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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537183/extreme-adaptation-in-caves
#1
Daphne Soares, Matthew L Niemiller
Cave adaptation leads to unique anatomical specializations in many taxonomic groups. As the role of vision is reduced or disappears in a subterranean environment, other specializations arise to allow the organism to successfully detect and interact with their environment. A suite of unique, convergent phenotypes associated with subterranean adaptation has emerged (termed troglomorphy), with reduction or loss of pigmentation and eyes being the most conspicuous. Two vertebrate groups that have successfully colonized and adapted to subterranean environments are cavefishes and cave salamanders...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499344/the-long-term-effects-of-gene-therapy-in-a-novel-mouse-model-of-human-mfrp-associated-retinopathy
#2
Anil Chekuri, Bhubanananda Sahu, Venkata R M Chavali, Marina Voronchikhina, Angel-Soto Hermida, John J Suk, Akhila N Alapati, Dirk-Uwe Bartsch, Raul Ayala-Ramirez, Juan C Zenteno, Astra Dinculescu, Monica M Jablonski, Shyamanga Borooah, Radha Ayyagari
Patients harboring homozygous c.498_499insC mutations in MFRP demonstrate hyperopia, microphthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy, variable degrees of foveal edema and optic disc drusen. The disease phenotype is variable however, with some patients maintaining good central vision and cone function till late in the disease. We developed a knock-in mouse model with the c.498_499insC mutation in Mfrp (Mfrp KI/KI) to understand the effects of these mutations in the retina. Our model shares many of the features of human clinical disease including reduced axial length, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, RPE atrophy and decreased electrophysiological responses...
November 30, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488272/observations-of-in-vivo-laser-tissue-ablation-in-animal-models-with-different-chromophores-on-the-skin-and-modulating-duration-per-laser-exposure
#3
Hang Chan Jo, Dae Yu Kim
Characteristics such as skin tone and pigmentation color vary among patients, but most researches on laser irradiation in laser ablation have revolved around minimizing damage to reduce pain. Chromophores are the most important factors in photon energy absorption, a key principle of laser ablation. We investigated the influences on ablation depth by different chromophores on the target and modulating duration per laser exposure using an Nd:YVO4 nanosecond 532-nm laser. We used a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) system combined with a 532-nm Nd:YVO4 laser to observe the ablation process...
November 28, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450697/craniofacial-skeleton-of-mexican-tetra-astyanax-mexicanus-as-a-bone-disease-model
#4
REVIEW
Devi Sewvandini Atukorala Atukorallaya, Vikram Bhatia, Ravindra Ratnayake
A small fresh water fish, the Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) is a novel animal model in evolutionary developmental biology. The existence of morphologically distinct surface and cave morphs of this species allows simultaneous comparative analysis of phenotypic changes at different life stages. The cavefish harbours many favourable constructive traits (i.e. large jaws with an increased number of teeth, neuromast cells, enlarged olfactory pits and excess storage of adipose tissues) and regressive traits (i...
November 19, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30433834/neuro-protective-effect-of-naringenin-against-mptp-induced-oxidative-stress
#5
Mani Sugumar, Murugan Sevanan, Sathiya Sekar
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and depletion of dopamine in striatum due to excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and many other factors may contribute to MPTP- and PD-related neurodegeneration. The present study deals with the neuroprotective effect of Naringenin (NGN), a bioflavonoid against MPTP induced Parkinson's disease in the mouse model. METHODS: Healthy male C57BL/6J mice (18-22 g b wt) were pretreated with NGN [25, 50,100 mg/kg/b...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431098/pedf-protects-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-against-oxidative-stress-via-upregulation-of-ucp2-expression
#6
Xia Wang, Xu Liu, Yuan Ren, Ying Liu, Shuangyu Han, Jingkang Zhao, Xingchun Gou, Yuan He
To investigate the protective function of pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) against oxidative stress (OS) in ARPE‑19 cells, ARPE‑19 cells were divided into different OS groups and treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (0, 75, 150 and 200 µmol/l) for 24 h. To establish the protective group, 200 ng/ml of PEDF was administered to ARPE‑19 cells. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays and cell growth curve experiments were performed to determine levels of cell viability; lactate dehydrogenase and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays were also performed...
November 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419340/stemming-retinal-regeneration-with-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Zi-Bing Jin, Mei-Ling Gao, Wen-Li Deng, Kun-Chao Wu, Sunao Sugita, Michiko Mandai, Masayo Takahashi
Cell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma. These diseases are all characterized by the degeneration of one or two retinal cell types that cannot regenerate spontaneously in humans. Aberrant retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be observed through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AMD patients. In RP patients, the morphological and functional abnormalities of RPE and photoreceptor layers are caused by a genetic abnormality...
