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animal model pigment

Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Jennifer M Dewing, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Angela J Cree, David A Tumbarello, Tracey A Newman, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several blinding retinopathies. Alterations to RPE structure and function are reported in Age-related Macular Degeneration, Stargardt and Best disease as well as pattern dystrophies. However, the precise role of RPE cells in disease aetiology remains incompletely understood. Many studies into RPE pathobiology have utilised animal models, which only recapitulate limited disease features. Some studies are also difficult to carry out in animals as the ocular space remains largely inaccessible to powerful microscopes...
2018: F1000Research
Valentin M Sluch, Angela Banks, Hui Li, Maura A Crowley, Vanessa Davis, Chuanxi Xiang, Junzheng Yang, John T Demirs, Joanna Vrouvlianis, Barrett Leehy, Shawn Hanks, Alexandra M Hyman, Jorge Aranda, Bo Chang, Chad E Bigelow, Dennis S Rice
The knockout (KO) of the adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) gene causes retinal degeneration. Here we report that ADIPOR1 protein is primarily found in the eye and brain with little expression in other tissues. Further analysis of AdipoR1 KO mice revealed that these animals exhibit early visual system abnormalities and are depleted of RHODOPSIN prior to pronounced photoreceptor death. A KO of AdipoR1 post-development either in photoreceptors or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulted in decreased expression of retinal proteins, establishing a role for ADIPOR1 in supporting vision in adulthood...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhe Yang, Shihao Chen, Songlei Xue, Xinxiu Li, Zhen Sun, Yu Yang, Xuming Hu, Tuoyu Geng, Hengmi Cui
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of endogenous Cas9 on genome editing efficiency in transgenic zebrafish. RESULTS: Here we have constructed a transgenic zebrafish strain that can be screened by pigment deficiency. Compared with the traditional CRISPR injection method, the transgenic zebrafish can improve the efficiency of genome editing significantly. At the same time, we first observed that the phenotype of vertebral malformation in early embryonic development of zebrafish after ZFERV knockout...
September 22, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Isha Akhtar-Schäfer, Luping Wang, Tim U Krohne, Heping Xu, Thomas Langmann
This review highlights the role of three key immune pathways in the pathophysiology of major retinal degenerative diseases including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and rare retinal dystrophies. We first discuss the mechanisms how loss of retinal homeostasis evokes an unbalanced retinal immune reaction involving responses of local microglia and recruited macrophages, activity of the alternative complement system, and inflammasome assembly in the retinal pigment epithelium. Presenting these key mechanisms as complementary targets, we specifically emphasize the concept of immunomodulation as potential treatment strategy to prevent or delay vision loss...
September 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Roberta Pennati
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic pollutant derived from plastic degradation that has numerous and variable adverse effects on human health and wildlife. In particular, it has been reported that BPA can alter reproductive processes and nervous system development in vertebrates. Considering BPA presence in marine environment and the scant data available on its interaction with nervous system development, we analyzed the effect of BPA exposure on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis, and neural differentiation of the ascidian Ciona robusta...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Biju B Thomas, Danhong Zhu, Tai-Chi Lin, Young Chang Kim, Magdalene J Seiler, Juan Carlos Martinez-Camarillo, Bin Lin, Yousuf Shad, David R Hinton, Mark S Humayun
PURPOSE: To create new immunodeficient Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats by introducing the defective MerTK gene into athymic nude rats. METHODS: Female homozygous RCS (RCS-p+/RCS-p+) and male nude rats (Hsd:RH-Foxn1mu , mutation in the foxn1 gene; no T cells) were crossed to produce heterozygous F1 progeny. Double homozygous F2 progeny obtained by crossing the F1 heterozygotes was identified phenotypically (hair loss) and genotypically (RCS-p+ gene determined by PCR)...
