian Wang, Yuan Wang, Kun Liu, Yong Fu, Jian-Hua Sun, Ji-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Mei Shao, Si-Feng Feng, You-Wei Yang, Jie Li, Qian-An Cao, Xun He, Mei-Fang Liu, Lu Chen, Xiang Cui, Jiang-Yun Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wu, Xin-Yan Gao, Bing Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the correlation between the referred pain regions of stable angina pectoris (SAP) and the acupoints in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and to investigate the rule of regional sensitized point distribution in rats. METHODS: A total of 1 046 CHD patients with SAP from 8 hospitals in China were recruited in the present study. The tenderness was palpated along the left and right chest, back, shoulder, upper limb, etc. by a specially-assigned researcher in each hospital...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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