November 9, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409988/embryonic-origin-and-genetic-basis-of-cave-associated-phenotypes-in-the-isopod-crustacean-asellus-aquaticus
#8
Hafasa Mojaddidi, Franco E Fernandez, Priscilla A Erickson, Meredith E Protas
Characteristics common to animals living in subterranean environments include the reduction or absence of eyes, lessened pigmentation and enhanced sensory systems. How these characteristics have evolved is poorly understood for the majority of cave dwelling species. In order to understand the evolution of these changes, this study uses an invertebrate model system, the freshwater isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, to examine whether adult differences between cave and surface dwelling individuals first appear during embryonic development...
November 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401931/progressive-hearing-loss-in-vitamin-a-deficient-mice-which-may-be-protected-by-the-activation-of-cochlear-melanocyte
#9
Mia Gi, Dae Bo Shim, Ling Wu, Jinwoong Bok, Mee Hyun Song, Jae Young Choi
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) produces various pathologic phenotypes in humans and animals. However, evidence regarding the effect of VAD on hearing function has been inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the effect of VAD on hearing function in two mouse models of VAD. Hearing ability was evaluated on the basis of auditory brainstem response from 3 to 20 weeks after birth in C57BL/6 (pigmented) and imprinting control region (albino) mice. The two mice strains were divided into the VAD (purified vitamin A-free diet from 7 days after pregnancy) and control (normal diet) groups...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376052/prenatal-androgenization-of-ewes-as-a-model-of-hirsutism-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Joabel Tonellotto Dos Santos, Jandui Escarião da Nóbrega, Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Carolina Dos Santos Amaral, Fabrício Amadori Machado, Manuela W Manta, Tiele Medianeira Rizzetti, Renato Zanella, Rafael Fighera, Alfredo Quites Antoniazzi, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves, Fabio Vasconcellos Comim
The main clinical feature associated with hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in humans is hirsutism, where hair increases its length, pigmentation, and particularly its diameter. Currently, it is not known whether PCOS animal models also exhibit changes in the hair. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the wool characteristics in sheep prenatally androgenized (PA) with testosterone propionate. After 4 and 13 months of life, wool was collected from the top of the shoulder of both females and males (both androgenized and controls)...
December 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361676/hyperhomocysteinemia-causes-chorioretinal-angiogenesis-with-placental-growth-factor-upregulation
#11
Yih-Jing Lee, Chia-Ying Ke, Ni Tien, Po-Kang Lin
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, which may also be associated with retinal vascular disease, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and glaucoma. For this study, we established a hyperhomocysteinemia animal model to explore homocysteine (hcy)-related choroidal angiogenesis and possible related factors. We injected Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with different concentrations of hcy and performed color fundus imaging, fluorescein angiography, image-guided optical coherence tomography, and retinal histology to observe the retinal and choroidal changes...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357336/soft-drusen-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-biology-and-targeting-via-the-oil-spill-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Christine A Curcio
AMD is a major cause of legal blindness in older adults approachable through multidisciplinary research involving human tissues and patients. AMD is a vascular-metabolic-inflammatory disease, in which two sets of extracellular deposits, soft drusen/basal linear deposit (BLinD) and subretinal drusenoid deposit (SDD), confer risk for end-stages of atrophy and neovascularization. Understanding how deposits form can lead to insights for new preventions and therapy. The topographic correspondence of BLinD and SDD with cones and rods, respectively, suggest newly realized exchange pathways among outer retinal cells and across Bruch's membrane and the subretinal space, in service of highly evolved, eye-specific physiology...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344266/a-zebrafish-embryo-as-an-animal-model-for-the-treatment-of-hyperpigmentation-in-cosmetic-dermatology-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis
For years, clinical studies involving human volunteers and several known pre-clinical in vivo models (i.e., mice, guinea pigs) have demonstrated their reliability in evaluating the effectiveness of a number of depigmenting agents. Although these models have great advantages, they also suffer from several drawbacks, especially involving ethical issues regarding experimentation. At present, a new depigmenting model using zebrafish has been proposed and demonstrated. The application of this model for screening and studying the depigmenting activity of many bioactive compounds has been given great attention in genetics, medicinal chemistry and even the cosmetic industry...