September 13, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Rebecca Scholz, F Javier Valiente-Soriano, Maria C Sánchez-Migallón, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Thomas Langmann, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Diego García-Ayuso, María Paz Villegas-Pérez
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of minocycline and several neurotrophic factors, alone or in combination, on photoreceptor survival and macro/microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration. Methods: P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation), Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction), and age-matched control rats (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were divided into three groups that received at P10 for P23H-1 rats or P33 for RCS rats: (1) one intravitreal injection (IVI) of one of the following neurotrophic factors: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2); (2) daily intraperitoneal administration of minocycline; or (3) a combination of IVI of FGF2 and intraperitoneal minocycline...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mi Soo Choi, Hee Seok Seo, Jong Gu Kim, Sung Jay Choe, Byung Cheol Park, Myung Hwa Kim, Seung Phil Hong
Picosecond lasers have emerged as the leading technology for tattoo removal due to their shorter pulse lengths. To clarify the features of picosecond lasers, we compared picosecond and nanosecond lasers in their ability to remove multi-colored tattoo in an animal model. We first compared a nanosecond quality-switched Nd:YAG laser with picosecond Alexandrite and quality-switched Nd:YAG lasers and then the picosecond quality-switched Nd:YAG laser with the picosecond Alexandrite laser, using a guinea pig model...
2018: PloS One
Nataliya G Kolosova, Oyuna S Kozhevnikova, Darya V Telegina, Anzhela Zh Fursova, Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Franco Venanzi, Michael Y Sherman, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
P62/SQSTM1, a multi-domain protein that regulates inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy, has been linked to age-related pathologies. For example, previously we demonstrated that administration of p62/SQSTM1-encoding plasmid reduced chronic inflammation and alleviated osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in animal models. Herein, we built upon these findings to investigate effect of the p62-encoding plasmid on an age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive neurodegenerative ocular disease, using spontaneous retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as a model...
August 28, 2018: Aging
Qin Yang, Zhenru Wu, Fei Liu, Junke Wang, Wenjie Ma, Haijie Hu, Fuyu Li, Qiuwei Pan
Background: Hepatolithiasis is highly prevalent in East Asia characterized by the presence of gallstones in the biliary ducts of the liver. Surgical resection is the potentially curative treatment but bears a high risk of stone recurrence and biliary restenosis. This is closely related to the universal presence of chronic proliferative cholangitis (CPC) in the majority of patients. Recent evidence has indicated the association of bacterial infection with the development of CPC in hepatolithiasis...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rehan M Hussain, Thomas A Ciulla, Audina M Berrocal, Ninel Z Gregori, Harry W Flynn, Byron L Lam
Stargardt macular dystrophy (STGD1) is a hereditary retinal degeneration that lacks effective treatment options. Gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) and complement inhibitors are discussed as potential treatments. Areas covered: Investigational therapies for STGD1 aim to reduce toxic bisretinoids and lipofuscin in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These agents include C20-D3-vitamin A (ALK-001), isotretinoin, VM200, emixustat, and A1120. Avacincaptad pegol is a C5 complement inhibitor that may reduce inflammation-related RPE damage...
September 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Artur V Cideciyan, Raghavi Sudharsan, Valérie L Dufour, Michael T Massengill, Simone Iwabe, Malgorzata Swider, Brianna Lisi, Alexander Sumaroka, Luis Felipe Marinho, Tatyana Appelbaum, Brian Rossmiller, William W Hauswirth, Samuel G Jacobson, Alfred S Lewin, Gustavo D Aguirre, William A Beltran
Inherited retinal degenerations are caused by mutations in >250 genes that affect photoreceptor cells or the retinal pigment epithelium and result in vision loss. For autosomal recessive and X-linked retinal degenerations, significant progress has been achieved in the field of gene therapy as evidenced by the growing number of clinical trials and the recent commercialization of the first gene therapy for a form of congenital blindness. However, despite significant efforts to develop a treatment for the most common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) caused by >150 mutations in the rhodopsin ( RHO ) gene, translation to the clinic has stalled...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wankun Xie, Min Zhao, Shu-Huai Tsai, William L Burkes, Luke B Potts, Wenjuan Xu, H Ross Payne, Travis W Hein, Lih Kuo, Robert H Rosa