May 25, 2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338401/inflammation-markers-in-type-2-diabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-pediatric-population
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271583/a-convenient-protocol-for-establishing-a-human-cell-culture-model-of-the-outer-retina
#15
Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Jennifer M Dewing, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Angela J Cree, David A Tumbarello, Tracey A Newman, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several blinding retinopathies. Alterations to RPE structure and function are reported in Age-related Macular Degeneration, Stargardt and Best disease as well as pattern dystrophies. However, the precise role of RPE cells in disease aetiology remains incompletely understood. Many studies into RPE pathobiology have utilised animal models, which only recapitulate limited disease features. Some studies are also difficult to carry out in animals as the ocular space remains largely inaccessible to powerful microscopes...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254279/adipor1-is-essential-for-vision-and-its-rpe-expression-is-lost-in-the-mfrp-rd6-mouse
#16
Valentin M Sluch, Angela Banks, Hui Li, Maura A Crowley, Vanessa Davis, Chuanxi Xiang, Junzheng Yang, John T Demirs, Joanna Vrouvlianis, Barrett Leehy, Shawn Hanks, Alexandra M Hyman, Jorge Aranda, Bo Chang, Chad E Bigelow, Dennis S Rice
The knockout (KO) of the adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) gene causes retinal degeneration. Here we report that ADIPOR1 protein is primarily found in the eye and brain with little expression in other tissues. Further analysis of AdipoR1 KO mice revealed that these animals exhibit early visual system abnormalities and are depleted of RHODOPSIN prior to pronounced photoreceptor death. A KO of AdipoR1 post-development either in photoreceptors or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulted in decreased expression of retinal proteins, establishing a role for ADIPOR1 in supporting vision in adulthood...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244429/generation-of-cas9-transgenic-zebrafish-and-their-application-in-establishing-an-erv-deficient-animal-model
#17
Zhe Yang, Shihao Chen, Songlei Xue, Xinxiu Li, Zhen Sun, Yu Yang, Xuming Hu, Tuoyu Geng, Hengmi Cui
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of endogenous Cas9 on genome editing efficiency in transgenic zebrafish. RESULTS: Here we have constructed a transgenic zebrafish strain that can be screened by pigment deficiency. Compared with the traditional CRISPR injection method, the transgenic zebrafish can improve the efficiency of genome editing significantly. At the same time, we first observed that the phenotype of vertebral malformation in early embryonic development of zebrafish after ZFERV knockout...
December 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224384/modulation-of-three-key-innate-immune-pathways-for-the-most-common-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Isha Akhtar-Schäfer, Luping Wang, Tim U Krohne, Heping Xu, Thomas Langmann
This review highlights the role of three key immune pathways in the pathophysiology of major retinal degenerative diseases including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and rare retinal dystrophies. We first discuss the mechanisms how loss of retinal homeostasis evokes an unbalanced retinal immune reaction involving responses of local microglia and recruited macrophages, activity of the alternative complement system, and inflammasome assembly in the retinal pigment epithelium. Presenting these key mechanisms as complementary targets, we specifically emphasize the concept of immunomodulation as potential treatment strategy to prevent or delay vision loss...
October 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218549/bisphenol-a-affects-neural-development-of-the-ascidian-ciona-robusta
#19
Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Roberta Pennati
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic pollutant derived from plastic degradation that has numerous and variable adverse effects on human health and wildlife. In particular, it has been reported that BPA can alter reproductive processes and nervous system development in vertebrates. Considering BPA presence in marine environment and the scant data available on its interaction with nervous system development, we analyzed the effect of BPA exposure on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis, and neural differentiation of the ascidian Ciona robusta...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215097/a-new-immunodeficient-retinal-dystrophic-rat-model-for-transplantation-studies-using-human-derived-cells
#20
Biju B Thomas, Danhong Zhu, Tai-Chi Lin, Young Chang Kim, Magdalene J Seiler, Juan Carlos Martinez-Camarillo, Bin Lin, Yousuf Shad, David R Hinton, Mark S Humayun
PURPOSE: To create new immunodeficient Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats by introducing the defective MerTK gene into athymic nude rats. METHODS: Female homozygous RCS (RCS-p+/RCS-p+) and male nude rats (Hsd:RH-Foxn1mu , mutation in the foxn1 gene; no T cells) were crossed to produce heterozygous F1 progeny. Double homozygous F2 progeny obtained by crossing the F1 heterozygotes was identified phenotypically (hair loss) and genotypically (RCS-p+ gene determined by PCR)...
November 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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