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is used as a non-invasive tool for retinal morphological assessment in vivo. Information on the correlation of SD-OCT with retinal histology in the porcine retina, a model resembling the human retina, is limited. Herein, we correlated the hypo- and hyper-reflective bands on SD-OCT with histology of the lamellar architecture and cellular constituents of the porcine retina. SD-OCT images were acquired with the Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT. Histological analysis was performed using epoxy resin embedded tissue and transmission electron microscopy...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
O V Nevzglyadova, E V Mikhailova, A V Artemov, Y E Ozerova, P A Ivanova, I M Golomidov, O I Bolshakova, V V Zenin, E I Kostyleva, T R Soidla, S V Sarantseva
Recently, we identified the yeast red pigment (RP), a polymer of 1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-aminoimidazole, as a novel potential anti-amyloid agent for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to further validate RP for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to clarify molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of amyloid cytotoxicity. We investigated RP effects in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster PD models. Western blot analysis revealed reduction in the levels of insoluble α-synuclein in both models, while soluble α-synuclein decreased only in Drosophila...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Richard F Spaide, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, Peter M Maloca
PURPOSE: To investigate the deep retinal vascular changes potentially present in macular telangiectasis Type 2 (MacTel 2) with projection resolved optical coherence tomography angiography including volume rendering. METHODS: Retrospective consecutive evaluation of patients with MacTel 2 in a community-based retinal referral practice with a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination to include optical coherence tomography and projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography with volume rendering...
August 8, 2018: Retina
F H Rodríguez, G Cáceres, J P Lhorente, S Newman, R Bangera, T Tadich, R Neira, J M Yáñez
From a physiological-behavioral perspective, it has been shown that fish with a higher density of black eumelanin spots are more dominant, less sensitive to stress, have higher feed intake, better feed efficiency and therefore are larger in size. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic (co)variation between skin pigmentation patterns and growth exists and it is advantageous in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationships between skin pigmentation patterns and BW in a breeding population of rainbow trout...
August 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Radames J B Cordero, Vincent Robert, Gianluigi Cardinali, Ebuka S Arinze, Susanna M Thon, Arturo Casadevall
Pigmentation is a fundamental characteristic of living organisms that is used to absorb radiation energy and to regulate temperature. Since darker pigments absorb more radiation than lighter ones, they stream more heat, which can provide an adaptive advantage at higher latitudes and a disadvantage near the Tropics, because of the risk of overheating. This intuitive process of color-mediated thermoregulation, also known as the theory of thermal melanism (TTM), has been only tested in ectothermic animal models [1-8]...
August 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Laura N Silva, Rodrigo Campos-Silva, Lívia S Ramos, Danielle S Trentin, Alexandre J Macedo, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos
Candida haemulonii complex has emerged as notorious yeasts causing invasive infections with high rates of treatment failures. Since there is a particular interest in the development of non-mammalian host models to study microbial virulence, with the aim to evade the ethical impact of animal tests, herein we compared the virulence of C. haemulonii, C. duobushaemulonii and C. haemulonii var. vulnera with non-albicans Candida species (C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae) on Galleria mellonella and the efficacy of antifungal drugs...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Tatjana Taubitz, Alexander V Tschulakow, Marina Tikhonovich, Barbara Illing, Yuan Fang, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
Background: Stargardt disease (SD) is characterized by the accumulation of the age-pigment lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and subsequent neuroretinal degeneration. The disease leads to vision loss early in life. Here, we investigate age-dependent ultrastructural changes in three SD mouse models: albino Abca4-/- and pigmented Abca4-/- and Abca4-/- .Rdh8-/- mice. Since we found indications for oxidative stress primarily in albino SD mice, we tested RPE melanin for its antioxidative capabilities...
2018: PeerJ
Basma Baccouche, Maha Benlarbi, Alistair J Barber, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
OBJECTIVES: Psammomys obesus is a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes recently explored as a model of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. This study tested the protective effect of the pigment astaxanthin (AST) in the P. obesus diabetic retina. METHODS: Young adult P. obesus were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group received a normal diet consisting of a plant-based regimen, and the HFD group received an enriched laboratory chow...
September 2018: Current Eye Research
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